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Full text of "Geography made easy [microform] : being an abridgement of the American universal geography containing astronomical geography; discovery and general description of America; general view of the United States ... to which is added an improved chronological table of remarkable events, from the creation to the present time; illustrated with a map of the world and a map of North America; calculated particularly for the use and improvement of schools and academies in the United States of America"

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Canadian Institute for Historicai IMicroreproductions / institut Canadian de microreproductions historiquet 

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d'imagaa nAcassaira. Las diagrammas suivants 
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HoUandt or the Seven tflrited Flt>Tincefl^ 
Aoftrian and French Metl|erlaods» 

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.ilcQiiAt Hf that jE«nice» - — ^^ - 

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irrdr^ 9lliei foiiioEt ili^liK:ft)M& p&v«r. ^ j 

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Aftroooniy wat iirft tttgndfilto lrti.tlic.«ffltephef<>^ 
•n the btamffal platot of tgfpf^ ia4 UAbflfitt*^ 
MmfhftMtnt hd'thftn to cimurinplttr jiie jAm 4;! 
tlidtr ifodef , i>» Uie ^cik^ 1^ iliwi|iii| 1 1 i A jiij 
lw«ttrcpofe, the fpanafed w irfMoanp^wlpllyii 
die jutcntioa of the midiM|^ T?Jbe>o\ij|liiil8l|dtf 
6e1ietiN^y bocHef afbfil)!df ttei&^«9tite<i^^ 
tbe Iknie time at^aed thkoi hi tfairtettiisgfiil>ike-iiighlt. 
A ftar guided the Shepherds to tilt ni^ii^^)wher« imr 
bleOcdSiUFioor WAS born, l^'theaidx^^liniilfiiii]^ 
inattOn, they dtdribated the ftars into a niJuribdriAfiflpK 
ftellations or coirip<inieS| to which they. gav^,the naaiot 
of the aniir.als which they ftptefentedw ' ' ^" 

the,fe»iKral ASTilCWNOMICAtr 
TEMS of tbe Wotrld, ' 


^^^tiaio Order and aWng^nj^n; of the j^evVr«' 
#irfiiiipe6(>rRena oi» app«aiiiie«* f f jWfbwi 
|U^, t^t motioni, chaog^s,^,^^^ m 

Tkk, #j|im> ib called #«»iriPa{rdittS Ftc^iDeiit, fti 

l<^ra|9fijl|boDorner of Pelufium, in Egygt^ wbo^ 

J*P^ ^^^^'^^M the preVa^i^g j^# aTtKar %, 

vtnt^ I liq^ that tiiiiiocm, thib^^ltnci^' ajvd^tHHbni 
^iii^i«|ind^t^^^i^ loiace ia ^o^^jf^jir 

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■mm^' ^« W Mart, jo|K«.«iv iH^ti^ti^i^ei^ ^4 





jmtMibiec ^tai to afieomit 

iBoonf tlfvolv* 'idwt^ full* ^^uil^ 

rli fir dilied' ikiil^JCopecokBf, n nativt i€ 1n)iof|i, 
{|k )j^flia^ #oirii In I473» «id H th« /r«^ ^^^il| 
liM bSii^^^r rolM iif #e ?yitli^^ 

tie c^eiTt&e^ftt^, «il4^^1^^^ 

lifliKik ^fttilit fccfdics, eixlkd Plmetsi m 





tit. j|i|bM i>^' wiiir 

the eartli |£ia Um 4tt: onci « lea^"' tlie aMeti^ oT 
the i»'im% i»jl6 tntiM. ^ - 

|i|fi|»r haiToor OKwits, Stnvn hit feVttil, itodtl SIRr' 

inoQW, difcovered by Dr. ttei^i^ la i J^^ * 
!fki iia0$aa of tlic pnmuf, siImwik rau^ t|ie fi«i« 
"^llpiia^tf nodcMi of the Atellilu roAnd their ^lojtir 
|.^«iil«dlhiit4iBi(^^i^^ Iditlw this asiapiil 
^^ dipf fffvofare ^«| their o:ii» sats^om'^ft 

butia Fm^^er aid AaMrica^ il ibMr^^iM*^ tibe naJlNtl* 

tor i^tr)^ Ib^ liif^ttffta^ i^liainod i^ itui#Mki* ^- 

thgtrK ni( p l| i| ^^ i«i^<hi--^wi^^ S^ii^ 

|^pip<|ai:j^ mi6 fy^^ ttha9ta»iv^d%l9t.M 

#«» Odbieog i:a|^ IkMrton, 

^itiM^^ m at- 

•tilai ^ |iMfii|4l||dlhrs aa^tiow^ 
4#thtfci«iti4h%£ d^ 

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ThfT are Isirgc opaque Wies, wMck note Uk aU poT* 
fibte direfiiofit. Sonve reroWe fVoin weft to eaft; fotiii 
from caft t9 iin^ ^iikti§'kwn Tooth to tititth, or firo«i 
noftli'ti^ fol^^i im^t have conjeAtiredy timt thecom- 
eu#ei^ intended ^r the aH^wife Creator to coimA 
ffStUnk, ah4 that eadi;of their feverat orbiti Inf"^^ 
the fo^ find one of the fixed ftart. The fif 
comet^Vii 'very different, dome of them 
«n all fides like haik-»^imd are caHed hairf cometsi 
ers have a long €efry tranfparent taOi |»^aill|'^6m 
the part which i« ^ppofite to the fiui. Their iiiagni« 
tudes alfo are difii^ent. Some appear no hiraer tW 
fla/s'cif ^ firft' magnitude; others larger than tfat moon. 

They move about the fun, in very eccentric ellipreti 
-and mre of much greater dehfity than the earth f for 
Tome of tliem are heated, in every J)eriod, to fnch a de.^^ 
gree as ivould vitrify or diflipate any fubftAoee known to . 
us. $ir Ifaac Newtoli computed the heat of the coii|et 
that appeared in thie year l68o,.when nweft^li^gi^ 
to be 2,cb6 times hotter than red hot iron | and lm||||i^ 
ing thtis)^ated*itmuft retain its heat liH it emnesrdM^ 
iigatn, aithoHgh its period (hould be more ^lin JQ»ooo 
years ; and It it computed to be only 575. The noni- 
her of comets helotiginf to oiiriyftem is ttnknown* -^ 

Cf tie JixeJ Start.} The iblar fjftem is furrouudedl 
with the fixed ftars ) fo called, bleanfe they at all timet 
preicrVe the fame; fituatioii in regard to elKfa «ther* 
Thef^ ftarsjU^hett^Newed with thel>eftteleico(«s appear : 
no Ergerthii||poinC6/which proves that they«i%at^ai;. 
imiMenfe diftavice ftofti us. Although their dHl^iee ia' • 
not certainly kniJwni yet it b the {psnoal opimon'^af^'' 
trohomers, th>t they kre at leaft ,100,000 tiaHev fitfthcr 
, fronf us than we are from the%n ; ^nd thai oinr Am 
viewied from a $xed#tf^ wimUt appeat* tto h\ 
a iUtr doertoiis. A jfeund would not liiiii; 
rim* or the dog ftar» w^hit neamr to 
9^y ^ ^^ ^1^ ftars, hi |3Q,ooo fears* 
ftying at tlie tatef (^48aiii|es«n hour» would 
^s in 4^468^000 yftam^I lig^tw whi«^ i« ^ 
from one body tomnother almoft hifta^ 
up|iiitr##iie ia piifling&Mn'the^Kd tot to 
till^iiyb .m tiikmg a wopfg^ nhnti tbe « 




««botit three yeatt und one month ; fo that if all the tic- 
jtd ftari were now Arock ont of ^liftence* they would 
appear to ai to keep their Aatloni fipr thatfpace of time 
to come. It is impoffible, thereftip^ that ihey fliould 
borrow their Kght from the fiin^ ai 4o the planets. 

Aftronoffl^rs reckon the number of ftart at a843> of 
which to are of the Jrfii 6$ of the fic^nJ, ^05 of the 
thirJt 485 of the Jbm'ib, 648 of the 0ht and 1420 of the 
Jxth magnitude. Thefe (tars are divided into 80 con- 
ftellations; la of which are in the zodiac, 36 in the 
northern, and 3a in the ibuthem hemifphere. 'They are 
diftinguiihed from the planets by their twinkling. 

To confider thefe ftars as deiigned merely to oecorate 
the (ky, and form a rich and beautiful canopy for this 
earth, would derogate from the wifdom of the Creator. 
Aftronomers therefore, with much reafon,'Jiave confid- 
ered the fixed ftars as fo i^any funs« attended with a 
number of revolving planets, which they illuminate, 
^a^lrai and cherifh. If .this be true, there are as many 
i^^||bis as there are §xed ftars. Thefe may alfo Tevolve 
roimd one common centre, forming one immenibffftem 
of fyftems. All thefe fyftems, we may conceive, are 
£lled with inhabitants fviited to their refpeAive climes ; 
and are fo many, theatres, on which the great Creator 
aiid Governor of the Univerfe difplays his infinite pow- 
ei*, wifdom and eoo'dnefs. Such a view of the ftarry 
heavens muft fill the mind of every contemplative be- 
holder with fuhlime, magnificent and glorious ideas of 
•the Creator. 

Of the EARTHS 

y : 

The Earthy though called H globe, is not perfe^y 
Inch ; ijts'diameterfromeaft to weft,is 34 miles longer 
than ^t from nor'Ji to foiith. The dtan^ter of the 
.earth's prfit is about i88,d|§;<p^94S miles, and its circum- 
fierence 560,622,477 milea^ Its hourly '^lotion in lU 
orbit it 67,376 milesy whidi i> 140 times peatec thak^ 
rthat of a cannon ball, which mov«» ^^i S^ii|^ in a 
sataute, tad would be as years I24 mliiiljikfiriaoui's 
#f^ ^om this earth to the fui. 




Hie nri's ^ike the reft of the plancts» h«s two mo- 
tious, one round iu azii»ihc other round the fun. 

Jt is S4»96o milof in ctrc|iinfettace, and bjr its rota-- 
lion on its axis onclMa 24 hours froih weft to eaft» cauf*' 
es a cdminoal fuccSon of dar and night, and tn^ffar' 
Mt motion of the heavenly bodtei from ea(l to weft* Bf 
this motion on its axis the inhabitants, who live on the 
equator, are- catried 1645' miles in an hour* It com- 
pletes its revolution round the fun onec in a year, and* 
oecafions the difference in the length of the days and 
nights, and the ag.recable variety 'in the feafohs. 

Notwithftandine thd reeminginequaltty in thediftit-- 
bution of light and darlcncfsf it is certain, that through-< 
out the whole Worldi there h nearly an equal proportion' 
of light diffufed on every part, abftraded from what is 
abforbed by clotids, vapours, and the ainiofphcre itfelf.- 
"f he equatorial regions have indeed the moft intenfe light' 
during the day, biit the niglns are long and dark ; while 
on the other hand, in tl^iiortherly and foutherly parts,' 
though the fun fliinel leis powerfully, yet the leogjli of 
time Uiat he appears above the horizon, witk the great* 
et diiration of t^41i^ht> makes up for the feemin^ de*' 
fietency. , ^ 

That the earth, or plincf Whichwe ihhiabit, is round, . 
if evident : Fir/l, from the confideration that this Ihape' 
is beft adapted to motion. Seeondfy, froni the appearance 
af its ihadow in eclipfes of the moOn, which is always' 
bounded by a circular line. Thirdfy, ftom anaIogy>$ all^ 
the other planets being globular j and Fotuiify, uond its*: 
Uavihg been many times circumnavigated.*' 

• - • As' 

*' MageHdH (ajlVd'frcNii Sevliie in Spaia, under the aufpice» of 
Charlcf V. loth Of Aueuft|j^i9, and ^avtog dUcoVered the 1S/1\- 
gcHaiiic Stratto in Sottfh itSerica^ he crafii4 the Pacific Oeeto, 
and arrived at the I%tUippfQeiilanda»whdt;^ wa» poi%Dcdi.r 
Hit ihip returned by way of the Cafrof Qc^ Ho{n^ SM» ol 
Sept. f5»a. 

Sf^ Frantis BraJ^ failed fr<]iM|^outh,' i^thXtecemWery i577 : 
entered the Pacific Oce«B. ai^^Meerlng round America, rettirued 
November 5, 15 8a He .was a man of great generofi^. The 
booty >[vhich he 'took, and even the wedges of gold gjlSg biiuiA 
return for'hii pre£ait$ to Indian Chiefs, he divided in j tm|»ropor<> 
tional (hares with the codnnoa (aikMrt. 




Af ntny And it dUBcolt to conccWe how peepl^ can 
Hand OA tbc oppofitc ftdc ei^fhe clobt without UWwv 
•iff, their coDccptinn amy bi aftfttd by Aippofiop all 
tfiff variotti bodiit on the taifhl Tifific*^ were of iron,, 
and a very large nwgnet wci e plaaaom the central then 
all bodies betoff a^traAed towardi the centre by the mag. 
net, they ooula not fall of* which way Co ever the earth 
ihoold tai n. Nbw the attraftion of gravitatto* eperatei 
on sU bodies at that of magnetifm does oniron m^a 

It is now ten o'clock in the morning, and we nom 
think we are (landing upright on the upper part of the 
eaith. We fliall think the fiinie at ten o'clock this eve- 
ning, when the earth (ball have turned hulf toiind, be> 
caufe we fball then perceive no difference of pofture. 
We (hall dien be exaAly in the pofition of thofe petfoni 
who now ftand on the oppofite fide of the eat th. Since 
they are as Arongly attradled towards the centre of the. 
earth as we are* uey can be in no more danger of falling- 
downward* than we are at present of falling, upwards 


' fimtt CtMnnM (kited from Pfymouth with tiro fmftll (hipt the 
tH of Aueuft, 1586 ; pafled through the Strait* of Mafellan ) took^ 
■kwy rich prises alonfh, the coa(v of Chili and Peru ; and near* 
C^aUtornia |M9ffeflcd himfelf of the St i^n, an Acapuleo flUp, with, 
a cargo of iininmi(c valuer He completed the ciwnduugr^ation < 
M the globe the 9^ of Scptcnibcr, 1 588. 
. Between the yean I5981, and x6x6^ OUmtr dr Nfi of UtrevhtfL. 
JsmuMaivt Gmft SpiUtnitrger^ a Flemiiig, H^iUiim 8ti0iiUmt%<_ 
ifoikindcr, and fimtitit Utrmit, (aeceOktdj (ailed round the. 

Lti^nfoK (ailed in September, 1.740; doubled. Cape Horn in. 
a dangerou< fcafon \ loft moft of hit men by. the fcurry, and with 
only one remaining {hip, the Centurion, croffed the Great Pacifie 
Ocean, which is 10,000 miles over ; XtKlk a Spanidi galieon on 
her paflage from Aeapidce to Manilla^ and retumed home in 

Juw,i744* - 'Ijft. 

i^rm, BtHg^imilht* Frenehnbpi, ^ffWrn^HStACattrHt fiicceiBVely 
drcihnnavigated the globe, between the yeies 1764 and X769.. 

fl*ftmm CmV in the (hip Endeavour, failed from Plymouth thd 
%Mx of Auguft, 1768, and, after a moft fatisfaaoTy voyage, return- 
ed the xsth of June X77t* fUmjIuot txa, a fccondvojf^ge, the< 
. S4thof February, i7;6s madeiHiy import&nt difcoveries, and ^ 
Was hilled on th« ifla^d of Owh^iee by the natives^ the 14th or 
February^ 17 7 9. !& (hips, under the cottmvid of Capuin/Clark^ 
returned^ i6th of Odober, 1780. 

4ince tiii time, i^aoy others f^om Atbcrkt, ai weUai^ Eatop *| 
niv«niadB voyages round the world. 




DijSmfimi Md PHmhli/i A, SPHEKlk, with aftroi*. 
•merstji the wl^i^ name of the worldi •• being of » 
globular figure. *^ 

In^ gco^aphy, the circkf yMeh the fiiii apparentlf 
deicribei la the heavent, are fuppofed to be extended as 
far at the earth, and marked on its furface. We may 
imaeine as many eircles as we pleaft to be defcribed 
on the earth, and their planes to be eitended to the ce- 
leftial fphere, till thef make . concentric ones on the 
heavens.. Each circle is- divided into 360 equal- parts, 
called degrees ; each degree is divided into 60 feconds. 
The circles fuppofed by geographers to be defcribed in 
this manner, are denominated gredi and iefi circles. 

Creat Circle* are thofe which divide either the celefl 
Ual or terredrial fphere into two equal parts. Of thefe 
lliere are fix — the Equator, the Meridian, the Eclip/ic, 
the Horizon, and the^ two Col arcs. 

. Lef* Ctrdii are tbofe which divide the fphere into two 
unequal parts ; of which there are four, the two trapitt 
and the tw/> poltur cireUt^ 

jtxis ami Poles of the EariL'}> The axu of the eaitb 
is an imaginary line pailing through its centre from 
north ur fjuuttu The extreme points of the axis are cull*' ' 
tdflitfoies^ , 

^"^quatornj The equator is that line or circle which 
tocorapaHes the middle of the earth, dividing the north- 
ern half from the fouthern. This h'ne is often called 
the equinoaio/t becaufe when the fun appears therein, the 
day$ and nights are eqiial in all carts of the worlds 
From tliia line latitude is reckonedyr 

Meridian.J This drcle» reprcilnted on the artificiiJ 
j^lolie by a brafs ringii^aiEs through the poles of uie 
earth, and t^iC e»<ifi& a^the %i^r, croifing the equator at 
right angles, and dividing the globe into eaftern and weft* 
ern hemifpheres. It is eaUed neridiau from the Latiii 
meridkst,ndd^<^ i becaui^pihen the fun c^mes 10 tltt 
^Uthp^rt of this circle it is called noon, and the day is 
hall^ntw /There are an infinite number o| mcridisuis, 
whiich vary/as you travel eaft or weft. Ge^j^pheis af- 
fftme^ne of the meridians for the firft y coihiiil^f that 
which pafles through the nMtropoUs of their ev^'liQUitry. 





The ncrMim of Pbilidtlphia^it cIm firft for Ameticani ^ 
that of London lor tht EngUilitind Pluii for the fttncb.y 

ZtSm.'} If two drckt wm drawn parallel to ^ 
eclipdcy at the dlftanee of eMil degrafi oo each 6dc^ 
if, tlM 4i^> ^ gi^lc inekllMd betwean thefe two par- 
aUeltf niteen d^vcet broad* and dhrided in the middle 
br the ecliptic, will comprehend within it the orbits of 
all the planets, and it called the Zodiac^ 

Edifis,'\ The tcifik is a great circle, in the plane 
of which the earth performs her annual reirolation rooad 
the fan, or in which the fon feems to move rom\d the 
earth once in,a year. X^is circle is called the tct^e 
from the word fcUffi^ becauft no eclipTc of ihe fun or 
noon happens, but when the moon is in or near the 
plane of &is circle. It makes an angle with the equa-. 
tor of 23^ %%' and interfcAt it in two ffppofite parts,, 
called the iqnkoSial pmnft i becaufe, when the fun is in. 
either of thefe points, he has no declination, and (hines. 
aqually to both poks, and the day is then equal to the 
night all over the world. The times when the fun. 
piSfos ibroiMPhtftefe poinu» are the 20th of Mirch, and' 
the foth of September \ the fonner is called th<. wmalu 
the latter the auhmuial equinox* 

The etMftie is divided into twelve equal parts, o£« 
Ibirty degreea each, called /i^r Thefc hcgin at the 
vernal interfedton of the ecliptic with the equator,. and. 
are nombered from weft to euft. Thenamrs and char- 
fAers of the ngns, with the months in which the fun. 
Mtcrs them, are as follows ; 

Satin names tf 

\ Aries 

% '*'auros 

4 Cancer 

5 Leo 

6 Virgo 

2 Libra 
|i Sagittaftus 
f g Capi^Ci^.'ntjhS 

F.i\%l\jb nmtt. 
The Ranv 
The Bull 
The Twins 
The Ciab 
The Lion 
The Virgin 
The Scaks 
The Scorplcb 
The Archer 
Th^ Goat 
The W}j»?r Bearer 
Tnc FfS^s 



f 08 

U9tubt in v>kicb ttt:. 
fun einen tktmm, 




a July 
iqt Auguf:. 
^ September- 
ni CXaober 
^ November 
y^; December 
Sf' January > 
K rebruary 


'^ %l fcw*'tjic i?f# city of WAMiNCTeN ii «6v rcekgoed tKft. 
M ANiiM for the AaericsA Sufcsi 



Hm irft fii w« ailkd mrtkmh.and the latter >M»- 
$m ficnt I kteM^k tht Jj^rsMr puiftft that half of tht 
•dipcic vhicli Km to tiirttonliward of: the etpunodol, 
aod t^ - Imer. chat half which lies to the fouthward. 

■Uor4mm,y TIk ^i>t —i i» r^^pfefcntcd on th« ^rtifictal) 
globi* bj a broad woodau circk, Jifiiic» it iii''» upper 
and lower heoBNiilphercs. There arc, ipmraphkaUr 
feeaking, two horUons,. the Jii^^ and tha rwkmti^ 
The ,^igiKM> horboitt ii that cirUe which limits our prt^C 
pe6r wiiere tha Act aod the land» or water, appear to 
meet ThemlfiHM/or real horizon, ia a circi wk)! 
plane j'A « throvghtthe centre, of the earth, dividing ii 
irto %,-r .id lower hemifpheres. 

Tilt hor)«on it divided into four quarters, and each 
i|ua.^.;> into M> degrees. The four qoartering points, 
vis. ra{^ wed( noiSi* andrfouth, arc called the €otdv W. 
/Mnfi. The poles of^ the horiion are the lumik and 
the nadir. The former is the point dircQlf orer our 
heads ; the latter the point dire^y under our feet.. 

£«Atfv/.]< The two meridians that> pafs-^ through the 
lour abova meh^ned* poinM haire particular names ; 
that which pafle* through the fit (l degives of Aries and- 
Libra is called the equinoOia/ Co&ire, and. that which 
pafles through' the iirft degrees of Cancer and Capri-*- 
corn is termed' the /olfiiiiaf Co/uns.. Thei'e Coliires cut 
each other at right angles in the poles o^the wqrld^ 

Tropics."] The iropks are two circles drawn paral- 
le! to the equator, at the^diftance of a^f 28' on each fide 
of it^ Thefe cir<:les form the limits of the ecliptic, or 
the fun V declination from, the equatoK That which is 
in the northern hemifphere is called tl^ tropic of Can- 
cer, becaufe it touches the ecliptic in the Ago Cancer t^ 
and. tliat in the fouthem< hemifphere h calfed tiM trop- 
ic of Ct^ritern^. becaufe it toudies^ the ecliptic intho 
hgn Caprieorn. Qki the afk- of JUne the fun is in 
€ancer«aAdwe have the longed daf. On the art ft oC 
December the fuii is in Ca^corn^ and we hare the 
&orteft daf. They are called troftiai from ^ Oreek 
word TaB»o to ami, becaufe when the ^^ WPivay at 
^em» he returns 90^ to the tquaton ' f^i^' 

Pdlar CW«.] The two poUr dnUf s^' '" " 
toond the pales of the i«f th at the diftam^i^#^* 



The northern is called the jtrffic cirde, from AfcStSi Of 
the bear, a conftellation fitaated near that place in the 
heavens ; the fouthtnH being o^ofite to the fanner, is 
called the AniarSk clrck. The polar circles bound the 
places where the fun fet» daily. Beyond them the fun 
revolves without fecting. 

Zcmul The furfacc of die earth it Aippofed to be 
divided into five uneq^ial parts, called stMi^/, each of 
which is terminated by two parallels of latitude. Of 
thefe frve zones, one is called the torr'td or burning 
zone ;. tw^ ire ftyled/«^^ or frozen ; and two /m/frdAr ^ 
names inc^k.aiive of the quality of the heat and cold to* 
which their fituatiotis are liable* - 

The torrid zone is that portion of the earth over eve^ 
ry part of which the fun is perpendicular at fome time* 
of the year. The breadth of this zone i% forty -/even' 
degrees : extending from twenty-three degrees and a^ 
half north latitude,. to twenty^three degrees and a half 
fbuth. The equator paHes through the middle of this 
s»one, which is terminated on the north by the parallel 
of latitude called the tropic of Cancer, and on th^ fouth 
by the parallel called the tropic ©f Capricorn. The* 
ancients confidered this zone as uninhabitable, on ac- 
count of tlie heat which they thought too great to be 
fuppoited by any human being, or even by the vegeta- 
ble creation ;, but experience has long.fmce refuted this» 

Many parts of the torrid zone are remarkably popui 
lous ; and it has been found that tlie long nights, great 
dews, regular rains and breezes which prevail in aim oft; 
every part of the ton id zone, render the eartfi not only 
inhabiiable, but alfo fo fruitful, that two harvefts a« 
year are very common. All forts of fpices and drugs 
arc almoft folcly produced there ; and it furniflies more 
perfeifl metals, precious Hones, and pearls,, than all the 
reft of the earth together. 

The frigid zones are thofe regions round the pole 
where the fun does not rife for- fome days in the winter, 
ror fet for fome days in the fummer. ITie two poles 
arc tlie centres of thefe zones, which extend from thefe 
poidts tatwcaty-three degrees, and twenty-eight minutes. 

The northern frigid, zone comprehends Nova>2embla»^ 
Li^and, part of Norway, Baffin's Bay, part of Green* 



lAnd; flud' part of Siberia. The ibmhern ftigid zene 
Has no land known to in. The tj»o temperate zones 
are the fpaces caatainad< between the tropics and polar 

The norAem temperate zone contains alhioft'all Evi^ 
rope, th» greater part of Afia, part of Afi^ica, the Unit- 
ed Sutes of America, and the Britiflt CdkHties. The 
ibuthem temperate zone comprifes the fouth part of 
New.HbUand, (inckiding Botany Bay)sCape of Good- 
Hope, and Cape Horn. 

In thie frigid zones the longeft day is nefer (hort of S4/ 
Bours $ in tho- temperate zones not quite fo-much, and^ 
is the torrid never more than i4> hours. 

Ckmatti ] Tht WDtd iBmatthsiS two ftgnifications, the * 
ifnt MMnMw^.aod the other geographical.. Th common'* 
hmguage, the werd'is ufed to denote the difference * 
in Se ftaibns^.and the temperatuie of the air. When 
two places differ in thefe reipefts, .they arc iaid>to be in^ 
di£R:rent climates*. 

InjSLgf^c^McdCttit^, a dimate is attaA of^theearth's 
fbrface„inclttdcd b^ween the eqoator and :a-: parallel ioC* 
Utitude, or between two parallels of fnch a breadth, as- 
that the length of the day in the one be half an houy* 
I6nger< than In • the other; Within. the ppkr- circles, . 
however, the breadth of aietrcle is ftich* th^t the length 
of a day, or. the time of thefim''^ continuance above the. 
horizon without fetting,.is^a' month loogerin one paial- 
lel« as you proceed northerly, than i^tSe othen 

There are t&irtyi; cRmates between the equator andi 
either pole* . in the firft twenty 'four, beiwieen the equa> 
tor and each: polar circle, the period of increafe forev*- 
ery clinKite is half an hour. Ih th^tHer fix; between 
the polar circles and either pole,, the period of increafe' 
for each climate is a month. T-hefe climates contin- 
ually' decreafe in breadth ■ as y^vt pjoceed - from: thb 

- Latitvde.'i The. Aif/W/ of . a place is its^diftanee.ffbm^ 
^e equator, reckoned in degrdes* &c. .north or fouth»> 
on the meridian. The greateil latitudes are tl)Jo(ie of thr* 
tx>ks, which are ninety degrees dtftant fiom the e^^a^ 
tor. If the place be fituated between thele^mitor 'and^ , 
the adrth pole, it is iaid to be.tnmrr^ latitude ( ifit M' 

. . hetiiei^'t 

J ' r- 



between ^e cqoator and the fouth pole, it if *i$ fouflf' 

VmgUnde.'] Every place on tKe fOTface of' thfe eartir 
ha<; it< meridian. The longittkfe of a place is the dittance' 
of its meridian from fome other fixed meridian, incaf<^ 
ured on the equator. Longitude ii- either fi^^r tveft.- 
All places eafi of the. fixed or firfV meridian are in eafi^ 
longitude ; all weft, in weft longitude. Oft the eqtia- 
tor, a degree of longitude U eqnal to fixtjr geographical 
miles.; andofcour^, a minute on the eqaator is eqaal; 
to a mile.' But as all the meridians cut the eqaator at 
right angles, and approitch nearer and nearer to cach^ 
other, until at laft they crofi; at the poles, it is obTiouS". 
that the degrees of longitude will leflcn as you go from^ 
the equator to either pole ; "fo ths|t in the fixtieth degree^ 
of latitude, a degree of longittide is but thirty mrlesj or^ 
half as long as a degree on the equaior. 

Of the GLOBES, and their USE. 

A'N artijultil Globe is a rouftd body, whofe furface ii^ 
eirery where^ eqtially remote froiii the centrci But by^ 
the globes here is ifteant two ^berfcal bddles, whofe' 
conveic furfaces are fnppofed to give a true reprefenta- 
tlonofthc earth and heavens, as vtfiblcby obftrvation. * 
One of thefc is callecl the terrejlriaf^ the": other- the ce^- 
Itfiutl globe. 0h the^ convex lurface of the tcrreftrial'J 
globe, all the parts'of the earth' and fea are delineated^< 
in their relative fke, fornti and fituation. ; 

On the furface of the r<'/<j/?w/ globe, the ifnages of 
the feveral conftellationsi and the unformed ftars, are' 
delineated ;, and the relative* magnitude and pofition^ 
which the ftars are obferved to have in the heavens,' 
carefully prefirvedi 

In order to render theiVglobulai- bodies ittofe tffeful,> 
Uiey are fitted up with certain appurtenances, whereby 
a great rariety or ufeftil problems are folved iti a very 
eaty and expeditious manner. 

The ^tKun mtrt^an b that ring or hoop in which^ 
the globe hangs oh its axis, which is reprefented by two ' 
wires paflmg through its poles. The circle is divided* 
kto four quarters of go degrees each; in one femi«^ 



^^^deyxhe dnrifions begin at each pole, and end at 90 
^legrees, where they meet. In the other remi-circle, the 
JdmCions begin at the mtddls, and proceed thence to- 
. wardi each pole, where there are 90 degrees. The grad- 
vuated iide of this hrazen^cirde ferves as a meridian for 
.any point on the fiirface of the earth, t^e globe being 
turned about till that point comes under the etrde. 

The hour drile is a fmall cir/:le of brals, divided into 
^twenty-four hours, the quarters and half quarters. It is 
.fixed on the brazen meridian, e<|ually diftant from the 
north end of th^ axis ; to which is ^xed an index, that 
.points out the divifions of the hour circle as the globe 
is turned round onrtts ans. 

The horlxtm is reprefented by the upper furface of 
•the wooden circular frame, encompafling the globe 
about its midcUe. On this wooden frame is a kind of per- 
petual calendar, contained in feveral concentric circles \ 
the iftnor one is divided into four quarters of ninety de- 
grees each { the next circle is divided itno the twdve 
months, with the days in each according to the new ftile ; 
the next contains the twelve equal (igns of the zodiac* 
«each being divided into thirty degrees ; the next the 
twelve months and days according to the old ftile \ and 
^there is another cir^e containing the thirty- two points 
of the compafs, with their halves and quarters. Al» 
though thefe cirdes are on all horizons^ yet they are not . 
always placed io the fame difpofitiott). . 

The auadrani of mltitude is a thin flip of brafs, one edge 
of which is graduated into ninety degrees and their quar« 
ters, equal to thoie of the meridian. To one end of this 
is fixed a brafs nut and fcrew, whereby it is put on, and 
faftened to the meridian ; if it be fixed in the zenith or 
pole of the horizon* then the graduated edge reprefents 
a vertical circle paiGng through any point. 

Be fides thefe, there are feveral circles defcribed oa 
the furfaces'of both globes, fuch as the equinoctial, or 
ecliptic, circtes of longitude and right afcenfion, the trop- 
ics, polar circles, parallels of latitude and deqU nation 
on the celeftial globe ; and on the terreftrial, the equa- 
tor, ecliptic, tropics, polar cirdes, parallels of latitude, 
hour cirdes, or meridians, to every fifteen degrees { and 
on fome globes, the fpiral rhumbs iowinf from the fev- 
enl ^catrci# caUed fllei . :^^ 



In a/ing the globes, keep the eaft ftde of the nomoQ 
towards f ou (unlefs the problem regaires the turning i^ 
which fide you may know by the word £4/!^ on the hori- 
zon ; fur then yon have the erftduated merkliRn towards 
you, the quadrant <$f aUitu£ before you, and the globe 
divided exa^y into two equal partS) by the graduated 
fide of the meridian. 

The following problems, as being moft tlTeful and 
entertaining, are feledfled from a great variety of others, 
which are eafily folved with a globe fitted up with the 
aforementioned appurtenances* 

I. The latitude of a place Wing givertfU reOlfy the globe fit 

that place. 

Let it be required to reflify the globe for the latitude 
of Bofton, 42 degrees 25 minutes north. 

Elevnte the north pole, till the horizon cuts the bra- 
zen meridian in 42^ 23' and the globe is then r^s^tiBed 
for the latitude of Bofton. Bring Boilon to the merid- 
ian, and you will find it in the zenith, or dire^ly on 
the top d the globe. And £0 of any other place. 

II. TV Jind the latitude and longitude of euy place on the ter- 

rejlrial gleibe* 

Bring the j^iven pkce under that fide of the graduated 
brazen meridian where the degrees begin at the equator, 
then the degree of the meridian over it (hews the lati- 
tude, and the degree of the equator under tlit meridi- 
an (hews the longitude. 

Thus Bofton will be found to lie in 42° 23' north 
latitude, and 70* f8' weft longitude from London, <«■ 
4** 10' eaft longitude from Philadelphia. 

IIL To find any place on the globe nohofe l<uitude and hngi* 

iude are given. 

Bring the given longitude, found on the equator, to 
the meridian, and under die given latitude, fbund on 
the meridian, is the {>Iace fought. 

iV. To^nd the diftance and bearing ^an^ two given plaeet 

M the globe. 

Lay the gradi«ated edge of the quadrant of altitude 
over both places, the beginning ono degree being on' 
one of them, ^nd thf degrees between them (hew their 




«4Khmte|; thefe degrea miiHifAicdtr 66,^^ the geo* 
graphical mileit «od b)r'fiftr*miie tad ahttfi pift ibf 
>diteP« 10 £ngK^ wilM v^*'^* 

Ladk tbc daiy df the nHndi in the oater cal«o4i» 
i^ii the koriBon,^if the globe waf-macle belbre &e al- 
terfttion of the "ftiie) and oppofite t^it you wiQ fin^the 

fign anjT degree in the ecH^ 
marked on. the globe, and yon wiU find the fun's place | 
there fix on a fmall black patch» fo is it prepared for 
thr ^iution of the foltowtng problems. 

VI. ToJtndtlxJiuCs ^eSMafhn, that at, Ms d^anufrm tie 
'tqmnoSial tme, tUber northward or foiahward, 
Brii^ his piiace to the meridian ; obferve what de- 
gree ofthe meridian lies over it, and that is his dedin- 
ation. ^f the fun lies on the turtbJiJe the line, he ii 
fatd to hare i»r^ dicliiutiattf but if On xhefintbJUe, hp 

Nat^ The greafccH declination can never be tnofir 
than f.g^ -28' either nordi or fouth ; that l^ing the 
didance of the tropics firoin the eqoinodial, beyond 
which the fun never goes* / . 

Vil. fojind 'wbeire the fun it vertical on di^ day; thai iif^ 
tojm ofter whofi heads the Jim wU fafstlit Jkq, 

Brinj^ the fun's place to the meridian, obierv'e his 
decUnatiori, or hold a pen or wire over it, then ti^ the 
slobe round, and all thofe countries which pafs under 
the yrire, wiU have the fun over their heads that day at 

Kou* This appearance can only happen to tho(e 
who live under the torrid «on^ beeiufis the fun never 
|Oes farther from the equinoAial, "either nohhward or 
Southward, than the two tropics^ from whence h^ re- 
turns again. , ' .-;-,::,,* ..„>T'.^i- ■"-". ; 

VIII. Ho fad over who/i heads the fun is mf hmtt or m 

Bring the place umere yooare(fappofeatBo(loA} to 
the meri#4l ; fet ihe ia<fez to Ui& |^vei| h^ir by your 
watdi ; Ihen turn the gbbotiU the late pgiAii'lo^ 
upper ff»:4W aNw, look mdsr thc.4l|[iM ot' ^dinatioo 

■ $^ ' ' ■ ' -^ ■' Q ^^^ "lor . 


9t imrnontf^iTm^ 

for ditt day, and fof £iid the lisiee to which the fun {| 
TMSiody ^ ov«r lamfe head it IS jit that tinf / 

IX. T0jS»d0tM^A9m'^thii^,wh0tt^eMyu^^ 

'•Bring the place where yon art to tlie hnft neriAofli 
fet the Index to ti^e hour hy th« ^ateh, t«rn the gkil 
jiHl the piaee 700 are looMn|j for comet under the flae^ 
ridian» and ^e index wiH pomt oat the tjne re^otre^* 
Ifm, Bj thii prohkm fou may HJeewiie (tti at o^ 
Tiew,; hi diftant ccuntric^ where the Uihabitaott ai# 
r^-» where hM^faftng^ M t^g^^ Mi d^ ihN-*where 
going CO ijfimi&ri'^-9Ad where to W. 
^. TtfJnJ A nohdt hmr the fun rjfes mdpt miy day m tkf 
year 9 ami ^^ yfm nfihatpmnt 9/ the empaft* 
RcAifjr the gli^bs for the latttude of the pla^ yiM are 
in ; bring die lien's place to the ijieridiiOi and fe; the 
hide^ to \% I ^ien turn the (un'c place to the eaftera 
,odge <^ the jhorixon, and the index will point out the . 
hour of riliog } |f tou bring >t to ^e «ie(|ern edge of 
^ horiaon, the index will iSew the ^our of fetting. 

X^ T^Jkdfkf^^ tfi^tUif fmd p^kt 0tagf iimtf 
" ■" il^ fear, - ' 

Donblo the time of j^e fiin^s riHog that ^j, and it 
ghret ^ length of the npgh^ % doiibie 4ie tjifne of hif 
%^i9g» and It gtvet the4.engUi of the dayr 

JCII. fojjki d^Jeiigtbaf the lor^efl fnjhrt^fhft ny 

finie vpem the ettrfj^, 

IjLeAify the globe for that place *. if its latitude be 
nbt^ bftog the beginning of Cancer to the meri4ian | 
^ the In4ex to ra> then bring the fam^ degree of Can- 
icer eo the eaft part of the horiiEoo» mi the Msdex will 
ihew Ihe time of theyln'f rifing. 
* If Ae limie degree be brought to the weftem Tidei^ 
fSn ittdtt #itt Ibew the time of his fetting, which doub- 
led {as knhakft problem^ ««ll gi«$ tjbe length of the 
longtft day and'thorteft mghtf 

It we liiiiiiig the li^^iiming of Capricorn to the wie* 
ri^an, and proceed m aU t^^ds as before* we fliaU 
haya thi leagtbof the N«Cl sight and ihorteft day. 

• ns% in m great M^gSH dofninioiii, the Itofigeft day 

i»u^.^^lat^'pSi the irarteft night 19 hours. The 

<h0Jm i!i#»iM» ftp w f ni d t h e loiyft night ^houn; 

." -■ ,*- • At • 



Ai Pnerfivg, dto (bt of die SfBpnr%4>r RnOia. tht 
Wgeft d;iy n artxmt 19} hontt, Imd Oir (kdfttft ti%Kt4i 
Koon.- Tbe ikortta 4ii^ 4i hoiitv muI tke lofltcft 
night i^fhoiiH^ 'V . \u * 

ftu at fi« o'clock the year rocad. From theact to th» 
f^tar tirtkti the day* inereafe m tht latitade iaocafef ; 
ib that it thofe citcies- themfeWes, the kmgaft day k 
#4 kottTfy and the fooj^ft aisht jiia thaiame. From th» 
Alar eircla to ihtpolu, the days continue to lengthen i»- 
Co weekff and months i (b that at the very pol^ the £t» 
Aines for 6 month* together in Jum^ufy and it abfent 
^om it 6 months in nHiUer^Note^ aJfo, that when it ia 
Jumtmer With the nmien inhabitants, it is wintit with the 
fattherih and the contrary \ and every part of the wort* 
partakes of nearly an equal (hare of llgtit and dei'knclii^ 

%ilt. T^fiul alt tUfi mka^inifs <te wbm the fiutit OSt 
mouteta t^^gor/tttk^ h tich^ UkruSans tt mMikt. 

tbd the^ funV place in the ecliptic,, and raife tfeie 
iiole as dkoeh above thehoriton as the fun, thai'd»y» de- 
eUnes from tfie e^totor 1 then bring the titace ijh^ 
the fun it vertical at that hour» to the brais nMridtan % 
6 wiff It thenj&e in l&ei&^l or ^nti^ of He lottos* 
Kow iea;what countries lie on Oic ^eftem^d^ Pi J^ 
hiiri2onr ibr in thftm th^^Am isrs%.^ |Ortrt»ri^JM 
iaftem.ade-^4s/tt/i^ ; tq thoTc under theiupl^ef f^ 
W M mericTiJin- k is notm dafs a|»4 >> the* undel the 
fcwtsr. part of it, it is midnhh ; 

thus at^Charl^aown (Majf.) 00 thr xo&of Ajpfl,^ 
4 o'clock i^ l^e fiaoniin^ ; 

The foal k abottt tifmg at - Brafii, 8i)^ Amctfca. 

' NewOainca,^e tiipan^ll^ 

the tuti iif^tting ai 

fn the meridian, or noofi at 



:%.'y* t 

Mtdoii^t at 

P^ta and NovaZetnAylft 

f Th« Bay ci Good Bdpc, 
^ in the vicinity 0f King 

Oeorge*8 Sound* 


■^ ►-,{';",.' .J .i 



0/ MJ^^ mid tjkh miE. 

, A KAP ift tht wywfearaitoo o# Iodm part of tHi? 
iirth'i furfacc, dcltMaitcl oa 9^ plane a^awUng to tho: 
km of pPojeAiatt riba at the tarth isiof a gtalwf ioroi». 
jBo part of iu fpherical furlaca cap. be accurately eihib»- 
ated an a plane*. 

The north 'it confidlered as dw upper pait of« tba: 
snap } the (bath » at the battoflii» oppoifite to the north«|; 
the eail it on the right hand, the lace being torned to« 
aha north } and the weft^ on the Ipft hand, oppeftte to« 
the eaft^ I'rom the top to the bottom are draVrn merid- 
ians, trSmief hegthuk ^ and from fide to fidt fitfattek^ 
^ ioMk* The Otttenno(i of the meridians and paral* 
ielt arc marked with degrees of latitude or kmaitude, by* 
means of which, and tne ifcale of miles, \k4iien-ie epnw- 
JBonly placed in the comer of the map, th& fituation,* 
diftanees, &c«. of places may be found,, at. on the arti^ 
ficial globe. 

River* are defcribed in maps by blani: rines, abd'are^ 
Haider towards the mouth than towards the head or 
i^rlng. Mountains are fketched dn maps an oh a pic» 
ture. , Foreftt and woodt are r6(Sr«ftnted by a l&id o/ 
ibrt^} bogs and mdraffes by ftadeifi&adii and ihal^ 
Ipws are didcribed by Tmall dots ; and roads ufoally byr 
J||pb|e Unesk ; Near harbours, the depth of the water tti 
j[bR)etimes expr^efled by figuret reprelenthig fathoms. ' 

When aay pans of the beaten, or earth, are faid toi 
be pn tl|e right or left, we are to v^erftand the exprei^^ 
IIqA' differently, accordicg to the profeflion of ^e per-- 
ion who makes ufe of if ; becafxTe, according to that, hit: 
hat' ie^ppofed to be tuiined towards acertaib <|uarter» 
A geographer is fuppofed to ftand witli his face to ^e 
north, becaikfe the northern part of the world ii beft' 
knowii. *An aftronomer looks towardsr the fouth^ ta 
cAiferve the celeftial bodies as they eome toihe meri<^> 
The ancient augurs, in obferving the flight of birds, 
looked towards &eaft ; whilft the poets look veil, to- 
Hftrdt the Fonimate Iftet. In bocils of geography, there- 
fore, by the right hand we^muft undemand the eaft { an •^ 
tiioieof a^b-onoroy, theweft $ in fuch as relate toaugury^ 
ifaa^fedlli I and the writings of poets, the north| 





Tk Am^gikin.'l The «Aii«9rkrir or air vfech fiir. 
MttRdi tb»globM««bost45 tttte^hf WflM, Itbdic 
aMdittaiof liMNKl; bf ft^rsfting tiM rajrt of light* 0^ 
j^ are rMiitM^ vifihlt». which^ without thb flM^iaBi^ 
eonki not b« fteib ^ 

ITin^.} IfWisalr^st ianntiDn,tadititcdkd» 
tntrse, at gale, or a A^rn, aecOrdiof to tht rapiditf oC 
itt notion. Thstradc wiodf intheAthMitiraoaPaidfie 
Oeeanti blow oontottf from norihtaft and foatheaftr 
lowaidt the equator, from about 3$ degrees of Jatitodo 
Bordi and fottdi. 

Tft^i.] The ebbii» and flowing of thriea if eaoM 
hf the attra^on of & fun and moon, but chicflf bf 
that of Um kittef ( the power of the moon in this cafe, 
being to that of the fan, at 5 to i^ Tho nmonin one 
revotattoH round the earth, produces two tides, and their 
motion follows the apparent motion* of the moon» via. 
from eall to Weft; 

Cf99dt,J Chtit are coDeaions of vaponrsr cihaled 
f rom ^ easth bj the attraAton of the fu% or other 
sanies. ■ • ■ 

^%8».l Aw «%f, ii a total or |Mirti4 pi|)rat|ett 
of thelHghtof the fan or mooii.^ When the mo^ pnib 
between the earih and the' fun, i^t fun is ^cKp&d % and 
when the earth pafles betw|»n the moon uadib% mt 
moon is osUpTedr 


THE Planet whifch; we inhabifr calltd tht^ Earth, is 
made up of land 911^ Water, fn^ » therefore eaUedte^- 
taqmntt, iiibout on^^fourth of ti^e foiffce # ibe gldlNB 
^ lahdf the ot|ier three-fourths »e watcr.,\^ * / 

llhe common diviiiono of Ac land midi^ watery am ao 

Tht JDhiJm ef l^ *tre, nt l>nj/Smi^ Phmr orr» 

1. CoHlmmfi.'i AConw L OhMar.} AnOceau^ 

lAncnC ii a verf Utrge traft s-vaft coUc^on of water, 

of coirotry,not emi«Iy £tp' not eotircly ieparatod by 

; aara^ by water. Theitaf« land. Ttieie ore fire myat 

toxiimonlf rcckoiied two Oceans ; the .^Iftoiir lyit^ 



Coataocnti, the jEglrm and • 
W^jUnu TbeEaaeroCon* 
lineal it divided into £a- 
rope» Afia»and Africa : Uic 
Wcftern» into North and 
Souih America, To iheie 

we max ^'^'^ >^ ^^ ^^^' 
tinent of New Hoiknd^ 
which is found to be fuffi- 
cieatly large to bear the 
refpeAable name of Conti- 
Dene. /Some geographers 
rechpA four continents, via. 
£arope» Afia, Africa, and 
America. But iiccording 
to the above definition there 
are but the three mentioo- 

II. IJlwdi.l Attifland 
is a traA of land entirely 
furrounded with water; as» 
Khode Iflaad^ Long ldand» 
Cuba, Ireland, Great Britr 
Hit and Japan* 

ISL ^ Pemnfith-J A pe- 
lUnfula ii almoft an ifland,. 
W9ktr$i^ of land funound- 
td by water, ezt^epting at 
one nUrtow neck. I as, B«f^ 
ton, the Morea, Crim Tar-' 
Ury* a«d Arabia. 

liins it miwmiip^ neck of 
•k|wiiuaful4 to. 

between America on th^ 
weftf and^orope and Af- 
rica on the eaft» 5000 milei- 
wide. The Paei$€^ between 
America on the eaft, and. 
Afia on the weli, io,ooo- 
miles., over. Tht Jndmkt^ 
which walhes the eaUcm 
(hores of Africa, and tbe^ 
fouthern (hores of Afia,. 
3,000 miles wide. Befides 
thefe there is the Nortbtm 
or Fromtn ocean, lying' 
northward of Europe and. 
Afia, 3,000 miles wide; 
and \htSouthem^ extending 
from the fouthern coafts oi. 
Africa, to the footh polsi. 
8,500 miles oveTc 

IL i^i.'X A lake is a 
large fX>lkdion of water,^ 
in the interior parts of a. 
country, furr(>utided by 
land ; tao^t of >kem, bow^ 
ever» coromuoicaxe with ~ 
the ocean,, by rivers ; as,. ^ 
lake Ontario, &c. A fmall- ,/ 
coUedlion of water fu^ 
rounded as above, is call-- 
cd>i pondc 

ill. iSlw.] A fea or 
gulf ii a part jpf the oceaii,.. 
rorround^d by bnd, except- 
Sng a nathm pafs called »^ 
ftB»it> by vluch itcommu- 
cates with th^ ocean $, ally 
the M<?ditenaiman« B:4t«c 
^Iin4 Red Seas 1 and. the \ 
; ll^i of Mexjheo» St. X^ 
*f«n|ie| and Vjsniee., .. 

ii a oaifow |||to mt of 
one 'lea into anbuer ; as^ 



Ae mitfli- land i ast the ifth« 
moi of Daiien* whiclkjoiat 
North tod Soatk America* 
7a miles overt and the 
iiUimot of Sttea, vrhich 
unites Afia-atul Africa* 60, 
miles Gvct4. 

montorf is a mountain or 
hill extending: into the feay. 
the extremity, of which is 
called a cap^t. A itoint of 
fiac land projeAing far in* 
tathefea«. is lileewite. calU 
eda.cape; as, Cape Ann, 
Cape Codr Cape Uaturas,. 
Cape Horx:<. 

Liin is a. part w the land 
more elevated than the ad^ 
jac<39t Gouatrjr^ and.ieen at 
a diftance I, as, the White 
Hills and Mountains in < 
l^ew Hamp(hir& 

the ftraits of GibfaHar». 
joining, ths Mtditenranraiv 
to the Atlantic |. the Araiti^ 
of. Babehaandtl,^ ivhich. 
unite the Red Sta with. the. 

%V. Siys>'}' A hay. is ^ 
part of the Tea lunniog u]^> 
into the main land, com- 
mordy between two capes ^v 
as,v Mafl*achafeit> Bay, be- 
tween CapdiVna and Cape 
Cod;.Dflavare» Bay. btsp 
tween.Ca^May and Cape 
Henlopen ; ChefapeakBay , 
between Cape Charles and'. 
Cape Henry.. 

VI.. Hiven,'}^ A^iYer Is 
a< considerable ftream of 
water, iifutng from one or 
more, fprings, and gliding, 
into the Tea. A. ibiall' 
ftr^m is called a^rivulct. 
or> brooks,. 


IX'is beliieved by many,^and.not without fome reafon^. 
thati^Mnofiinca^was kobwn to the ancients. OTthU^, 
fiowe^vQCy^tiiftoi^ afford^ i^cectain evidence.,. 1*he N«^i> 
icegians». ^ V^lilh Mi-thtC^^ their 

takn, lia^ie Ria4e prelehtroos it) tike dilbovery p£ Aiiief%. 
ca^ ^ But ibr aug^t V^caitleautirbm tlie bell doct»« 
ments» the ea^sn continent was tlbednl^t theme of bii- 
tory Xthe partial diJboferics of the- ^lorwogtans eicept^ 
cd) from Uie creattein- bf the woilJ to th& year of ouc 
d^4$^. , , . ,;/ ;'^ ;'_"■' 

jpisTOfHea Ci).!,!)!!^!;^, a. fub|sA^|l*' the rephblic: 
;^asid|^rve^ the honour'^ diicoveriag 
clu f^ta^bngraad clo^ application to th^ 

I ^^^ 

BIr. Biace, in his Traveliy fpclU t^is wcrd J^ttttmMM' . 



turfy of geogrtphf tnd iii?igtUofir«> which hit pmm- 
iMf BiitimOf incliaod, Colsfntrnt hiid «hBiiiiC4l • knovW 
tdgt of thf cmc figure of the «arthr«i«eh Ibpttior x» 
the geiMril fiocions of the age H« wKJch h« livedo In- 
ordtr that theterrt^ueotii gbhe nighi he properly haU 
aoced) aad the lands and fca» p io p o t tioncdto each oth- 
er» he wai led' to conceive that another continent waa- 
neccflary. Other reafont induced him to helieirt that 
ihii continent^ was conneded with (he EaA Indiee^ 

Ai early as the year >474> ^ communicated his in^ 
genioui theory to Paul, a phyfician of Florenca»eminen6 
ior hif> knowledge o£ cofroographyr He warmly ap^ 
proved it» fuggelted feveral tads in confiiiaation of itr 
and encouraged Colmnbus in an undertaking lb landa- 
hle, and which promifed fo much benefit tO' the world- 
Having fiilly iatisfied himfetf with refped to^ the truth 
of his fyitem, he became impatient to reduce ir to prac- 
tice. The 6x(i (lep towards this, Wat to fecure the pat- 
ronage of ibme of the European powers. Accordingly 
he laid his fcheme before the fenate of Genoa, mak- 
hie his native country the firft tender of his fervices. 
They rejcAed his prnpdial as the dream of a* chimerical 
projedor. He next ayr^icd to John XL kine of Porta*^ 
galy a monarch of an enterprifing genius, and no iacom*' 
petefat judge of naval* affairs* The king lifte^ed to him 
in the molt gracious manner, and referred the confider- 
ttion of his plan to a number of emifkent coijniogra* 
phers^ whom he was accuftoroed to confnlt in roatiers- 
ei thfs kind; Theie men, from mean and inteteft<ed 
views, ftarted ionomerable objcAions, and a(k«d many 
eaptiousquedions^on purpofe to betray Columbus into* 
a fuH explanation of his fyftem. .Having done this*- 
they advifed th€ king to difpaleh a veffel, fecretly. in 
otder to attempt the propofed difcovtry, by following. 
eiaAly the* cour(^ which Gohimbas had pointed: out. 
John, forgetting on this occafion the fentimentt be- 
coming » moiuuch» meaaiy tfdpptei their perfidtom 

Upon d'^'-'overin^ this diflionommble traidhAioiky 
Ceiumbon, with an mdignation natural to a noble and 
ingenuous mind, <)uittcd the kingdoa, wd littded i» 
Spain in t^S^ 




Rb« lie prcfcnted his fchtme, in pcrfoB, to FerdI* 
iitnd and UabcUif who at that thne governed the nnittct: 
kingdomi of CaAtIt miKi Amgon. They ioindicioafl/ 
{ubmitted it to the t lifnination of unfl^iltol iud^ev 
who. igooranr of the prinoipki on which Columbuf 
/bunded' his theoiy, rejcAed tc at abftird, upon the 
credit o£ a- raann under which the ttnenterpiiAng, m^ 
ererf age^lhcUer tliemfelves, **'Thatit it prefum;*tii« 
" ous in any perfon, to* fuppofe that he alone poifeiil't^ 
** knowledge fuperior to all the reft of mankind united." 
They maintained, likewtfek that if there were really any 
fticht cottntriet at Columbus prtt?nded| they would not. 
' have remained fo long concealed ;;nor would the wif- 
dom and fagacity of tormer ages have left the glory otV 
this difcovery to an obfcure Genoefe pflot. ^. 

Meanwhile, Columbus, who had experienced thv 
uncertain iifue of applications to kings, had taken the 
precaution of fending into England his brother fiar- 
tholomewy to whom he had fully communicated Kl» . 
ideal, to negooiate the maCter with Henry VII- Oa» 
hit voyage- 16 Ensland, he fell imo the hands of pi<r 
rateiy. wlu> Ilsi]ipleirhim of e?ery- thing,. aad> detained^ 
him a prifoner feveral yearf . A&^ length he mad<e his^ 
efcapo^. and^arrivad at London inestreme indigence^. 
where he. employed- himfelf feme time in fetting rnap;». 
Withhil gains he purchafedakr decent drefs; and in 
perfim preunttd.'to ihe king, the propofals which his 
brothel haJ «ntsi!iued to his managemeRt.. Notwith* 
ftanding Henry'SvexcctTive caution* and parfimony* he 
yeceived^the prnpofails of CoIumbiM with more appro«- 
batianid^o- any^ monarch to whom^ they liad been pre*- 

After i^veraV unfuccefs^l applications to 'Other Eu^k^ 
fopeaH powers of lels note, he was induced, by the en* 
treaty and interpofitum of Ferez^ a: nun of confidera*!' 
hie leartthig^ and of .ibnK ^cdit with queen Ifabella^ 
to apply again to-the co(|rt^of Spain.. T^ts application |. 
after much' warin* debate, and; fevend mortifying re- 
plies, proved fucce&ful ;. not,, hnwever, . without tlio- 
xnoft vigorous and pexfetering exertions.of Qjaintanilla*. 
and Santangel, two jrigilant and difcemiog- patrons o^. 
Coittmbusi^ wliole meritorious acal ■ in • promoting thta^ 

* sf 

^ DiSCOVEftT of AM&ftlCA. 

grand Jefign> eocitlet their nanes to wi hoiumi^blttr 
f lice in htOorjr*- It was^ howevert to qoeeil IfabeUa* 
the munificent patronefs of hit noble and generous d0« 
iignii, that ColuiMhtM ultimatelT o#ed 6it ratcefs. 

Having thus obtained die afli(iance of t&e court, t( 
i<}aadron of three finall veflels ^vas fitted out, yiAualkd 
for tweWe months, and' faraiiked with ninety men.' 
The whole eipenfe did not exeeed £./^^ooO^ Of tlM 
f<luadron Columbtts war appointed admirals 

On the third of Auguft', 1-4911', he left Spain^ in t!ie 
prefence of a crf)wd of fpe^ators^ whcr tfcnited their 
fiipplications to Heaven for his fuecefs. He Aeeired. 
diiedly ibr the Canary lilands, inhere he arrived and* 
refittedi as wcU as he coald, his crazy and ill appointed 
fleet. H^nce he failed, September dtft^' a? due vreftei^ 
courfe into an unknown oeisaA. 

Colambas noir found a thouiaad unibrefeen har4- 
Hiipsto eneounter, which demanded sdl his judgment, 
Ibrtitude and addrefs to furmottnt. Befides the diffi- 
culties, unaToidkble from the natulv of his ubdertakingh 
lie had to ftmggle with thofe which arole from the ig« 
ftorance and timtdity of the people under his conmundl 
f)n the i>4thof September he was ailoniihtd to find th$it 
ibe magnetic needle Iiq thtir ^Diipafs did not point ez- 
aAly to the polar ftar, but varied towftrd^nrtft) ami 
AS they proceeded; t this rariatioa ineres^d; This new 
phenomenon filled the companions of Cc^mbus vritli^ 
fetror^r Nature itfelf feemed to' hive Alftained » changes 
and the only guide Cbeylia^- left to poilkt ihem toa 
fafe retreat from ah unbounded and tracklefs oceaYi, was 
About tofail- them. Columbus, with no lefs fUicknefs 
fban ingenuity, affigncd a reafon for this appearance^ 
Hrhich; though it did not fatfkfjt himfelf, feemed fa 
j^laufible to theJki, that it dti^lled their feart».or fitieuced 
Iheir murmur*. 

The failors,;always di&onVentedVand akrmetf ai their 
dtfiance from lanHd, feveral times mutinied, ihleatened 
once ro throw their sidmirat ov«iboardt and repeatedly 
kififted on- his. returning; Coiumbnsi tm thefts llpyin|^ 
eccafions, dii > yed aU that co^l deKberatioil, priidenee^ 
ibothing addr^ and fimtteftt whieh mere uecdRury for 
A perfon enga^d in a diftoreiy the im>ft interefting t» 
tile world of any evev uadertahoA by maHv U 

-^■> • 



lt^»ai mi the iidi of OAober, ^41^2^ at tea o'clock 
ia the cvefiin|, that ColttiBbus» horn the fo^rcpiftlct dtf- 
cried a light. At two o'clocjc iiext morning, Roderick 
'TrieAna .difcovered land* The joyful .tidings wer« 
foidrff conuBiuiicattd to the other iktps. The morn- 
ing light cofifitmed the report! and the feveral crewi 
imnicdtately bepn Tideim* as a hymn of thankfgiving 
to God, and mingled th^praifes wtUi tears of joy, and 
lr8nQ[K>rts of congratulation. Columbtts, ftchiy drclTedt 
irith a drawn fword in his hand, was the fir(i European 
who fet foot in the Nevf V^orU which he had difcovered* 
^e ifland on which he thus firft landed, jhe called £f. 
Sahtukr, It is on« 0/ that large dafter of iilands 
foown by the name of the Lncaya or Bahama ides. 
*~~H»-afterwards touched at federal of the il|ands in the 
&m« clufter, inquiring every where for gold» which he 
.thought was the onlV objed of commerce worth his 
attention. In (leering fouthward he difcoyered tlie iil- 
ands of Cuba and Hifpaniola, aboondtng in all the 
neceflaries of life, and inhjibtted by n humane and 
jho^itafoie people. 

On his return he was overtaken with a ftorm, which 
liad itearly proved iatal to his ihips a«d their crews« 
At a crifis wb^n all was given n|^for loft, Columbus 
jiad pr^ence of mind enough to retire into hk cabin* 
^d to write upon parchment a (hort account of %if 
^royage* This he wrapped tn an oiled cloth, which he 
incloted in a i^ake of wav, put it into a tight cafk, aiMl 
fhreiKf 1$. into the ftat in hiwe that fomt ^mnate acci» 
ilent might pr^^rve « depout of fo much importai^ce to 
thewoild. He arrived atl^os in Spain, whence he 
jbad failed the year be^»re, on the 15th of Bfarch, 149^3. 
fit W9s welcomed with ill the accuimattons which the 
|>opu]ace are ever ready to ^eftow oil mu and gloci- 
Otts charaders ( ajid the com t received him with majte 
x»f itlK; ^reatcft re^eAt 

III jBcptember oif tbti year (149^) Cblambas failed 

|ipoa|ttsiccond«oya^ to Americas during tbe per*. 

formaiice of ivhich he il^^trtd the iilands oC I>om- 

intcvMirigalante, G«udaloupe, Mootferrat, Aotigii% 

a^^^m* M, ,__ ^ and mnnicdto%ain# 1494' 


In 1498, he failed a third time for America; rad/di| 
the id of Auguft difeovered the CoNTJHtiiT. Hethcik 
coalled aloog we Award, making other difcoveries for 
SCO leagues, to Cape V^ firom which be eroded over 
to Hifpantota, where he was ieized :by « new Spanidi 
>l5overn6r, and lent home in chains. 

In 150s, CoIumbns4nade hk fonrth veyage to Ht£^ 
paniota ; thence he went over lo the continent; dil^ 
covered the bay of Honduras.; thence -iailed along the 
main fi^ore eafterly.2op leagues, to Cape Gractaa^a-Dios, 
Veragdai Porto Belle, and the Gidf of Darien. 

The jealous and avaricious Spaniards,^ not immedfo 
atelf received thofe golden advantages which tliey had 
ffomifed, and loft to the feelings o£ humanity and 
gratitude, fuffered their efteem and admiration of Co^ 
lumbus to degenerate into ignoble envy. 

The latter part of his life was made wretched by the 
•cruel persecutions of his enemies. Queen Ifabella, hi^. 
friend and patroiieAi,was no. longer alive to afford him 
relief. He fought cedrefs from Ferdinand, out in vain, 
Difgnfted with the ingratitude of a monarcli, whom be 
had ferved with fomuch fidelity and fuccefs ; ej[hau(led 
with hardilrips, and broken with the infirmities which 
tliefe br6ugkt upon him, Coluinbus ended his a^Ive and 
tifeful life at VaSladdid, on the aotU of May, « 506, in the 
S^fiti year of his age. He died witlra compofore of mind 
fiiited to theiftagDaiMmity which difiinguilhcd his char- 
ader« and ^ith ientimenta of piety becoming that fu- 
preme refped for religion which he manife^ed in every 
Recurrence of hts life. He was'grave, though courteous 
lb his deportment, circumfpedt in his words and anions, 
irreproachable m his noorals, and exemplary in all the 
duties of his religion; The Court of Spain were fb juft 
to his m^noryi notwithftanding their ingratitude to- 
wards him during his life, thaCthey buried nim magnifi> 
cenOy in the CaSedral of Sevilkt and ere&ed a tomk 
firer }iim with thi»;iftfcriptioa : 

CoLUMivs hai given a New Wbatn 

To the |[iNGi>oilrof Castu.! and JLsoir*' 

Among otheif adv^torers to the Ntir World in ppi^ 
felt ^ fold, wu fimexiem Vcfpicitts^ a Florentine 





gcntlemsus whom Ferdinand h ii appointed to draw 
lea charts, and to whom he liad s;lven the title of chief 
plk)t. This mm accompanied Ojeda» an enterprizing 
Spanidi adventuTer> to Ameiica ; and having with 
xhuch art and fome degree of elegance, dravn up an .^- 
amufmg hiftory of his voyage, he publidied it to die 
world i-^It circulated rapidly, and was read with admi- 
ration. In his narrative he infmuated that the gl^ry of 
having £rft difcovered the continent in the New World, 
belonged to him* This was in part b|rlieved, and the 
country began to be called after the name of its fuppof- 
ed firfl difcoverer. The anaccountabl^ caprice of man- . 
kind has perpetuated the error ; fo tliat now, by tlia 
univerfal confent of all nations, this new quarter of the 
globe is called America. The name of Americus has 
fupplanted that of Columbus, and minkind are left to 
regret an aft of. injuflice, wliich, having hiesn fanftioned 
by time, they can never rcdrcfs. i . 


Boundaries akG Extei^t. 

THE Continent of America, of thi firft difcovcry 
of which a fuccinft acco\lnt has juft been given, 
extends from Cape Horn, the fouthem extremity of the 
continent, in latitude $6° fbuth, to the liorth pole ; and 
fpreads between tlie 35th degree eaft,f and the i68tli 
degree weft longitude from Greenwicj), It is nearlj* miles in length, from north to f^uth. Its mean 
breadtli is about 14 or 1500 miles. 1 This extenfive 
continent lies between the Pacific Octan on the weft* 
and the Atlantic on the eaft. It is diM to coptaki up- 
wards of 14,000,000 fquare mile?. 1 

Climate, Soil and Produillons.l la regard to each of 
thefe, America has all the varieties which the earth af- 
fords. It ilretches through almoft the whole width of 
the five zones, and feels the heat and cold of twofum- 
mcrs and two winters 4n every year. iMoft of the ani- 
tnal and vegetable produ^iQns which the e&ftem con- 
tinent aifords, are found here ', and tnjEiny that are pe- 
culiar to America. 

B • • \ Hiiverf.l 



HtvfTt,^ This continent is watered by fome of the 
largeft rivers in the world. Thej>rineipa} of thefe arc 
Rio dt h Plata* the Amazon and Oronoke in S. Amer- 
Va ; the MiflUfippi and St. Lawrence in K. America. 

Gy/ft. \ The Gulf or Bay of Mrxteo, lying in the form 
of a balbivbetwecn N. andS. America, and opening to the 
,eaft»is cor)cfliircd by fome to have been formerly land ; 
and tbat the conftant attrition ai the waters of the "Gulf 
Stream has wore it to its prefent form. The water in the 
Gulf of Mexico, is faid to be many yards higher, than 
on the wftilero fide of the continent in the Pacific Ocean. 

Gulf Stfi'am.'] The Gulf Stream is a remarkable current 
.in the oceat\, of a circular formj'bcginning on the coaft of 
Africa, in the eUmates where the trade winds blow we(l- 
erly, tlience ruitiTing acrofs the Atlantic, and between the 
iflands of Cuba and S. America, into the Bay of Mexi- 
iCo, from which it finds a paflage between Cape Florida 
and the Bahamn Idands, and runs northeaftetlyalong 
.the American ^oad to Newfoundland ; thence to the Eu- 
ropean coaft, n|.d along the coaft foutherly till it meets 
the trade winjs. It is about 75 miles from the (bores 
of the fouthem ftates. The diftance incrcafcs as yovi 
-proceed north Jirard. The width of the ftream is,about 40 
or 50 miles, ^^idening toward; the N. and its common 
rapidity three jailes an hour. ^ N. E. wind narrows 
the ftream, ani riders it more rapid, and drif es it near** 
er the coaft ; N, W. and W. winds have a contrary efFeA. 

Mountains,'] The Andet^ in South America, ftretch 
along the Pacili^ Ocean from the Ifthmus of Darien to 
the Straits of flagellan, 4,200 miles. The height of 
Chimborazo, t^e moft elevated point in this vaft chain 
of mountains, is 20,280 feet, above 5,000 feet higher 
than any other mountain in the known world. 

North Ame j ca, though an uneven country, has no re- 
markably hig)k mountains. The moft confiderable arc 
thcfe known t|bider the general name of the Allegany 
iMwK*awt ; th<|[e ftretch along in many broken ridges 
.'.tindr* different names, from tludfon's River lo Georgia. 
It has been cor jiilured, that the Anu'et and the Allegany 
Afoufitams belorjjed to the fame range, interrupted by 
the Gulf of Mtxico; and tha^ the Weft India ifland* 
"were formerly iinited with each other, and formed a part 
of the contiaeni;^ coimecUng North and South Americt. 
^ ^Tbeir 



Thctr prefent disjointed fituatian is fnppokd to have 
bten occaGoned hj the trade winds. It is well known 
that they produce a ftrong and continual current from 
eaft to weh, which, by beating againtl the continent (q^ 
a long courfe of years, rouft produce furpriftng altera* 
tions, and may polfibly have produced fuch an cStQ. as 
has been fuppofed. 

Thcjr/l pfopllt^ of ^mertca^ America was very prob- 
ably peopled early after the flood. Who were the firlV 
people of America ? And whence did they come ? are 
qutAions* concerning which much has. been faid and 
written. Pr. Robertibn and ti)e Ai>be Clavigero have 
attempted a folutlon of them. 

Dr. Robertfon, having recapitulated ;ind canvaded 
the mod plaufible opinions- on tlie fubjefti comes to the 
following conciufions, viz. 

u That America" was nint peopled tiy any lUtion 
from the ancient continent,- which had made any con- 
fiUerable progrefs in civilization j b^caufe wheii Ameri. 
ca was HrU' discovered, its inhabitant« were unacquainted 
with the neceffary arts of life, which are the Erft e/Tays 
ef the human mind toward improvement; and if they 
had ever been acquainted with them, for indance, with 
the ploaghj the loom ^ and' the forge, their utility would' 
have been fo great and obvious, that it is impo/Tibl^ they 
(liould have been loft. Therefore the anceftors of th^ 
iirft fettlers in America were uncivilized, and unac* 
quainted with^ tlie necclTary arts of life.* 

z,- America could not hav€ beeii^peppled by any coU 
cmy from the more fouthern nations Of the ancient con* 
tinent ; Becaufe none of the rude tribe« of the(ie p»rts 
poifciTed enterprife, ingenuity, or power fuflkient to 
undertake fuch a dlflant voyage ; but more efpeciallyr 
becaufe, that in all America there is not an animal, tame 
or wlldj which properly Ish^ngs to the warn^ or tem- 
perau countries' of the eaftern continent. The firli care 
ef tlie Spaniards, when they fettled in AmericU| was 
to ftock it with all the dorueftic animals of ^urojM;. 
The fird fettlers of Virginia and New England pQvu^ 
•ver with them, horfes, cattle, Iheep, &c. Hdloj^ il is 

* This reafoning is inconclufive. Clrilized nation* tiii^lif* 
eome barbarous, aAd lo'fc all trace* of former civilixatioa. 

' iT 



•bvtoui that the people who ftrft fettled in Ameiica, did' 
not origirnte frovn thofe countries where thcfe ar rmals, 
abrMic^ otherwifci having been accuflomed to their aiJ,. 
they would haye fappowd. them necefiary to the irn- 
provementi and ev«n fapport of civil foclety.. 

5. Since the aniinals in the rorihcrn rcgipAt of A-. 
flaerica correfpond with thofe found in Europe in the 
iante latitadcft while thofe in the tropical rcgiont are. 
indigenout} and widely diflierent from tc^mfe which in- 
habit the correfpondinaj re«ions on the cAftem continent,. 
it is more than probable that all the original. American, 
animals were of ihofe kinds which inhabit northern re- 
gions only, and that the 4wo continents, towards tlie- 
northern extremity, are fo nearly unifed as that thefe^ 
gnimals might pais ^om one to the other.. 

4. It having been eflabliHied beyond a doubt, by the:- 

difcoveries of Captam Cook, iahis hfk voyage) that at- 

JjCMmt/iatht in about lat. 66^ north, tht continents of AHa. 

. and America are Separated by a drsut only iS> miles wide,, 

and that the inhabitants on each continent are fimils^r,, 

and frequently pafs and repafs In canoes from one conti-. 

nent to the o^ep. From thefe a^d other-circiimflances,/ 

tt is rendered highly probable that America was firft^ 

peopled firom the northeaft parts of Afia.. Bat fmce.- 

the Efqiiimaux Indians are manifeftiy a feparate fpecies, 

of m<n, didinft from all the nations of- the American. 

ccmtiiient, in language, in difpofition, and in. habits of ' 

life ; apd iA.aU thefe refpeAs bear a.near refemblance to, 

the northern Europeans, it is believed that the Efqui-. 

maux Indians emigrated froip the northweft parts of' 

Earope. Several circumftances confinn th|i belief.. 

As early as the ninth century the Norwegians difcover-. 

ed Greenland, and planted colonies there. The com*, 

mumcation with that conntry^ after long interruptTcn», 

was renewed in the lad century. Some Lutheran and 

Moravian midionaries, prom ptedby zeal for propagating. 

the Chridiati faith» ^ave ventured to fettle in this, frozen 

rfflpio^ From tlicm we Icarp, that the northweft coaft: 

•ci^^TeenlajDd is feparated from America hut by. a very 

' j ^ks i & S ^fiT Tdt, if feparated at all ; and that the £fqui< 

^IpotMjf America peifcftly rcfcmble the Grewdanders 

Ml^^es; fSpcHt^ 6;rQk^ mode df living, and probably Ian-. 



goage. By theie dccifiTe f?.As, not only the cor^rangtiia- 
ity of the Erqutmaux and Greenlanders is eflabh(hed». 
kut the pofllbUity of peoph'ng America firom t!ie north* 
weft parts of Europe. On the whole, it appears rational 
to conclude, that the progenitors of all the Ametieaa 
nations, from Cape Horn to the fouthern limits of La* 
bradoBk from the fimilarity of their afpeA, colour, &c. 
migrated from the northeaft parts of Aaa ; and that the 
nations that inhabit Labrador, Efquimanx^ and the parta 
adjacent, from their unlikenefs to the American nationi^ 
and their refemblahce to the northern Europeans » came 
over from the north weft parts of Europe.* 

Such is the opinion of Dr. Robertfcn. The Abbe Cla* 
vigero, who was a native of America, and had much; 
better advantages for knowing its hiftory than Dr. Rob- 
ertfoj), gives his opinion in the following condufiom : 

1. The Americans defcended from diSerent nations^ 
•r from different families difperfed afler the confufion 
of tongues. No perfon will do«bt of the tmth of thisy 
who has any knowledge of the multitude and great di» 
vcrfity of the American languages. In Mexico alone 
thiriy-^ve have already been diKovered. In South Amer- 
ica ftill more are known. In the beginning of the laik 
century the Portnguefe counted^/ in Maiagnon.f 

It would therefore be abfurd to fay, that languages fb 
different were different dialects of one original, is it 
probable or even polUble that a nation flkOuld alter ita 
primitive language to fuch a degree^ or multiply its dia- 
Ie<fls fo variouily, as that there ihould not be, even after 
fo many centuries, if not fome words common to all, at 
leaft an affinity 'he'.ween them, or fome traces left of 
their origin ? * 

2, The Americans do not derive theif origin from 
any people uow exiiiing as a nation on the eaftem con* 
tinent f at leaft there is no reafon to affirm that they do* 

This InfereriCe is founded on theiame argument with 
the preceding ; fince, if the -Americans are defc^ndants 
from any of thefe nations, it would be poiCl^e to trace 
their origin by fome ms^rks in their lai^aagesi in fpitt 

D » «f 

^ * Hift. of AmcricA, VoL II. p. ft«, &c. i'' 

t I'hcfe fads have been difputcd. There are but very few er!fi> 
ina 1 languages in the world. Three only ciift in Afia» the &r<s^MC 
the Ar<Sie and the Tartar, It is incredihle that fo tnaay (bouUl 
have cxUlcd in Mexico and South Aaicrica* 

# ^ 



of ^he antiquitf nf their reparation ; but any fuch traced 
liave not yet been difcovered. 

But how did the inhabiunts and anitnals originally 
pafs to America^ and from what parts did they come i 

The firft inhabitants o( America might paf$ there in 
ve/TcIs. by fea, oi- travel hy land or by ice. i» They 
jnigiit either pafs there in veHels defignedly^ if. the dil-. 
t:ince by water were but fmaU> or be carried upon it acci- 
dentally by favourable vvi||ds. 2. TJiey might paf^ by 
Jandi on the fuppofition of tlte union oi' the continents. . 
$i They might alfo make that paifage over the ice of i 
fome frozen arm of the fea. 

The quadrupedes and reptiles of the new. world paflf-.' 
«d there by land; This f«i^ is manifeft from th« im<i^ 
probabiUty and ioconnt^ency of all other opinioiM. 

This neceflarily fuppoTes an ancient union between t 
the equjnoAial countries of America and thoie.of Afrioa» . 
.and a conneiion of the northern countries of America { 
with Europe on the E.and Afia on the W, fo that there -. 
kas probably been a period fince> the flood, when there- 
was butCNE continent... The beaOs of cold climes paiT- . 
ed over the northern ifthmunTes, wluch probably conned- ■ 
ed Europe, America and Afia ; and the animals and rep-, 
tiles peculiar to hot countries pafied^over the ifthmus tliat^: 
probably once conneded S. America with, Africa. . Va^ 
Tiou« reafons induce us to believe that therewas formerlyc 
a trad of land which united the moll eaftern part^o? Bra-_. 
zU to the mod weilern part of Africa }: and that all ,the^- 
f)>ace of land may have been funic by vioient earthquakes, , 
leaving only f(^me traces of it in that chain of iilands of r 
which Cape de Verd, Fernando,, de Norona, Afcenfion . 
and St. Matthew^iiflands make apart; and alfo iothoCb,; 
many fand-banks difcOvered by different navigators,^ 
and particularly by de Bauche^who founded that fea, with. . 
great exadnefs. Thefe iflands and fand.banks may prob*. 
ably have' beenthe higheft parts of that funken iQhmus. . 
In like manner^ it is probable, the northweP.era part of; 
America was united to the northeaftern part of Afia by-c 
9k neck of land. which has been f .nk or walked away»^. 
and the northeaftern parts of America to the northweft- . 
cm parts of Europe, by Greenlar»dj Iceland, &c. 

InhaBiiants.J It has been common , in edimating the. 
population of the whole worldi to allow i5Q>miIlioQs{Gi, 

. " Ainwcai 



Amcrics* But this ii j>robably three timet their real 
number. For if we fuppole cTerjr part of the vrhole 
continent of America to be as populous as the UAited 
States, (which is not the cafe) Uie whole number will be 
but al>out 60 millions. . The exaA number is probably 
conliderably Je(s.. 

The prelent Americans may be divtded into two gen«< 
cral' clailfcs-^yirit, the proper .nericans, ccmtnonly 
called Indians, fometimcii Aborigioes, or thofe who arc 
del .ended from the hrft inliabilants of the new world,, 
and who ha^TC not mixed their blood with the inhabit- 
ants of the old continent; Secondly^, thofe who have 
migrated, or have been tranfported to America fmce its 
ddcuvery by Columbus, and their defcendants. . The 
former may be fubdivided into three elates. . Firft, the 
Houth Araeiicaii Indians, who probably camt over from 
the northern ar.<d wedern parts of Africa, and the fouth> • 
em parts of Alia and Europe..^ Secondly, the Mexicans 
and all the Indians fouth of the Lakes, and weft of the : 
Mifil&ppirf. Thirdly^ the inhAbitants of £fqaimaux, La- 
brador, and tlie countcies around them. . The Utter may 
ajfo be diftinguiihed into three claHes. Ynf\; Europe- 
ans- of. nnany diflferent nations, who have migrated .ta-> 
America, and .their defcendants, of unmixed biood : : in ■ 
this clafs we. include the Spaniards, Englifli, Scotch,. 
Irifhy Frencbi^ Portuguefe,. Germans, Dutch/ Swedes, . 
Zee. .both in North jind South America. Secondly, Af- 
ricans who have been . tranfported. to America ai^^d its- 
. iflands, and their defcendants.. Thirdly, the m-ixed 
breeds, caUed by the Spaniards, Cq/Iat,^hj ihc Englifb, 
Mulattoes ; that is, thcfe whc^ are defcended from, an- 
European and an Amezican, orirom an European and: 
(African, or from an African and American. . We fhally . 
under this article, confine ourlelvcS' to the proper abo* - 
riginal Americans, or Indiansr. 

Columbus gives the following account of the. Indians^ 
of Hifpaniola, to Ferdinand and Ifabdla.^ . 

" t fwear. f your majeftiwy thatthere is-not'a better • 
people in the world than thefe.; more^affeilkmate, afl»- 
hle and mild j they love tlieir neighboursai*thef»feHes j 
their language is the fweeteA, the foftieft, and the moft 
cheerful) for they always Cpeakii&iling^.i aoid although 
' - they: 




they go naked, let your majcAici believe me, chetf «tf> 
loms are tcry becomtnj^ ; and their king> who is fcnred 
witli great majeAy, has Aich engaging manners, that it 
gives great pleafure to fee htm ; and alio to conlider the 
great reumive facnlty of that people, and their defire 
iff knowleilge, which ioTites them to a(k the caofes and 
f ffea* of things." • 

Charlevoix, in his hiftory of Piragua/, hat colleded 
from the Jefuits perhaps the beft inibrmation rtfyMng 
the more i'outhern Inoians. Comparing his particular 
defcriptions of the nurisrous nations who inhabit the 
fbuthern divilion of South America, we give the follow* 
ing as the leading traits in their eeneral charaAer. 
They are generally of an olive complexion, fi)R>e dark- 
er, others lighter, and fome as white as the Spaniards. 
Their ftature is rather below than above the middling 
fixe ; though ibme lutions rank them among the talleft 
of the human fpecies ; moft of them are thick, legged 
and jointed, and have round' and flat faces^ 

Almoft all the men and children in the' warm c\U 
mates, and in the fummer in colder regions, gp quite 
naked. The women wear no more covering than the 
moft rela«xcd modciiy feems abfoluCely to reqjaire. Ev- 
cry natioa hi^ve a difBerent dialed, and a diiFcrent mode 
of adorning themfelves. l*he clothmg of fucK as malce 
ufe of it,, is irade of the (kins of bea(lsj of feathers fewed 
together^ and in the fouihern r*rtd colder regions, where 
they ratier fheep, of wool manufadured into AnSs and 
blankets. They are reprefvnted as alrooft univerfallf 
aUdided to drunkenneis» There feems to be no other 
vice common to them ali» 

Some nations are reprefented as didl, cruel and incon* 
ftant ; others as fierce* cunning and thievifli ;. others as 
humane, ingenious and hofpitsmle ^ and in general they 
are find and attentive to Grangers, (o long as they are 
well uied bf them i and we feldom read ef their being 
firll in a quarrel with tkofc who pafs their ten|i|ories^ 
or fojoiun among them. The afton»(hing ibcc€^of the 
Jefuits in converting fttch multitudes of them tQ their 
faith, b a convidive proof of their capacity to receive 
inftru^on ;. of their docility, Uumanitj and friendly dii^ 
poiitioQS. As' 

* Hift. Coiumb. Chap, xisil 




an J 









As tc the Tefond clafs of American Indians, who for- 
yierljr inhabited, and who yet ioliabit Mexico and the 
country foach of tlit lakes and weft of the Minifiprt,. 
and who c tme over, as vpc have fuppoltd, from the 
nortbeaft parts of Afia ; they fecm, from whatever 
caufe, ro be advamod fomewhat hij^hcr in tlio fcaleof 
inriprovement, than the South Americans, if we except 
the Peruvians, who appear to have made greater prog* 
refs in civilization than even the Mexican*. . Concern- 
ing the nations of the va(i country of Anahuac or New 
Spain, compofinf^ a large portion of the fecoiKl clafs 
pf the proper Americans, the Abbe Clavl^ero has the 
following obfervations ; «*'We have had intimate com- 
merce, for many years, with the Amriicans ; have 
lived feveral years in a feminary. deflined for their in- 
ttrudtion ; had fome Indians^ am^ng our pupils ; had- 
particular knowledge of many Aiverictn re Aors, many 
nobles and numerous artifts ; attentively obftrved their 
chara6ier>. their genius, their difpofitiuns and manner 
of thinking ; and have examined, befides, with the 
mmofl diligence, their ancient hiftory, their leiigionn. 
their government, their laws and- their culfoms. After 
fuch long experience and Audy of them» firom which we 
imagine ourfelv:» able to decide without: danger»- 
ring, we declare that the mental qualities^ of tlie Amer- 
ican Indians are not lA the lead degree inferior to thofe. 
of the Europeans ; that they are capabh of alU.even. 
the rnoft- ab[tra<fl fciences ; and that if equal care and^ 
pains, were taken in their edacatiDB, wefbould fee rife- 
among them- philofopbers, math^paiicians, and. di- 
vii>cSj ''vJio would rival the firftJn Europe.. But it is 
not pofTible to make great, progreft, in the fciences, im 
the mid(l of a life of. mifery^ fervitude.and oppreiCon. 
Their, ancient government, their laws,, and their, arts 
evidently demoaftrate. that, they^ fuffered. wx want. of. 
genius.'* , 

They are df a good^ ftkture^ rather exceeding ihcmid— 
die fize ; weU^prop<Mrtioned in all theii^ limbs, having a 
fine olive complexion ; narrow foreheads >; . black .eyes ; 
clean, firm regular white teeth; thick, black,. coaHe,. 
glofly hair y thin beardsy and generally no hair on tbeix^ 
iftgsi thighs and arms. . The. arc acither. ver y beautiful* 



iior the rrverfc, but hold a miJdle place between th« cr» 
trernet. I'hcy arc moderate o;itcr<y but much aJdi^ed 
to intempcratee in drinking, which, a* far as we know, 
ii trvf* of iii\ the American Indians. Thejr are patient 
nfinjuricf and hard(hips, and grateful for beneftts. 
Good fnith \i not fn much refpcAed at it do^^rvcs to be. 
Thty are natuniUy untocial, ferious and anflcrc. Gen- 
ernfity and pei fei't difrntcre^lvdncfs are liriking traits in 
their a^er. Their religion is blended with much 
fupcrltiuon ; and fome of the more ignorant are verjr 
prone to idolatry. 

The rcfpecV p;uJ by children to their parents, and by 
the yning to the old, amon^ thofe people, is highly 
oommcndaMc. P«irents arc fond of their children. 

Oi their morality, the following exhortation of 1= 
Mexican to his Ton, may ferte as a fpecimen : "My 
fon, whf art come into tlit light ftom the womb of thy 
mother, like a chicken ftam the egg, and like it art pre- 
paring to fly through the world, we km>w not how long 
lieaven will grant to ui the enjoyment of that precious 
gem which we po^efs in thee ; but however fhort the 
period, endeavour to live eiaAly« praying God contioa- 
ally to affifl thee.- He created thee ; thou art his prop- 
erty.- He it thy Father, and l6ve$ thee ftill more than> 
I do ; repofe in him thy thoughts, and day and night> 
diredt thy fighs to him* Reverence and fahste thy el-- 
ders, and hold no one in contempts To the poor and^ 
diihelTed be not dumb, bat rather ufe words of comfort.* 
Honour all perfons, particularly thy parents, to whom- 
thou oweft obedience! refped and fervice. Guard a« 

Ilfainft imiuting the example of thofe wicked fens, who» 
ike brutes, are deprived of reafon^ neither reverence 
their parents, Fi/len to their indru^ion, nor fubmit to- 
their corre^ionr ; becaufe whoever follows their fteps 
will have an unhappy end, will die in % defperate or' 
fttdde^ maimer^ or will be killed and devoured by wild* 

** Mock not, my (bn, the ared or the imperfeA. 
Scorn not him whom you fee fall into fome folly or 
tranfgrefllon, nor make him reproaches ; but reftrain 
ihyiielf, and beware led thou iaU iato the (amt error 




which nffends thee in another. Go not where thou art 
not calleUt nor interfere to that whkh dos no* concern 
-thee. Endeavour to m^mifeli thy good breedinu; in .ill 
thy words and aAions. In ennvcrCttton, do not Uj 
thy hands upon another, nor fpealc loo much, nor inter- 
rupt or didurb another's difcouri'c W'len aiiy one di(» 
courfes with thec« hear him attentively, and hoK.' thy* 
felf in an eafy attitude, neither playing with thy feet, 
nor putting thy m.mtle to thy mouth, nor fpittinr; too 
often, nor looking; about you here tti»i there, m*r riang 
up frequently if th«>u art litiinc.; f()r fuch anions are 
indications of levity and low br.edlng." He proceeds 
to mention fevcnil paiticuiir vic^s which arc to be 
avoided, and concludes — '* St-tal not, nor give ihyfclf 
to j^nming J oiherwife thou wilt be a df^ ice to thy 
parents, whom thou oughtefl rather to honour for the 
education they have givc?u thee. If thou wilt be vir- 
tuous, thy example will put the wicked to Ihame. No 
more, my fon ; enough hath been fuid in dilcharge of 
the duties of a father. With thcfe counfeU I wiih to 
.fortify thy mind. Refufe them not, nor aft in contr:i. 
diif^ion to them ; for on them thy iife and all 4ihy hap. 
pinefs depend?/* 

The more nordiem -Indians, whom we have included 
<in the fecond clafs, in their complexion, fiic and form, 
are not in general unlike the Mexicans. In focialand 
.domcftic virtues, in agriculture, arts and manufadlures, 
they are far behind the Meiican& ; in their hofpitality, 
equal-; and in their eloquence in council, and bravery 
in war perhaps fuperi«.w. Their mode c^ life, and the 
ftate of fociety among tfeiem, afford few objet^s for the 
difplay either of tlKir literary or political abilities. 

The third clafs of American Indians, viz. thofe who 
inhabited Efqutmaux, I«abrador, and the countries 
around, are much lefs Jcnown than either at the afore- 
mentioned clair^s. Thofe who profefs to bi: 
,qu.iinted with them, fay, they differ in ih.c an- ihape 
from the odier American Indians, s^nd reiem^jle the 
dLapIanddrs, and Samoeids, of Europe, from waom, it 
is coi)jeAured by fome, they defc^de^!. 

The Efqutmaux, according to Mr.*Pennint, are dii^ 
tsflgniihed from the tribes fouth of them, chiefly bf 




their drefs, their canoet, and their itiftruments of chace. 
.flc divides them into two •varieties. About Prince 
AVilUam's Sound they are of the largeil ftze. As you 
^advance northward theydecreaie in height, till they 
dwindle into the dwarfifh tribes, which occapy feme 
'Of the coa(ls of the Icy Sea, and the maritime parts of 
Hudfon^s Bay, of Greenland and Labrador. Their 
dwarfUHntfs is doubtlefs occaiioned by the fcantinefs of 
iheir providons, and the feverity of their climate. Be- 
yond' the 671I1 deg. N. lat. .iwcording to Capt. Ellis'^, 
account, there are no inhabitants* The Ardic coun* 
tries in -America, Afia and Greenland, if inhabited at 
.all, have -very few inhabitants ; and thofe are of the 
•dwartini kind, fcattersd on the banks of rivers, lakes, 
4ind feas, and fubfiil miferably upon fi(h, and the fldh 
'of thofe animuls which inhabit thofe frozen regions, Avith 
the (kins of which they clothe themfelves^. 

The newly difcovered American Indians about Ncot- 
lea Sound, difguiC; themfelves after the manner of the 
ancient Scythians, in drefles made i^ the (kins of wolves 
and orher wild beatls, and wear even tlie heads Htted 
to their own. Thefe hal>its they tti« in the chace to 
•circumvent the animals of the field* 

Concerning the rdigion Of %hc Indians much has been 
iaid, and much that has no foundation. In general k 
may be Obferved that they all have an idea of a Su- 
preme Being, whom they worlhip under different 
names, and with a great variety of Ibpcrftitious rites and 

^■•■1 ■ ^»i ■ 

A Summary Account of tiefirfi T>lSCOV* 
America, arranged in cforomlogicai Ordef* 

NORTH AMERICA was difcovcred in the reign 
of Henry VIL a period when the arts and fciences 
had made very confiderable progrefs in Europcv Ma^^ 
ny of the firft adventurers were men of genius and 
learning, and were careful to preferve authentic rec- 
ords of fuch ef their proceedings u would be intersiil- 

:* i 



ing to pofterity. Tliefe records afford ample documents 
fpr American hiftorians. Perhapc no people on the globe 
can trace the hiftory of their origin and proeref* *ith fo 
much precifion as iht inhabitants of North America ; 
partrcularly that part of them T^ho inhabit tlie territory 
'of the United States. 

The following will fliew the chronological order in 
which the firft fettlements were made in hforth America* 

Namn of Ptacet. Wlien fettled. / Bf whom. 

t^ebec, 1608 By the French. 

Virginia, June 10, 1610 By Lord De la War. 
Newfoundland, June, 1610 By Governor JfthnOuy. 

New York, 
New Jerfey, 


New Hampfhirc, 

Delaware, 1 

Pennfylvania, 3 
Maflachufetts Bay, 

Rhode liland, 

New Jcrfey, 

South Carolina, 

161 a By the Dutch a.t Albany. 
1618 By the Dutch at Bergen. 
1620 i ^^ part of Mr. Robinfon'? 

\ congregation. 
g 1 By a fmal) En'g. col.nearthe 
^ \ moutliofPifcataquariver. 

'1627 By the Swedes and Fins. 

1628 ByCapt.J.EndicotandCo, 

> r By Lord Baltimore with a 

^ ' 1^ colony of Rom. Catholics. 

rBy Mr. Fenwick, at Say- 

' ^35 "{ hrook, near the mouth of 

C. Gonnefticut river. 

[ ' ByMr.RogerWiHiamsand 

his perfecated brethren. 
'Granted to the Duke of 
York by Charles IL and 
made a difttndt govern- 
ment, and fettled fome 
time before this by the 
1669 - By Governor Sayle. 

1682 P>T'"'T^T' "^^ 
(^ colony of Quakers. 




And aboat 

g Ereftcd intoa feparategor- 

" emraent. 

Georgia, 173a By General Oglethorp, 

TbtmcACt about 1 750 By Col. Wood, and othen. 

£ Kentucky 




Katnci of rUeo. Wfcoifmlcd. By whom. 

Kentucky, 1773 By Col. Daniel Boon. 

f By emigranti from Coa- 
Vermont^ ibont 1764 "I nedicut and other pans 

t, of Ntw England. 
Territory N. W. of 1 - ^ f By the Ohio and other corn- 
Ohio river, J ' ' \ ^ panics. 
^ - ,_o^ 'Became a fcparate govern. 
Tcnneffce 1789 1 fettled many yearsljeforc 

1 796 Became-an independ. State. 
The above dates are generally from the j>eriods when 
tiie firft permanent fettlements were made. 


Boundaries and Extent. 

NORTH AMERICA comprehends all that part 
of the weftern continent which lies north of the 
IfUimus of Darien,eztending north andfoiich from about 
the ipth degree north latitude, to the north pole { and 
ead and weft from the Atlantic to the 'Pacific Ocean, 
between the 35th and <65th degrees of weft longitude 
from Greenwich. Beyond the 70th degree N. lat. few 
difcoveries have been made. In July, 1 7 79, Capt. C«ok 
proceeded as -far as lat> 71*^, when he came to a folid 
body of ice, extending from continent to continent. 

Dhifims.'] The vaft country 'bounded weft by the 
Pacific Ocean, fouth and eaft by California, New-Mex- 
ico and Louifiana, the United States, Canada and the 
Atlantic OceaR ; and.extending as far north as the coun- 
try is habitable (a few fcattered -Englifti, French, and 
fome other European fettlements excepted) is inhabited 
wholly by various nations and tribes of Indians. The In- 
dians alfo poiTefs large tradts of country within the Span- 
i(h, American, and Britilh dominions. Thofe parts of 
Ntrt-th America, not inhabited by Indians, belohg (if we 
include Greenland) to Denmarlct Great Britain, the A- 
fncrican States, and Spain. Spain claims Eaft and Weft 
IloiiJa, and aU weft of the Mifilfippi. and fouth of the 
northern boundaries of liouifiana, rlew Mexico and 
California. Great Britain claims all the country inhab- 
ited by Europeans^ lying aortli and eaft of the United 



States, except Greenland, which belongs to Deiimark. 
The remaining part is the territory of the Sixteen Unit 
ed States^ The particular Provinces and Sutcs stfir 
crliibited in the following 




inceit ami 




Weft Gfee&4asd io,ocO 

Kemr Herrnhut 


> att 



rNew BritAin 
I Upper Canada 
I hiy»ef Canada 
/ Newfoundland 
\ Cape Bretou Iflaod 

New BrunfwicE 1 

Nova Scotia T f 

St.JofiH'* ifi J' 1783, 5,000 

rVermon'r is,S$9 

Newhr hre 141^5 
MafTic '^ 1378,787 
Di(lri€k of Maine > 96,540 


I Rhode Ifland 
g CAnneaiciit 

New York 

NtW Jerfejr 
i. Penttfylvania 
* Delaware 
I Maryland^ 



North Carolim 

South Caiolina 


.Territory R W. of Ohio 

j; fEaft Florida 
£ I Weft Florid* 
~^ ! Louiiiana 
^ \ New Mexico 
a I California 
In* t^cuco, or New Spain 





393,75 « 


Kingfton, Detroit, Niagara 
C^tbec, Montreal 
Vuccntia, i>t. John's 
Sidney, Louilburg 
Fredcrioktown, fit. JohnV 

Windfor, Rutland 
Portfmouth, Concord, E^etei* 
Softon, balem, Newburyp«rt 
Pur tland,HHi l«weU,l^vriuibot o*' 
Newporr, Fiovidcnce 
Mew Haven,- Hartford* 
New York, Albany ' 
Trtnton, Burlington, Brunfw;;t 
Philadelphia, Lancaiter 
Dover, WiInun^tOn„ NewcaiUe ) 
Annapolis, Baltimore ^ 

Richmond^ Peteriburg, Norfolk 
Lexington- ' 

Ncwbern, Edentoif, Raleigh 
Charlcfton, Columbia 
Savannah, Augufta,LouirviUe 
Knoxville, Na^iviUei Orccaviiltf 


Penlacola , ' 

New Orleaiis- 

St. Fee 

St. Juan 


* dtcetrJif^it a ftnjju iaie«%t 1795. 






THIS extenfive country properly belongs to neitKer 
of the two continents ; unlefs, as feems probable* 
it be nnited to America to the northward of Davfo' 

BounJar « and Extent."] Greenland ts bounded by 
Davis' Straits on the welt j to the northward by Tome 
unknown ocean, or by. tht north pole j eaft by the Icy 
Sca^ and a drait which feparates tt from Iceland ; fouth 
eaft; by the Atlantic Ocean ; fouth, it terminates in a 
point called €ape Farewell, in latitude 59 degrees north. 

Face of the Country.'] The weftern coaft, which \% 
ivafhed by Davis' Straits, is high, roclcy, barren land,, 
which rears its head, in mo(t places clofe to the fea, ia 
lefty mountains covered with fnow, and inacceffible. 
cliffs, and meets the mariner's eye 40 leagues at fea. 

Population."} The Greenlanders, reckoned to amount 
to about 2)Oc>o, live t^ the fouthward of the Sid degree 
ti N. latitude, or as the inhabitants are wont to iay iii< 
ti^e- fouth; but no Europeans live there, lb tliat theA; 
parts are but little known. The European colonies have 
fixed therofelves to the northward of latitude 61^. 

Cwiofities.2 The aftonifhing mountains of ice in thii 
tountryy may well be reckoned among its greateft curi- 
oftties. Nothing can exhibit a more dreadful, and at the 
UiOie time a more dazzling appearance, than thofe pro<* 
dtgious maiTes of ice that furround the whole coail inp 
Various forms, refleAing a multitude of colours from the 
fun-beams, and calling to mind the enchanting fcenes of 
romance. Such profpects they yield in calm weather,, 
but when the wind besms to blow, and the waves to rife 
in vaft billows, the violent ihbcks of thofe pieces of ice,, 
dafliing againft one another, fill the mind withhonror. 
The ice mountains are pieces of ice floating in the fea 
of an amazing (ize and very curious forms : fome have 
die appearance of a church or caftle, with fquare or 
pointed turrets ; others of a (hip under fail, and peo- 
ple have often given themfelves fruiElefs toil to go oa 
bckard, and pilot the imaginary (hip into harbout; othi> 
tn look like large iflauds, with plains, vallies and hiiis^ 




which ofun. rear their heads 200 yards abore the level 
of the Tea. This ice, for the moft part, is very hard, clear* 
and tranfparent as glafs, of a pale giern colour, and 
ibme pieces iky blue ; but, ii j^ou melt it and let i^ 
freeze again, it becomes white. 

Air mid Sfa/ons.} As thi; country is covered in mod 
places, with everlafting ice and fnow., Ic is eafy to imag- 
ine that it mua be extremely cojd. In thofe places 
where the inhabiunts tnjoy the viHts of the fun for an 
hour cr two in a day, in winter, the cold is tolerable ; 
thouc^h even there, ftiong liquors will freeze, when out 
ofthewatm rooms. But where the fun entirely for- 
(akc: the horizon, while people are drinking tea, the 
emptied cup will freeze on the table. 

In fummer there is no night in this country. Beyond 

the 66th degree, in the longeft days, the fun does not fet $ 

and at Goad Hope, in latitude 64°, the fun does not fet 

; till I o min. after ten o'clock, and rifes again 50 min. after 

' cue o'clock. The winter days are proportionably Ibort. 

Produatons\\ Among the vegetables of this cold 
country, are iorrel of various forts, angelica, wild unzy» 
fcurvy grafs in great quantities, wild rofemary, dandeli- 
ons in plenty, and- various forts of grafs. Whortle- 
berries and cramberriesgrow here. Europeans havefowa 
barley and oats, which grow as high and as thrifty as ia 
warmer climates, but feldon^ advance* fo far as to car, 
aiid never, eveti in the warmed places, grow to maturity^^ 
becaufe the frofty nights begin too foon, 

jinimals'.y. Unfruitful as this country Is, it afitvds' 
Ibod for fome, theugh but few kinds of beads, which 
fumilh the natives with food and raiment. Of the wild 
gam«, are white hares, rein deer^ foxes, and «^hite bears, 
who are fierce vxni mifchicvous, feals, &c. The Green- 
landers have no tame animals but a fpecies of dogs,, 
which tefemble wolves* 

Religion,'] The Greenlanders believe in the do^rine 
of the tranfmigration of fouls ; that the foul is a fpiritual 
elfence, quite different from the bod^ ;• that it needs nO' 
corporeal notu-ifhment ; that it fur\rives the body, and' 
Hves in a future better ftate, which they believe will' 
never end. But thSy l^ave ve y different ideas of ihi« 
ftate. Miiny place their Mlxpum^ or beavciii ia the aby^ 
. E a f(» * 




fes of the ocean, or the bowels of the earth, and thintt 
the deep cavti'es o( the rocks are the avenues leading to 
it. There dwells Torngar/uck* and his mother ; there a 
joyous fummer is perpetual, and a ihining fun is obfcur* 
cd by no niglft ; there is the limpid dream, and abund* 
ance of fowls, filhcs, rein-deer, and their beloved i'eals | 
and tliefe are all to be caught without toil. But tothefe 
delightful feats none niuU approach but thofe who have 
been dexterous and diligent at their work, (for this ia 
their grand 'd jf virtue i that have performed great ex- 
ploits, and lu , r..aflered many whales and feals, hava 
undergone great hardlhips, have been drowned m the 
fca, or died in childbed* The difembodied fpirit does 
not enter dancing into the |llyiian fields, but roufl fpend. 
five wkolc days, ibme fay longer, in Hiding down a rug- 
ged rock, which is thereby frneared with blood and 
gore. Thofc unfortunate fouls which are obliged to 
perform diis roiis^h journey in tha cold winter, or in 
boifterous weuthci, are peculiar objefts of their pity,be- 
caufe they may be eafily dettroyed on the road, which 
de(b'u«^ion they call the fecond death, and defcribe it as 
a perfed extindion, and this to them is the moft dread-^ 
ful confideration. Therefore duiihg thefe five days or 
more, the furviving relations mull abftain from certain 
xseats, and from all ijoify work, (except the necefl'ary 
fiibing) that the foul may not be difturbed or perifh in 
its perilous paflage. From all which J" Isplain that the 
'Grcenlanders, ftupid as they have been reprefented, have 
an idea that the good wiU be rewarded, and the bad 
puuilhed ; and that they coaceive a horror at the 
thoughts of the entire anuihilatioi) of the foul. 

Others have tlieir paradife among the celedlal bodies, 
and they imagine their flight thjthec fo eaiy and rapid* 
that the foul rells the very lume evening in the manfion 
of the moon, and there it can dunce and play at ball 
with the reft of the fouls ; for they tliink the northera 
hghts to be the dance of fportive fouls. The fouls in 
this paradife are placed in tents around a vaft lake 
abounding with filh and fowl. When this lake over- 
flows. It rains on the earth ; but iliould the dam once 
break, there woi^ld, in ch^ir opiuiuM^4>e a general del;4^e» 
> The 

* The name of the Ccod Spirit, aalwctiD^ to the heathen Jupittr. 




Tlie Gteenlandcrs who confiJer the iohI at a fplritual 
inimauiial cflence* laugh at all this, and fay, if there 
ihould be fuch a maietial, liuariant paradtfe, where 
foulii could enteruin tfacml'elves with bumiag, dill it 
can only endure for a time. Aiterwardi the Ibuls will 
ceitainJy be conveyed to the peaceful maniions. But 
they know not what their food or employment will be» 
On the other hand, they place their hell io thefubteria- 
neous regions, which arc devoid of light and heat, and 
hUed with perpetual terror and ar.j(iety. This laft lort 
of people lead a regular life, and refraia from ev^cry 
thing they tliink is evil, . 

Bt/iory,'} Weft Greenland was firft peopled hj Eu^ 
Jrop.ans in the eighth century. Ai that titae a cohipany 
of Icelanders, headed by one Ericke Rande, were by ac- 
cident driven on the coalK On his return he repre- 
fented the country in fuch a favourable light that fon;e 
families again followed hini thither, where they foon be- 
came a tljcriviug colony, and bellowed on their new hab- 
itation tlie name of Qroenlund^ or Greenland, on account o€ 
its verdant ap]}earance.. This colony w converted to 
chrilliauity by a miffipnary from Norway, fent thither 
by the celebrated Oiaf, the lirft Norwegian monarch 
who embraced the tiue religion* The Greenland fet- 
tlcment continued to incrcaic and thrive under his prOf 
te6ion ; and ia a little time the country was provided 
with many towns, churches, convents, biihops, &c. ar> 
der the juiifdi<5tion of the archbiihop of DroiitheinK ^ 
confiderabie commerce was cr-rried on between Greeti- 
land and Norway ; 4tiid a regular iaiercomle maintaiiv 
ed between the two countries till the year 1406, when 
the laft bilhop was fent over. From that time all cor. 
xefponUence was cut off, and all knowledge of Green* 
land has bc^n buried in obiivion^ 


Situation a»d Extent. 

UNDER the geneial name of Britifli America, ^ 
comprehend the vaft and unknown extent of coun- 
try/bounded ibuth, by the United States of America^ 




igEW HRlTArir. 

md the Atlantic oceta i eaft, by the fiime ocean anc^ 
Davit' Straiu» which divide it from Greenland; ex- 
tending north, to the northern limits of theHttdfon'i Bay" 
charter ; and weftward, to an tanknown extent ; lytng- 
between 43*^ 30' and 70* north latitude ; and between 
50* and !05^ W. longitude from Greenwich^ 

Divjfietu^y Britifli America is divided into four 
Provinces, viz» i. Upper Canada ; a. Lower Canada* tQ' 
which are annexed New Britain, or the country lying. 
round Hudfbn's Bay, and the Ifland of Cape Breton ; 5* 
New BruniWic ; 4. Nova Scotia, to which ts annexed 
St. John's. Befides thefe, there is the Ifland of New- 
foundland, which is governed by the Admiral for th^ 
time being, and two fieutebant governors^. 


:>v *■ 


THEcovntry lying round Hudfon's Bay, or th6 
country of the Efquimaux, comprehending Xab- 
fador. New North and South Wales, has obtained' the 
general name of New Britain, and is attached to the 
government of Lower Canada. A fiipetintendant of 
trade, appointed by the governor General of the foui^ 
BritiOi ProvHicesy and refponfibli to him, refides at 

Riven.'] *!• he principal^ rivers which water this couna 

try, are the Wager, Monk, Seal,^ Pbckerekeiko, Church- 

Hl; Nelfon, Hayes, New Severn, Albai^y, Pafquitau a«d- 

Mooferivers, all whiclier?pty into Hudfon's and James* 

Bay from the wcft» The mouths of all the rivers are 

filled^ with ftioals, eicept Chuf chillis, in which the largi 

e(V fliips may lie > but ten niiles higher the channel is 

obftrufted by fand-banks. All the rivers, as far as they 

have been explored, arc fidl of rapid*, and cataraas, 

from 10 to 66 ftet perpendictohr.- Down thefe rivers 

the IndtuA traders-, find a quick paJage s but their re-^ 

turn is a labour of many months.. 

^lae^of the Coiutty, Soil, tsfcJi As far inland as the 

^dfon Bay Company hav^ fetlements, which is 606 

Jjilestoihe we(l of fort Chi^hiU, at a place called 

.fRiidCon Houfe, l4ti 5^°, long; i6c^ 27' W» fro* Loifr 

' dcia,Js flat country.. tEhi 




Thi Milern coall of the Bay it barren, pail the efforts 
«f culiivation. The Turface is eitrj where uneven, and 
covered with maffcii of ftone of dn amashig fize. It ie 
a country of truitlefs Tallies and frightful mountains, 
fome of an attonifhing height- The valliet are full of 
lakes, formed not from fpHngs, but rain and fnow, fo 
chilly, as to be produflive of a. few fmall trout only. 
The mountains have here and there a blighted (hrub, or 
a. little mofs. The Tallies are full of crooked,- ftunted 
trees, pines, fir, birch, and cedars^ or rather a fpecies of 
the juniper. In lat. 60* on thU coaii, vegetation ceafes. 
The whole Ihore, like that on the weft, is faced with 
iilands at fome di (lance from land. 

Inhabitants , Cu/ioms^ isfc»2 The inhabitants among the 
mountains are Indians } along the coalU^ Efquimaux. 
The dogs of the former at? very fmall } ot the latter- 
large aSd headed hkfi a fcic, and traitied for the. 

1 The lattdable zeal 6f the Moraviaa clergy induced 
them, m the year 1753, to fend miffionaries from Green- 
land to this country* Some of them were killed, and 
ethers driven away« In 1764, undec the protection of 
the Britiih government, another attempt was made*. 
The mitlicmaues were weli received by the Elquimaux^ 
and ihe niiiTion goss on with fuccefs. 

CUmate.J ExceiUvely cold. The fnoivs btgln to fall 
in OAober. The fun rifus, h, the &orte(t day, five 
minutes pail nine^ and lets fiv<6 miimtes before three. 
In the k>ngeft day the fun rtfcs at three, and'iets about- 
nine. The ice begins to dilappear in May, and hot 
weather commences about the middle of June, which at 
times is very violent. « 

Jitimali,'^ The animals of thefe coiintries^ are, the 
moofe-deer, ftags, rein-deer, bears» tygers^. buffaioesi- 
ivolives, foxes, beavers, otters, lynxes, martins,. fquitrels^ 
ermines,^ wild-cats, and hares^ The rein-deer pafs ia 
vaft herds iowards the * north, in. 0<Sober, feeking the 
Extreme cold. The feathered kinds are, gt^fe, buftards, 
ducks, growfe, and all manner of wild towls. .Of fifti». 
there are whales, mories, ieaU, cod*^Bih, and a white hlli^ 
preferable to herringf;. and in their rivers and f re Ui 
%aters, pike,, perch,, o^^ and trout. 






All tKc qtiidrupcdes of thefe countries a^e cUtbed^ 
with a clofe, f^ft* warm fur. In fumner there is hert» 
as io other places, a varictx in the colours d the feveral 
animals ». when that feafon is 0Ter» which holds onlf 
for three months, thejr all aflume the livery of winter; 
and every fort of beads, and moft of their fowls, arc of 
tite colMur of the fnow } every thing animate and inani- 
mate is whne. This is afurpriflng pheaomenoni But 
what is yet more furprifmg, and what if indeed one o£ 
the moft Qrikfng things, that draw the mofr inattentive 
to an admiration of the vvifdom and goodnefs of Provi- 
dence, is, that the doss and cau from Britain^ that have 
heen carried into yfudfon^ Bay, on the approach of 
winter, have entirely changed their appearance, and ac-, 
quired a much Tonger, fblter and thicker ooat of hair 
than they had originallf. 

Dlfe9very.ll The knowledgifi of tliefe north^n fear 
and counuies> was^ owing to a projcA ftarted in Eng- 
land for the diicovery ota northweft paflage to Chin;^ 
and the Eail Indies as early as the year t^^6• Since 
then it has been frequently dropped, and at often re* 
invtd, bur never yet com;»letedv 

Jrobifher, about the year i ^76, difcovcred the Mala- 
df New Britain, or Terra de Labrador, and thofe ftraita 
to) which he has given his name* In 1585V John Davis- 
failed from Poriunonth, and viewed that and ihe more 
northern coaHs, but he feems iiever to have entered the 
bay* Hvdfbn made three voyages oil the feme adven- 
ture, the firft in i/5o7, the fecond in \6oZ, and the third 
and laft in jt 6 1 a This bold and judicious navigator eiW 
tered the! ftraits that lead into the bay- Known by his 
bame, coafted a great part 'of it, and penetrs^ted t6 eighty 
dcj^rees and a half into the heart of the froten zone. 
His ardour for the difcovery not being abated by the 
difficulties he ftruggled with in this empire of winter,, 
and world of froft and fnow, be ftayed here until the 
enfuinz fpring, and prepared in the beginning of 161 1, 
to purlue his difcoveries ;. but his crcw, who fuffered' 
eqjial hardships, wfthout the fame /.pirit tCt' fupport 
them, mutinied^ feized upon him and feven of thofe' 
who ivere mod faithful to him, and committed them to 
tile fury of tibe icy feat» ia^ aa open boat. / HtkUbn and- 



Ini Companions were either (wallowed ap bf die waveit 
ort saining the inbofpiuble CMft, were deftrofed bj 
the uragcs ; bnt cbe Ibip and the red o| the men ra> 
tDmed home. 

Other attempts towards a dtfctrerj have been made 
in 1612, 1667, 1746, and i76i» bnt without foccefs. 


THE Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, con- 
V ftitttted by aft of .Parliament in 17911 comprc« 
hend the territory heretofore called Canada, 

Situation and Extent. 


Length 1400 7 


42° 50' am 

t° W. 1. from Lond. 
Breadth 500 J" "^'■'*^"l4a° 50' and 5a* N. latitude. 

Boundaries -and D'tvj/iotu.'} Bounded north, by New 
; Britain and unknown countries .; eaft, by New Britain 
And theCulf of St. Lawrence ; ibutheaft and foutherly, 
hj the Province of New Brunfwic, the Dillrid of Maine, 
New Hasipfliire, Vermont, New York and the Lakes 1 
the.weftem boundary is undefined. The Province of 
Upper Canada is the fame as what has been commonly 
called the Upper Country. It lies north of the great 
Lakes ; and is feparated from New York by the river 
St. Lawrence, here called the Catarac^ui, and the Lakes 
Ontario and Erie. 

LoWer Canada lies on botli (ides the river St. Law- 
rence, between 6i* and 71® W. long, from London^ 
and 45*^ and 52^ N. lat. and is bounded fouth by New 
Brnnfwic, Maine, New HampOiire, Vermont, aad New 
York J and weft, by Upper Canada. 

Riioert*'] The river Su Lawrence is -one of the larg- 
eft rivers in North America. It iffues from Lake On- 
tar io, forming the outlet of the long diain of great lakes, 
which feparate Upper Canada from the United States. 
It takes its.courfe northeaft ; waihes the ifland of Mont- 
real, which it cmbofoms j juft above which it rec^vei 
Octawas from the weft, and forms many fertile iflands. 
Continuing the fame courfe, it meets the tide upwardf 
of 409 mSes fr«ai thefea, and is fo far navigable (^ 




Iir^e YefTetf. Having received in its courTe, bcfi^les Ot* 
t^wts, St. John*s, Seguina, Defprairlci, Tmis Rivierics 
an 1 innumerable other fmaller ftreams, it falls into the 
ocean at Ct^e Rofieret, by a mmith 90 or ico miles 
b-^aJ. In its rourfe it forms t jn^cat variety of briv», 
harbors and iflands, many of them fruitful and extreme- 
ly pleafant. 

CUmatt.'] Winter continues with fiich fe verity from 
Pccember to April, as that the largcft rivers are frozen 
ever, ami the fnow lies commonly from foar to fix feet 
deep during the winter^ Bnt the nir is fo ferene and 
dear, and the inhabitants fo well defended againft the 
C'»ld, that this fcafon is neither unhealthy nor unpleafant. 
The fprinc: opens fuddcnly, and vetijetation is furprlfingly 
r^pid. The fummer is delightful, except that a part ot' 
it is extremely hot. 

Sot/ and ProJuec] Though the climate be cold, and 
ihe winter long and tedious, the foil is in gener tl very 
good, and in many parts both plcafant and fertile, pro- 
ducing wheat, barky, rye, with many other forts of 
grain, fruits and vegetables ; tobacco, in particular, 
thrives well, and is much cultivated. The ifle of Or- 
leans, near Quebec, and the lands upon the river -St. 
Lnwrence and other rivers, are remarkable for the rich- 
nefs of the foil. The meadow grounds in Canada, which 
,'ire well watered, yield excellent grafs, and feed great 
numbers of great and fmall cattle. 

jinimah*^ See this article under the head of the 
United States, 

Principal Towns^"] Qnebec is the capital, not only of 
Lower Canada, but of all Britifh America, and is fitu- 
ated at the confluence of the rivers St. Lawrence and 
St. Charges, or the Little River, about 3io miles from 
the fea. It is built on a rock which is partly of marblo 
and partly df flate. The towa is divided into upper and 
lower. The houfes in both are of ftone, and built in a tol- 
crable- manner. It contained, in 1 784, 6472 inhabitants. 
From Quebec to Montreal, which is about 1 70 miles, 
in failing up the river Sr. Lawrence, the eye is enter- 
tained with beautiful Uindicapes, the banks being in 
many places very bold and fteep, and ftaded with lofty 
trees. The farms lie pretty ciofe all the way, feveral 



fcntlemen'f honfei, ncitlf built, (htw tbemTtlTti at io- 
tervalt, m4 th«re U «I1 cnt tppcarancc o^ a flourUhing 
colonf t but there are lew towns or tillage*. Maof 
beautiful id^nis arc ioterfperfed in the channel of the 
river, which h-4ire an agree;«ble effeA upon the eye. 

M vin'real fl^indt on an ifland in the river St. Law« 
rencei which is ten leagnes in length, and four in breadth* 
at tlie foot of a moontain which gives name to It, about 
half a league from the fouch (bore. The city forms an 
oblong A|iiare» divided by regular and well formed 

The principal towns in Upper Canada, are King(l 
tpo, York, and Hewark, lately named Niagara- Weft. 
The latter town lies oppofite Niagara Fort and town. 
York, formerly called Toronto, lies on Lake Onlari:^ 
weft by north of Ofweffs, about do miles diftant, and 
^; north- north» weft of Niagara, contains between 200 
and 500 families, and is the prefent feat of government 

GovemmentJ] By the Quebec AiV, pafled by the par- 
liament of Great Britain in the year 1791, it is ena>£ied, 
that there Aiail be within each of the Provinces of Up- 
^er and Lower Canada, a Legi dative Council, and an Af- 
fcmbly, who, with the confent of the Governor, appoint- 
-cJ by the King, ihall have power to make laws. 

The Legiflattte Council is to conAft of not fewer than 
feven members for Upper, and fifteen for Lower Cana- 
tlai to be fummoned by the Governor, who muft bo 
suUiorized by il^e Ktne. Sluch members are to 'hold 
their feats for life, uniefs forfeited by four years con- 
tinual abfence, or by fwearing allegiance to fome for-- 
«ign power. 

The Hottfe of AfTembly is to confift of not le'V thaa 
fixteen members At>m Upper, and not lefs than fiu/ f- om 
Lower Canada, chofen by he freeholders ii^ the feveral 
towns knd diftridts. The council and aiTembly are to 
1)6 called together at leaft once in every year, and every 
aflembly is to continue four years» unl^is iooner diflblv- 
ed by the Governor* 

Britifli Aimerica is fuperintended by atk officer, (lyled 
Governor General of the ioar Britifh Provinces in N. 
Amcrkj^ who, befidei jHber |>owcrs, is cotsmander in 
r chief 



■SflDNE'T, oil THt 

dtteforall the Brltiih troops in the four Provinces and 
the goremment^ attached to them, and Newfoundland* 
£ach of the Pfovinces has a Lieutenant Governor, who, 
in the abfence of the GoveFnor General, has all the paw- 
cri requifate to a Chief Magiftr^te. 

Poftilatiott.'] Upper Canada, though an infant fettle- 
jnent, wasfaid, in 1798, by feme, to contain 40,000, by 
others,, only 20,000 inliabttants. The truth probably 
vras between them. Lower Canada, in 1 784, contained 
113,012 fouls. Both Provinces may now contain 
frjpm 150,000 to ^o,oco fools, which number is mul- 
tiplying, both by natural increafe and by emigrations. 

Rdi^fon,^ As many as about nine-tenths of the in- 
habitants of theft Provinces are Roman Catholics, who 
enjoy, under the prefent! government, the fame provi* 
ilon', rights and privileges as were granted them in 1 774, 
by the.aft of the 14th of George III. The rtft of the 
people are Epifcopalians, Prefbyterians, and a f€w of 
almoijt all the different fe^s of Chriflians. 

Tradet"} The amount of thf exports from the Prov- 
ince of (Juebec, in the year J 786, was jf 543,262 : 19 : 6, 
The amount of imports in the fame year was ;f 325,1 16, 
'Vhk exp6rt3 conGfted offbeat, flour, bifcuit, flaxfced, 
, lumber of various kinds>j^fIi,potafb, oil, ginfeng ind oth- 
«r Q^edicinai roots, but piincipajly of furs and peltries, 
to tlie amount of 2*285,977. The rn^ports confifted of 
rum, brandy, molaues, coffee, fugar,. wines, tobacco, fait, 
chpcolate,^ pronfions for the troops, and dry gocwls, 

HyhryJ] This country was difcovered by theEng,^ 
jifh as early as sbout 1497 ; and fettled by the French m 
'f6o<B, who kcp^ poffeffi^n of it till 176^, when it was 
^likiefn by the oritilh arms, and, at the treaty qf Paris, in 
^7^3< was ceded by France to the crown of England, tg 
fWipm it has ever uncc belonged. 





[Annexed to the Province' of Lowe) v Canada.] 

THE ifiaiHly'or ratbcr cclledlfon 0} iUands, which lie 
fh cdnttgnniit as thgt they ttte commonly Called 
but onef oad conprchaidfid under the name of the liland 

i^h^m dj CAPE BRETON. 


#Cape Breticm, lief betwrtn Ut. 45*^ t^f and 47" a* K. 
ahdbolweeii 59^ 4if' and 61' 39' W. long. frQin lldn- 
don, and about 45 leagues^ to the eaftmurd of Halifas. 
li is lof) miles in lengtn» and front 20 to 84^ in breadth ; 
and ife fepiirated frorti Nova Scotia by Vhatfdti^ (ttskyt 
failed tKe Gui of Canfii ^Jiich is tl|c CQihixiUnicatiofi 
tictween the Atlantic Ocean atid iW Gulf of St. 
^Wence.' , ' v , '. f:'''\' 

Tate af lite CounirjiCtimftle^twl and ProduBtons^ £xcii$t 
4ii the hilly parts, the faxfice of the coiidtryi feme fay» 
)ia& but liitle folidity, being every >^ here covered with a 
light mofs, and nilh tlatcrv^ Other and itiore ^thentjic 
accounts fay, that there i^ a great prcpbnion of atable 
Vahd on this ifland. The climate i? very cold, .o^ing 
cfither fo the prodigious cjuantiiy of^ hikes that cover 
above half the ifland, and reni'am fvoren a Idng thne jt 
or to the number of forefi^ tU;it totally intejcept the rajs 
of the fthij the effea of which is bcfides dhUmflKd %t 
^j^erj^ertiai cidnds.' ".'■■,. ' ,^ 

J^otukitkn, Ghl/'ffhvnit, &e.J On tliis' filand theV« 

' lfd'M>but f ,600 ihl4bttknts, who haVe a lie^renant'gof^- 

^ivjic' ttddttii aufotig; thcp, appointed by' the MiftV 

•Jlife ptintipal toittii are Sidney, the capital, ah^ LomC' 

Burg, which ha^l^e beft ^harb<>ar in thelffattA- : ' w 

This ifland ^af hr^pnfido'ed as this key to Cill^M; 
sihd ihe very Vakable lltBcry in ib n^hbou^Bfob^ «^ 
-pchifcfbr ity ytfWx^&hxi GTi^iti6 poief^ 
as no*natio« cih carry it on without Voi^'tdl&vlniient 
larbour rfftrength to;fdf>pTy and proteaicf ^i|n&)l»dll^. 
bul-g if the priacipal bne for thftfe piirpofesv %; 

^ifiory.] Tb<«igh fome fifiic^ihcf^ haClohg HfetWA 
tfe^d^s IMidc^ipf f<>ni^e>,^oti^oVe than 20 or p hid 

tVer fixed there. X^t ftttich^ Who' Wt 


and fik- 

. . ., . Ulcment. 
^ This iilao'd femainttd in' polfeiflSoix't^ i!iw^ French tSji 
¥74^, i*!hen it was c^ptmied Tor the fcV^iit of ^xreAt 
Bri^in, by a:bod/ of jroops fro/n New ^ngland^ im- 
-lir :the irciniri^dof Lieiitenant ticneral WHliatn Pep- 
r|l«fr#ll^> For >tie'i6&«^^^^ pai'ticulaft of this ixxitpr^ 
't^^^l^ld W-I&coteflil eipeditimif^' ftfi the Mo^i- 
.*■ \ i>' cal 

ill KOVA ftcextJiK 

tal CbHtaioiii, Vol I. ptt^iifkcd by tke MI^Hu^tb. 
Hiftortcal Society in Boftoo« AU9» Eacxcloptdia Biir 





i6Ml|rclM»4iog, tke Provtn^i of Ntw Btviriwtc Mi IMu|£8 Al<n £xTBKt. 
Ungih 3.1 7 T w-twecn J^^^** ^o' and 48*4' l^- ^at... 

*M.-./>..i.. n IJGUNDED on the north, by Lowpr 
-^W«tttori«.J |-J Canada, from whicli it is ftparated' 

Ml ^rt by the b^y of Chaleurs ^ eafl, by the Gulf of $c^ 
Lawrence, whtcb walhes ict coatl iiQ leagues i^ ct^ 
||nt» from the Got of Canfo, at its entrance into the 
GtUf, to Cape Rbzier, which fcxnis th^ (cvth part of the 
tivet St. £awrence^ and hf the Gat ot Cai^, Trhich dt- 
Irides ii Irom Cape Breton; foiuh, iiis>waniedby t^e- 
Atlantic Ocean, having a lea coaft of 9<^. leagues ^f^ 
Cajpe Canib^^a^, to Cape Sables^^veil, which fosmione 
|art oltlKe loti^e into the Bay of f ttnd}r, which alfo> 
IIp^ A ipart of iufotuliesn boonfian: ; wc4 by apart 
IMf %oirtt Canada, and the Di^i^l ofMaine. 

^iWllttaoCcoiinh'y ^i^ithtniWe limiy, knoWnby the- 
Ito rfHiiiraiScptia, orj^w ScotljimJ,. \^AByW V7B4». 
clivid^ into two jpti^lnces, vii. New BrUnfwic on the 
sorthwel^f arid 'HoV:i Scou^On the fotlthea(li. Tlii^ for- 
iitr. ceJji(>reJ?nd$/th4t |>irt of tlic old province pfNo. 
T^ $Qi^i Wlrc^ iieit^tb me northi^ar^ fad leftward of 
a liQ)^ dri^jii from the tnouth of the tlver St^.Croit^ 
throii|;J| the centre of the ^y b£ F^n^y, to Bay V;<r|e». 
^nd thenciHaiio t'.ie ^Giil^of ^t^ LaWi^Qpce, inchxdingjill 
lands wtthili d leagues of the cohA^l The reft i^ ti^ie 
province pi, Ho^a 5'«totta» t0 which, i^ annexed the IQand 
of St. Jojhtf^, which lies iiortb of k, in the Qujif Mv%. 
JLawrence.. ', 

P'tvl/iotu,'] In i7^3/W(p|:c,Ae foUo\ying cjD^ntie?^ ' 
Nova Scotia, via. HAwrsrHA^if^JlCyJ^iNC^i AfMAfo- 
ufit CuMBxa&iNi>, SuifauaYi^ (^(SjBns, Lvmbr^^Iq^ 



Trsdi^ Th^ptpcin»frtm Great Briuin lo tlui coun- 
try conAll cbicfly of limn and wocllen cloths, and other 
atticlel of dodikg* of eiKing-tackle ftnd ngging for 
^ip&. « The anxMHit of ejrportt at an average of ihtie 
yean, before the. ^ew feulemenu, was about ;£'26,50Q. 
,The only articles dbteiHed in exchange are tiiuber and 
the proiluceof the fiihery, which, at a like averagt, 
amonnted tlo jf 58,000.. The whole ^pulation of Nof<i 
Scotia and the idands adjoining has be<n elMmated at, 
f 0,000.. But recent, aiccountft of thefe fettlements rep* 
refeit them as in a declining ftate, having grsatnuni- 
.bers^of the hoitfet, built in the new towns, uninhabited, 
amlconfiderably reduced in value; 

Htfloryil ilotwithftahding the forbfddihg appeetance 
of thii country, i^ was here that feme of the Hril Euro- 
pean fcttlcniients' were made. The firft graht of hm<|f 
In it was gjven by James I. to his fccreiary tSir WiUisun 
Alexander, from whom it had the name of Nova Scotta, 
\orNew Scotland.. Since then it has freqiieWly changed 
handS| froiii one private orbprietor tci an9iher, and froin 
die French lo the Eii|;UQi nation backward* and for- 
viratd.. It^was confirmed to the Englith at the peace ^ 
Utrecht.. Three huhdrcd families "were trinfportedheic 
in I749» at the charge <>f the government, who t^ilts^di 
fettled the town of Halifax.. Ji t i ^ ;^ \ * > 



1 kt .ar'K^If ;aF^ St. "f OH N *'s.; 



rrrHIS iiland lies in the Gulf of St. l^wreacc^. 
\ JL; the northern coaft of the ProviinScof Nova! 
tia, and is "ibowt roo 'tttles lon^, «ndv!^m IQ to ^5 
Voad;. It has feVeral fine rivers, 51 rich Ibil; and is 
ploaiantty rtuated.. Chai lotteib*irn isitk'pTincipal town, 
andjs the rtfidence qf the lieotenlint governor who is the 
ehief officer On the ifland.. The, ntimbcr.of ihhaHitants 
%siho'Ut 5,600^ tJpon the Vedt|<aion of Cape Breton, In . 
ir74;f, the irthabiiAnts of this- ifland^iimotinttng to about 
\ 4,00b, fubRiittedi)ttietly<p the Briti(h arms. While the 
French poffefled it, th^ iii9|»rovedit to fo touch advan«r' 
tageas that itiwas caU^ the granary .of Cataid '>il|'-^f^ 
'fiitniihed^wit^ gre^t plenty m. corn^ ac;,«^.as. ^^ and 
imdc. It is attached to the province of Nova Scotia. 






NEWFOUNDLAND k fituated to the eaft of tfi%- 
Gulf of St. Lawrence^ bctwceh 4^* 45' and $i^ 
46^ of norcb latitude, andbeiween 5a* 51' and 59^ 4^^ 
weft longUade ; feparated from Labrador, or New 
Brit^o, hf the Straks of Belli fle ; and fron Canada, 
by the Bay of St. Lawi '^, ^ce ; being j8 1 mitet long» and. 
from 40 to 287 miles bread. Tiic coaAs ai'e ektremetf 
fabjeA to fogs, atttf?uie(^ «rtth ainioft continual Aorias. 
of Akow and &et, die iky being ufually oirerc^ lFron^ 
theiif)i] of this fiSatui the Britimreap no gteat adrantagt,, 
for the cold in long continued andvfevere ;■ and thft faia-^ 
ner heat, thoogh violent, waring it notltnough to pro-^ 
dace any thing ^aabh; ; for the foil, at leafl: in thofe- 
parts of the \&nd that have be«n explored, is rocjry and; 
barren. However, i& is watered by feveial goodtivers*, 
and) has many .^arge and good hni hours. 

This ifliind was ceded to England- by the treaty o£ 
Utrecht, in 171.3 } bat the Fcench wc^rekft at Uberty to 
dry their nets on the northemi ihores of thr ifland ; afrci 
t^f the treaty of 1763> they were permitted to &(h in the* 
Gtilf of St. |.awrence« but wilh this 1 imitation,. th»t tHey- 
ftsoM tidt approach, "wathih threeieoguas of any of the- 
coafts bdonglng to England.. ' ' 

The chief towns in Newff)Ohdljind, are Pkccntii^. 
Bonavidii,^ mod Bt. Jbhn's $ but not aboye i,coo families 
fcimain here iiv wiater^ Ac £cnz$ f^adron o£ men of. 
war are fenC out every ffn-ing to protcd the fiiheries and: 

taWtantSt the Admiral of which, for the time bein^,, 
^vtrndt of the i^nd;: be5des whonvahere are. two> 
lieutenant governorjiy^^ one at Placentia, and th» others atv 
St John's. 

'Die other iiland»t>f^QOtaimthe Ciilf of St. Lawrenc6> 
are Anticpfti, near the mouth o£ St. Lawrence, ii6> 
puieuUmg^md 31-broad, uninhabited. The Magdalen 
Kles, in 64® 40' W. long, and between 47^ and 48*^ N. 
lit. inhabitedb}! af«w^&rmen*-*and Itle Percee, abontr 
15 niUes fouth of Cape Gafprt. ** It is a<perpendToular; 
mk, and is pierced with two natural arches, through; 
>rlitch the iea. ibws. One of thefe Arches is faffitient- 
l| hi|^ to adin^ a.large,bQ%t t9 £«(» frcdy throngh iti^ 



• 4*> 


» and 


5rruAnoH 4KB Extekt. 

f 3i*and4l 


JS}>undtrut,yj<^ America, or ihr Ptovinccs o£ Upp^i. 
and Lower Canada^iMid Hew Bruufwic -^ Cnmhezii^bf 
ih' Atianttc Oc«an ;; ioiut^b; £ail and W«Il Eloiida ;; 
we lU \>f th« rive^ J^0>ri ppi H 

. The territory of the United States, according to t4ti, 
Hiitchii|0A cootiaiiUi a inJUioa o£ ix|uare m^U^iy m whicbi 
ace. 4f 0,000,000 ac£«s.. 

l>edlDft fbv waap ;5,^»QpQ,ooa 


Acres oflaad ia the, ttnited States j^9l»Qoo,ooO) 

LahiJ^ It may in truth be ikid). tbe; no pact of' tb^ 
world is fOii 1.7^11 watered with ipiing9, fimilets, ri»crs> 
and hke»f. as the territory o^ the United, Stales*. Bf 
means of the& various ftream^ and colleAii>i^.of watavi, 
tlie whol^ coim^y is checkered iiuoi^lfinda and penir.- 
lyas. Tht United States,, a nd indeed all parts o£ Norths 
America^ leena .to hafec bec^n forsned by nauirc^for tht; 
mod intimate tmibn*. 

There is nothing in other parts of the glob9^j|^fh' 
)re£embles the prodigious cliain of kkes in this jS^ of 
^le worki. They may properly be tecRietd inland feai> 
of frefli) water ;. and even thofe of the fecond or thiid 
dafs in magnitude^ are of largea oircuit than the greateft 
hkti hi the <;aUfirn continents/the Cafpian. fea excepted*. 

The pmicipal lakes in the United States,, are die 
^akeo/the U^^oJty in the north wed corner «£ the United 
States, 7Q oiiks long dnd 4^ wide. 

Asyou ti2.vel eail yoa come next to /.jnig- Lake, )oot> 
Iniles long, and about 18 or 20 wide. 

TheiKe yoa pafs through feveral fmall lakes mtoMidi 
Sufftior, the largeft lake in the world | being about 1,600. 
teulss in circvjnfeTsacs. Taere arc two large iihinds i«. 




thU UVCf each of whfch ha» had cnoagh* if fattable fo> 
tillage, to form a conltdertble province; The IndUos 
fuppofe the Grtaf. Sfiirk ttlida. in thcfc iflao4s. This 
like aboundi with fifli.. ^^ofnl^ $ffeA^ ir a» mach as 
they do the AcUrttic Ocean ; tbf vavet run at high ; 
and the navigation is as dangcroiis.. It difcharges 'it* 
waters from iwe ioutheaft corner, through the ftrai^btf 
of Sr. Marie into /<«ie Hurrmi which is neai in wa'^jt! 
tude to I^kke dnpetn r, heirg abont i,coo miles in dr^, 
curoference< This Jake, at its northweft Cfmer, i^nj* 
mtinicates with hah Mich^tm, which ii%9(K) miles ia. 
cacumfercncc, by. the ftraiw of Mikkii'imakkmTik. 

i»<ii4* Su Clair lies about hn\f way between Lake Hu- 
r^it atid Liike £rie, and k abf^ul pomiles m cir.'um- 
itnvcei It communicates with likakeEiis by tiic lUtt 
i-V.tro?t. ' • •;■ '.**- " 

:Laki' JSrk h nearly scaimleff I^ngfem caHito "«fefi.. 
and about '40 Ui t]. bronci eft part. The iflands and. 
ftorcsof this bks vire greatly infilled with fnakcs, ma- 
ny of vhich are* t.f the venomous kind;. This. lake at 
n?- nortlieaii ondj, ebmmo^nicates with Lake'phtario, by 
the river l!tfi*gara^3o miles long. In this river are thole ; 
n^lt^kaHe falls whieh are teckoned one' of the grea^eft 
^at^A^ i^ntiofities hi the: world. The waters which 
l^jSl^iljy, tht river Ni^gaTarife near. £;coo miles to the- 
^rtkwcft ;r and>, paSin^ through the kkes Superior>- 
j^ MlcWgaB*. Mwrtiri and ESriej receiyit\g in. their cciutfe: 
"-i.nftlfft acciim4)iiti0iis, at hsgth,. with aftonilhmg^ 
grandeur,^ runi..dowR a ilupendous 'precipice of 13^7 
'&^v:rp<^df^l£E!r ;; ^nd iti k; ftrong rapid^ that ei- 
tms to thd diftance Qf 8 or Mj^ ^iles below,, fiill near. 
is inuch fnoi^ev the Hver^ then loitsltfelf in liakci 
Ohta%toi The noifft orthefe falls, (called the M«/^a 
Faltsjy ifi a'^deiit^ da|f a*id fair wind* may be heard be-- 
^^en 46 and 50. miles.. When the water ftrikes thfe 
•bottotifi it-bonnkls tOi a gfreat height in the: air, occa- 
"fioning * thick cloud <» vapours, on which the fun>, 
when he fhines* paint« a- beautifut- rainbow.. 
^ iJikf Otuano is of an oval form, about 600 miles ih; 
imference. It difcharges^ its waters by tht rivee 
[^ols, which,, ^i* Montreal^ takes the names of Sc 




JKmI wrence Ri?er ) and, Qutbfc^ falU into thV 
Gulf of St. Lawrence LJte Chmaftam torrai i part ot 
the boundary between New York and Verinont*>a9d is< 
about 80 miles longi and 1.4 broad. LaU-Givrgt lien 
fouth of Lake Cbainplain« and is 36 itiilee long»and« 
from I to 7 wide, cmtaining, it it faU, 165 iflandf. 

Rroert.y The principal river in tbe^ited &atef« if* 
tlie MjJIjfiftpif.yiKych forms theic weftem baundary. It 
icceivci.Lhe waters* of the Ohio and Illinois, and their 
'.ameroud branches, from tbeeaA ; and the Miifouriand 
. othet large n^tx^^ froita the well. Thefe mighty ilreams 
united, are borne down wiih increailng majefty throngK 
▼aft forells and ineadows, ifito the Gi^kT of Mexicr.- 
This river is fuppofed to be rbout 5,Oco miles long, and 
is navigaide to the ialls of St. Anthony^ in laL 44f 30' 
Thefe falh are ja feet perpendieular height.. T 
whole river^ which is mote than 25D yards wide»:fal 
the above diftance, and fornas- a nripfi plcafing cats|)ar. 

\ This river refembles tile Nile, in that it annuall;''Vork 
ilows, and le&vejs a lichrftimeon its banks ^^ff^efeveral 
number of its mottths, opening- into a feay run fouth- 
compared^ to- the Mediterranean*. 4^'^^ Caro* 

The Indians,- fa)^ that three of the largokrs which 
North A^nierica^ V\%. St. LawTcnce, Mifliiij^i^^^to the 
gon, or ti:e rivpi* of tlie wcil^.have: their ioOicw^oun- 
ah(HU 30.miles. of ^each othor* If tlitf be a.iaG«it:^Yal 
that tlie lauds at! th^-heaiisrcii>theie Titers alte^ htgifi 
i«ii'in Mortli Ameti<tti^ Ail ihefe ri^u itin dlierei^ 
QourleS) And' eihpty/lnlddTUifcrent oceans,^ a£ ^eUiitauii^ 
.9f more tlian ijQod mileadroin their fotu-cesi F^r in. 
tiieir pipage -frdin^thift' (pot to the Gulfvof Sc» LHWrience, 

, tall ;, to the bay o^tAxmisui^'Vi^ei^^.ti^h^Ihe riVef Orif^ 
goa is fuppofed to empty ;. and. to the Gu)f)of Meiic(^>. 
louth ;. e^ch o^ th^ilp:, tf^iv-^rfes up war4s^ ȣ ' 2,069 lililef*. 
- The Ofuo is a'moft beautiful river.. U^vgentk current 
^Unbroken by^tocks^ OS- raptds, excjspt inrOne places, /it 

^ 9Q0 yard.9^Mi) it^ entrance into the MHifippi 1 and. 
a quarter of a^ xtitleat: Fort Pitt, which, is 1,(88 miks 
l^om its mou^. At Fort Fitt, the Ohio loftts its^natote^ 
and brasiches^^ intd iha -Monm^k^ aaA^/iegary rlir^i^ 



The Monongahelar i« or |if ftfUct41rteiits 11101I1H, it^ . 
^oeivtB TebftgMy rivcT, 

Hie coontrf watered bf the JMiflUippi aih'd iU eaftem' 
branches, con(litocef five-eigbtllt of toe United Sutes ; 
two c( whkb five-eighths areoecof ied by thie Ohio and 
its branchcf ; the relldoaTf ftreanis which run into tKe' 
Gulf o{ Metleo, the Atlantic, and the St. Lawrerce,' 
water the rernaining three-eighths.- The other con fider- 
able rivers in the United- States wiU be xnentiOQcd in. 

*, the proptT places** 

Bayt.^ The eoaft of the United Staps \i indented 
^ith numerous bays* feme of which are equal in fize to 
any in the known woil^. Beginning at the northeaft- 
erljr part of the United States, and proceeding fontli- 

vf^^ wefterly, you firft -find the Bay of ' Ftindy^ between No- ~ 
%' Ya Scot'a and New England^ retnarkabk for its tides, 

^>vhich rife to the height of fifty- or fiity fcetj and flow 
anttapidly as td dvertake animals which' feed npOfn the 
ihorcK Penobfcoti Broad and Caicd flays, lie ^lor.g the 

' ny. of^fv^^ Province of Mainie. < Mai^achufetts'•Bay 
its^ nonheai^vard' of Bofton, and is cmnprthended be- 
the river >{ir Ann on the-northV afid Cape Cod oiai the 
reteiJcaVaffing bf ^arraganfct and other bay^iti the 

'^ftatfi^tff i^ho£ Ifland, you ehtfer LowglHand Sound, 
Mbntattk Fi&int and tb^ main. Thi$ Shuhd is 
ind'oCinlaTiti feafi from three to •tifreitty-6ve miles 
^road, and (inctmling eaft nve^whkli maybe cottTider- 
' 'a^ii part^of the found-) \a6otit mt huiidred and forty 
ttsi?es- long, extending the whole' lengfth of the iflar^i, 
and^ dividing it irom Conneaieut- and p«M ofs-Ne^ 
YoriK. It communicates^ with the * oc|ban at both ends- 
of? Lorre Hlandir and* aiSfords & 4e#y/ |a^^ alid conve^^ 
«ipi^nt* inland^ nWigaticih.. 

-^iThe? cekbkitteii ftrtir called iK?#'^d/f, is near th^ 
"««e<feend*o<i thik foirnd, about eight tnil . s ej ft ward of 
tlew Yorli^ city^ and ' is remarkable fw its- whir Ipooh, 
■which malfts'^^a tremendotiSTOariiig ^rcertaiiv times of ■ 
ttde. Thefe whirlpools are occaliowsd by th^e narrow* 
irtfs and crookednefs of "the pafs, and « abed of rocks 
'Bfl^ich extend ^^ttitcacrbft it >' / 

' ^piltnvari Bay \%^ miles bng, from tbt! cape to the 
tntiance of Uie river Delaware at Bombay Hockj snd' 



/ftiwtile in fonie pcirts, ti that a (hip iii>the middle of it 
cannot -be (ten from tbe laad. It opens into the At« 
lantic northweft and fouthtaft, between Cape Henlo* 
pen on the rigb(» and Capa Mxf pn the len. Xiiefe 
Capes are eighteen mtkt apart. 

Chtfapetik ^ has its entrance between Cape Charlea 
and Cs^pe Henry in Virginia* twelve niSes wide, and 
extends upwards of %oo miles to the northward. Sev. 
tend counties in Virginia and Maryland .<e eall of this 
^bay. It is from feven to eighteen miles broad* and gen- 
eraUy as moA as Aine fathoms deep* affording miny 
xommodions ^harbours, and % fafe and eafy navigation. 
It receives the waters of cl c Sufqaehannah, Patomak, 
Rappahannok* ITork and James rivers* which are ali 
ddree and navigable. 

Face of the Country.'] The traA of country belonging to 
:the United States is happi / variegated, with plains and 
inountains, hills.and vaHies. Some parts are rocky, par- 
ticularly New Engl'rtn J, the north parts of New York 
and Newjerfey, and a broad fpace, including the fevcral 
ridges of the long range of mountains which run fouth* 
weltward through PenofyJvania, Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and part of Oeorgia, dividing ths waters which 
How into the Atlantic from thofe- which fall into the 
Miffi^ppi. In the parts «aft of the Allegany moun- 
tains in the fouthern States* the country, for feveral 
hundred miles in length, and Axty or feventy,, and 
/ometimes jmoit^ in breadth, is level and entirely free 
of ftone. 

Mowitam,'] In aM parts of the world, and partScu- 
larly on the weftern contineat, it is obfervable, thtf at 
you depart from the ocean, or from a river, the land 
IjradiiaDy rifes ; and the height of land, in common*, 
)s about equally didant from the water on either 

. The high l.inds between theProvince of Maine aad-the' 
Province of Quebec, divide the rivers which fiiU into 
the St. Lawrence north* and into the Atlantic footh. 
The Green Mountain*, in Vermont, divide the waters 
which flow eaftcrly into Cottneaicut river, from thofe 
which foU we&^l^ into Lake Chanplain and Hadfox^f 






■y% TimXrinrED STATES. 

between the Attantic» the MiiTiftppi, an ) the La)r«f| 
•mill a lon^ range «*f mounta'tni, made up of a great nuni- 
licr of ridgef. Theie mnuntaint ei^iend ncmheaAerlf 
mod fouthwederly, nearly paraHel vtrhh the Tea conO^ 
about nine hundred miles in length, and from finHy to 
one hundred and fifty, and two hundred miles in breadth. 
Tlumerous traAi of fine aiable and graxing l-^nd inter- 
>vcne between the rid^^. The difftpent ridges which 
'compofe this imjrnenfe rjngc of jnountainn, have UifFor* 
ent names in different Seated. 

The principal rtd^e is the Allegany, tl#ich has been 
dcfcriptively called the bofi bane of the United States. 
Tlie general name for thcfe moui»tains, talcen colleftive- 
Ifjis, iTic Alkgary Mounlaintjio called from the princi* 
^a1 ridge of the range. Thrfe mouniaiiiS vt .Tiot con- 
XufeJly fcattercd and brolcen, riTrng here and the: e into 
fiigli peaks overtappinff cadi other, but ftretrh along 'u\ 
iiniform ridges, fcarccly half a mile hi^b. They fpread 
as yoii proceed fouch, and fome of them terminate in 
high perpendicular bluffs. Others gradually fubfide in- 
to a level tx)\intry, giving rife to the rivers ix^hich ran 
foutberly into the Gulf of llffcsico. 

Sc?il and Ptoi/uBfons.'] In the United States a*e to be 
found every fpecies pf* foil that the earth ttfbrds. In 
pne part of them or snether^ they produce all tlic vari- 
ous kinds of fruits grain, pulife and hortuline plants and 
Tools which arc found in Europe, and have been thence 
tranfplanted to America. Befic^es thefe^ a great varie- 
ty of native yegetable productions. 

Aimalu'}! America contains, at feaft, one half, nnci 
the territory of the United States about one-fourth of 
^e quadmpedes of the known world., Some of them 
are connnoix to ](<lort7i America, an<i to the European 
and Afiatic parts of the E^ftem Continent $ others are 
peculiar to this country. All ti\ofe that are common 
t« both continents are found in the nortksrn ^arts of 
them, and are fucH as may be fuppofed to have migra-> 
ted from one continent to tlie other. Comparing indi- 
viduals of the fame fpecies, inhabiting the different coha> 
tlnents; fome are {letfeAly fimilar; between others 
thsfc is ibmc 4iferc«ce ia fisCy colour lOf other clrcum* 


'i^JOmrEn STATES. ^ 

l^iKCt } in (omtJkm tftftancti the £uropci|ii animal il 
larger than the American, in othiTi the reverie is true.. 
, A rimiUf Tariery, arifmg from the nperaoirc of the 
^%Umiite, ({iiamitf of f«KKl fumiiheU in th«parUthe|. 
inhabit, de«e« of fafaty.* kc* takes place between itt,; 
dividuals of itm r^imc ipcciei, in different ^aru of tl4i 

The foU<Mifn$ Jt A catalogtte-of (tyADRUFEDE 
ANIMALS wi&in the United Stam : 





Rid Deer 

Fallow Deer 


Dear -»: * 


^ Ermme 
' Mtnk 

. Opoflbm 

Field Moofe 

Grcmnd Monft 
Wood Rit 
Araeriean K%t 
Shrew Moiife 
Put pie-Mote 
Blaek htbto 
^ Water iUt 
• Beaver '-^-'^i'^ 



SillowCAugar FiAt*i 
Orcy Cougar -' Grey _ . ^ 
Mountain Gat . Red Sfjtfifre^* • ¥8%^ym 
hynt Swiped S<^i*¥eVVSigAi 

KtiTcajou' - HywtgSqUirrir^*^--'' ;• 

SgmVreU Ba^^ and Water 1Ut,'m^lh^ ianic ^^^ 
With the European aoimaU of th^ame naMe. 
' . '^SieJ&plQvir Dser. Orej foi:^ Mardri,, Otter, ,^^^ 
■"^' '^^^^^ Suck, Hare, feme ^ thelM'wJv*^ ^l 

ij%!i«d. Pi6|>aWri|a6jlofi!>eCi^. 
>e perfea^T ^oi^fticatlfi. '.li'm 
^. W3d aniipafc |jn|»p|i;^ 
*ll^^ ^J^Sjtf^ nature u thof^in Iftfrope. 
jDff ,t|>^ai^*fi[^Sl|^?«4 lobe laijeir i|i Ami tl 

^ing^ ^izf 1»foo|^» (W^ 











• !k' T. 

14 Tut UKITJHD 6€^^T«t. 

that trt leftt ire the Hu9» Rtd 8f niiid, and Shrc« 


Mmmatk. Thii mine hu been gfvetfte «a «9kn«w;it- 1 
animal, whoTt bones are foand in tht northern partt oc 
* both the old and new world. From the fom of tbeit 
teethi thef are fappoied to have been' carnivorous. 
Like the elephant th#f were armed with tuflcs of ivorf | 
1>ttt they obvioufly differed Iron tfia a^phaot in fue i 
their bones prove them to have been 5 or 6 tioMt at 
large. Thefe enormous bones are found in feveral 
parts of North America, parttcidtrly about the fait 
licks or fpringf« near the Ohio riw. 

Mr.Jetterloa informs us that a late govemon of 
Virginia, haying alked ibme delegates of the Delawares 
what they knew, or had heard, refpe^ing this animal ^ 
the chief fpeaker immediately put btflifelf into an orato« 
rial attitude, and, with a pomp^ fuited to the foppofed 
elevation of his fubjefl, informed him that it was a 
tradition handed down from their- Cithers, '* That in 
ancient times a herd of th^m cameit<» ihe Big-bone liiJMi 
and began an univerfal deftni^ion of the bearS| deeri 
elks, buffaloes, and other animals which had been cr^(^ 
ated^r the ufe of the Indians; that the Great Maih 
above, looking down, and feeing this, was. lb enraged 
that he feized his lightning, defcended to iheeam, 
feated himfelf ,ttpo!i a netgltboorine mountain, on a rock,, 
^ wtiiph his (eat and the print of his feet are ilill 
fiin^ and hurled his bolts smim^ ihem till the whole 
1i^ flaiight^red, exdi^' the big bull, who, pre&nting 
Idk/okrehead to the (hafts, ihook 4ett of as theyi(U| 
1)jai at length, midSng one, it wounded him in the fide | 
^4^^#f^ fpringing roihidy he b^t^ded^over t^ Ohio, 
^ Wwai^ th^ Xm and finally over the gt^ai 
l3^>h«re he is Iltin^ at this dajr.'* 
^lijIH ^ ^tUOk, This lantsbai has^ Metally hoell 
iad the Bi^lo, but yef'y i|it|^fO|pb aa tbit ti^iiiiPt 

flieefi appropriated t^ anoUier mam» % iiof tM 
fi^li^i^es iirpfoui-ooiim^ neat 4K4^l1tl^^$|ifw 
oiii^ b^tng iielff^a 6f )iiomeftici«iin^ Gdii]^>i«td'l»li|^ 

iiHtt dlll^ tii« Bifon is ^oniiderably l»rfl»r, dpe» 
^Ij^tHiS^fc^^ parts ol^is body. Qi^UsmMeH 

TAitt vmr%m ^TAtti. 


^fi%'kht% miwmBff Maillof Itli tetabc fpWfOr 
wrtfBKlkt into hati, Cftl«ii»ftomik«490ie(Uccowaiiil 
«Hitt Mit ti* ro«et6nn«t riiiicd } but i^htn ibcy grow 
«pv Ikty UceiM (•4414 Umm no mhumo Itnct w iU «0i^ 

iHioj^. Of chtfc llMM art twc^ lunOf » the k^ack a«4 
the gref . The Wuck art £«Mi to have been fit)ni a t# 
1 1 feet flkjk | at p wl fcn t thmf art very rarely fecn. Tb« 
grey llociSi tie nnnr^Aly at tall at a horie» and foxnt ar^ 
nttcb taller } btch liaft fprmdine pAbnateJ bora^! 
weighiog lro«t |4hto 40 ponfMb* Thtk are ihed anfliir 
ally, in UM montii at FeWuary« They i^ver run# hUiB 
trot with amaxi&g 4^t#4 Tbey aivfoiHii^ «a New £xigf 
laiufr . «ll 

C0^;^s%. TMi aoMMl it diflfngu^e^^by iu Imnclw 
ing/ paimalcd bMiWy utiib brow toilers. He U prpbi^ 
>ly the ifladecr of tbe northern parti 9/ Europe 
From ihe teAJomi ^f tJlic tianuilii;, a% wtU a» of t^ 
I Mooic, tha A ibotigiM naiivct nad#^. ve»y toUiral^^ 
tluFfad— f 4Mnd in ibc jpi^ri^ of Maioff^ . r.t« 

Afr# ^Tlm^JU^ XW^lut saltti4 bnvn<:bfQ8<hofQ% 
|)f ihit^iptdct wet h«f e^^hree or Ibiip 4ife*eut iin4i or 
varifttieti^^af «hlch» found on ihe Ohio riverxM^ 
h its Yietnkyr is very latge^ aiid thtrt commonly ctltf 4 
the-iW^. : n.a? ■ ' ■).sr 

The F«$Mi Aep* bat branching fatiiMled bp^M^ 
Ii) the United States, thefe animals »re |arg^ than tb» 
£nrope;i(ll, of a diffierent colour^ afidAippoibiivb^.ibfinis^ 
IP be of a di^erent fpecifts, lii.tb^ foi|cbeni Halesgf^ 
feverHl aoiin^By iuppoffd to he varictiet oi ^ijfm 

■■' Aw-.*' .■ ■ , , . * ' ■ •' ..-^- ■ -^ 

Beur, tf( thiis ^xva^ tteo forts »re foundjfi^ ^ottb* 
em ftates \ both are bkcic» ,bu^ dUforent '^^J^f$ i<f9TBfm 
and habits. Ohe ba4 ibort legs, a ^tcb, ^HwXf bOd]r» 
ft generally fat* jMid- i&^ very . lond g# tpetitt ..vmtabU 
Ipod, fai:ii as fweet ^appl^s, Indian com io 4ie,a»uk^ bif ^ 
ties, graj)es, bofieyc &c. As f«Qn jis tlfe $ift ^^^ifl 

' lalll^ he Retakes bimfelf to hi' den, WiiicbtS;ii:b9l*l»ll 
4t& of rocks, % hollow tree, or feme i^ch, ^C| ^ bi^^ 
be g^ridutlly becOities tcrpiJ, and dozet «i^ay' toip\l^" 

< i ^ 





^ymiLt>^a4 km^ ^i the Hoc* 

IV ' 

m^\. V 

W > .'." 


I0ffj Ibickiag fab pMf^ ~ 
: %ifliwih he but ^«l#fir 

iloivw^ ifnr, tndl^Vll to ll i Jl^^ 
cedU&g apd tlii VNsiT. Hi«l#M i^liMigt^aaa fait !>!># 
imortlean and gMMt« 1^ £«fi^dlir dlfliN>)*t e^vcf, 
ftcep; and pigs ; and (bmetrmei tKAdMil. to %Hntlfr 
hitmigratesitHtlMDittHMrtfii'. ^tkm'fimti' wf>f^mr*tt> 
W liic comnMm blkdi bcttr of £tti>^ r tUt inirtorr<^ 
p^M tb tlM bi^irn bcAf* of ^Alp^i^ Md^ji probab)^ 
i^tile fa'me fpcetel witir thofe IpMpil W i Rmg;i, ii. 
Mh^ iii^kll ibmcitiy inbtbilii^tk MUfllJiitotts p^m 
W^JiideM, bMnttb |l^(^4a4lk0lilll0#|Bi«Bd4ktUt^ 
ftatef. /'■■■'.:^^ ■■'^'^;- ^..;.-^r"^"'-^- ' ■•"^^'^v 

TMT fMit^rcaki* k CkMJi^lS^Careiy9it, mud, ^ 
%f fafrinttetf the ^Mf v dpr* fcen^ tobe ii gtftde betwc^ft 
Oift bear and the linooddittclr:' 1f%lf Mlttial livef Hi 
Mei, eaonot rwi ftft, wid Um « dlMiiy appearmti. 
•le it ireiT mMnefoOi U^ 4Mt^r4^^ 
mhtn Cutting tltirfi> ^ttfl|^ tiii^(l|i^$9^ 
fiB^diriiMf tk^ belvmu^ii^ttiyi^^M lUi^iLl^ni %Mtes. 
- IKi^/: Ofthtt tetflsdi which Hf*#ii«^UiM,^ 
InMliertiie dMthiitilctf^inhis&vftgt (l^^^wWegirM 
iiaiiiNU, aad^c^AfidcitMe tayieff m 
The Indiant t^xt fiud to have fo far tamed Ibme 0! thi^ , 
««hililsbei^ ONSir aeqiiaiotaiite'wi^titt^^ : 

•iMMi^vts^^ them iir htiiitin^^ 11i«f ^it madtt 1^ 
^Ettgopeism do|ts> afid alberwai^ ^ mongrels, tii^ oil. 
iMkit^^ the waif and dcig/at bein^ m«rc doc^ thaa 
fjmimb^ md more eager lA the chftce dittCi the laftteK 
lli^ apMarance of many of the dogs, in ^ newly fit- 
tlfii pil#«>| the country, ti^i^ll^ «i^ir t^ttiorto the 
nW-^Fbuiid in ill the dates. is '>^ 

^l^bir.^ G£foitcs we hate a gt«at ihatic^ 1 (uch at th^ "^ 
SSjIl^ foxi Red Fox, Grey Fox/CrorsiTo^ Brant Fo*^ '^ 
^i^reTal oth^f. Il^ probifale th|t thefe is bntili| 
faciei of tlieieaiinifiab,^ as thef arf mnd hi^ tU theii| 
t#idi£is of fitei aifd of (^idfei imm0^imak^ ^ " 
4itkttkim,tU6f the ^ited''Stftt<^'^\Fbll#inl^ipM;'m 
dtmMs fhf«{Ae<l with^ fuiv of thtf aorthen|ftil^llit 
Ji^irUia^thol'-^thcibmherft. ; ^ 

^Iwj^of #^bi^tett>tilf ^ f)re^ 







^y^^y *" 







jr^ >Jj 


> >J| 








G>1 "W 






















>f t 



Heteiai not ca l ctt U tfc c f for nmnifig, Imt leapt with 
forprifin^ t^y. HitiiYoiiritt food it t»k>od, whk^i, 
like other MtmaU of the cat kind, he takes from Cbcjo- 
golar ▼eim of cattle» dcer» Ice. leaving the carcaTi. 
Smaller prey he takti to his den t and tk hat been 
known to carry off a child. He icons to be aUnrcd 1^ 
fire, which terriSet all other caraivorout !wimalt ; md 
betrays no fear either of mail or beaft. He it fo^nd 
in the northern as^ middle States. 

Saiiow Conor, The body of this animal it about 5 
feet long. In hit habits and mannefs he lefembkt die 
reft of the cat ftmily. He is found in the ibiubcm 
ftates, and is there cidled the Tyger. 

Grey Cougar, This animaly in its liMm, refembles the 
preceding ; but is of an uniform grey colour, and of a 
larger fize. It . i ftrong, a^ive^ !lerce» and unumeable— 
Found in the weitem paxts of the middle ftates. 

MountmnCat, The male has a black lili along his 
back, and is the mod beautiful animal of the cat kind. 
He IS exceedingly fierce, but will iiBldom attack a man-— 
Found in the fouthern ilates. 

Lynx, We have tiiree kinds of the Lynx, each proba- 
bly forming a difttn^t (pecies. Thtfrjf ii calk^^ by 
the French, and Engliih Americans, L(mjf cervkr.**' A 
few may be found in the northeastern parts of the Bif- 
tria of Maine ; Hat in the higher latitudes they are 
more numerous. 

Th^ficond is called by the/French Aineficams, Chdj^ 
carvkr ; and in New England, the Wild C^t. He it 
confiderably lefs than the Loup ccrvier. This anim^ 
deft roytd many of the cattle of the firft fettlcrs of Kcw 

The tlfird fpecies is about the kzt of % conufion caj^ 
and is found in the middle and fomii m vtAXtis. ( 

Kmci^ott. This animal is fr^ p^-jri; confgcKided 
frith the Carcajfni, though kc refcraU-ei him it xknhni^ 


Jhut the name. Ht belongs to th 
leaft he very mach rdembles th^m 
large as a common cat, and Is better h 
and fpeed ^SMI ^r ftrength.. Hi v 
Bti^nreen ^m aad dte fox there >s p^rp 

^ n * a . ■ 

- 'if'*.' a has 

• " : . yuty 

' "v^M^fi ■■■■■ 



tmi united states. 



do ; but Wing able to Rrfptnd htmTclf by t#Silii|. the 
«gd of his uil round the lindb of a tree, or the like» he 
can purfue hit prey where other cats caanot ; and wheA 
be attacks a large animal, his tail enables htm to fecnre 
his hold tit he can open the blood-vefleU of the neck. 
In fome parts of Canada, thefe animals are very numer- 
ous, and make great Jiayoc among the dcer^ and do not 
(pare even the neat cattle. But we have beaxd of none 
hi their dates, except a few in the northern paru of New 

The tVea/Uxs a very (Jjrtghily animal ; notwithftand- 

irg the fhortnefs of his legs, he feems to dart rather 

tlaa to run. He kiiti'and eats rats, ft? iped fqrJrrels, 

'and atlier fmall quadrupedes : he likewile kilk fowls» 

i^^ca their blood, and efteems their eggs a delicacy. 

The Ermini does not differ matertaUy from the Wea* 
, ftlin fize^ form or habits. 

ii«r/Mi. This animal is called, in New England, the 
Sable ; and by the Indians, Wauppanaugh. He \^ 
formed like the weafeL He keeps in forefts, chie^y oa 
trees, and Uves by hunting. He is found in the north* 
em States. 

Mmk. The Mink is alKHit as large as a Martin, and 
of the iamc form. The hair on its tail is (horter ; it& 
colour is generally black. They barrow ia the ground^ 
«nd piufue their prey both in frefti and fait waterw 
Thofe which frequent the fait water are of a larger fize^ 
Ugbter colour, and l^are inferior fur. They are found 
in confid^rable numbers, both m. the fdihem and 
ilOrthern States. 

(kHr. The Otter very much refesnbles the Mink in 
its form and habits, h lives in holts, in banks near 
the water, and feeds on iifh and amphiSious animals-^ 
H)und in all t|e States. 

iyher. In i^^da ht k called Pekan ; in thefe States^ 
frequently tfaie &ack Cat, but improperly, .«^ he does^ 
not belong to the clafs of cats. He hves l^ hwtting„ 
lind occaiionally ptkrfiies hit prey m the water— ^Fountl 
in the northern States. 

Sbmi* This imtmal Appeals to fee Iwtindiferentif 
when the fiin Ihinei { sind thereforf ^ l^ day ^s^ 
keepi c|6& to his lipevf. As S^^^ me twi%^ 

DiJUg^J ^' fS^^ ^ V^^. ^Wi^ vlt*>^ it pria* 

•^^- "■ siptily 

The united STAT£d. ^ 

etks and other inredi : he is alio very A»d 

eggs and yonog chickens. His flelh U futd ti^Jbe 
tolemly goody and hit fat it foinetiaaet ufed iw«a 
emollient. But what renders this animal rcmarkabfil 
itf his being ftimiihed wiih organs for fecreting and re* 
taining a liquor, volatile and fetid beyond any thing 
known, and which he has the power of emitting to th^ 
diftance of a rod or more, when neceflary for his de- 
fence. When this ammoiiition is expended, he is qti^ 
harmleO— Found in all fbe Oatcs. ^'■r^^ 

OpoHum, <rbe mod Angular part of this aninral is a 
kind of falfe belly or pouch, with which the femftle is 
furniHicd ; it is formed by. a duplicature of the (kin; is 
(b placed as to include her teats, and has an aperture, 
which (he can open and (hut sc pleafurc. i^ brings' 
forth her young from four to fix at a tini^ while diey 
are not bigger than a bean } inclofcb tbevn in this pouch, 
and they* from a ptinciple of iallin£^| affix themfelves 
to her teals* Here they remain and are nouri(hsd till 
they Sire abl? to run about, and are afterwards taken in 
occafionally, particularly in time of danger. The Opof- 
Cum feeds on vegetables, particularly fruit. H 
likewife kills poultry, fucks their blood, and eatt their 
tggs. His fat is uied iniiead of lard or butter— 'Fom.d 
in the fouthern and middle iUtes. 

The Woodchuck dig^ a burrow in or near fome culti- 
vated J|g}d, and feeds on pulfe, the tops of cultivated 
clover, &c. He is generally very fat, excepting in the 
fpring. The young arc good meat ; the eld are rather 
rank and difagreeable. In the beginning of O<^obe|r 
they retire to their burrows, and hve in a lorpid.^fiEie 
Sfbout 6 months. 

Unbln* The Urchin^ or Urfon, is about two ^ik 
length, and, when fat, the fame in circumference, 
is com.Ttonly called Hedge Hog or Porcupine, but di|i.' 
fers from} botii thofe animus in every ^ban^eriftic 
mark, excepting his being armed wiiii quills on hb back 
and fidest Thefe quQh are nearly as large as a whe^^". 
(Iraw4 from three to four inches long, and, unlefs 
ereded, nea^y covered by the animal's hair. Their 
ipi&is a» ilpy hard, and ^ed with ihnumc^le very 
fmall b«j|l#^ j^^ whofe points are raUea from th*f 








tme united states. I 

ol^ or other beaft of prey, he throwf biMKlAit» 

ft Doftore of defence^ hj (hortentng hit bodf » derating 
hii^uk, and ereSing his* quilU. The a(Kulant foou 
finds fomc of tbofc weapons duck into his moutS), or 
other pan of his body, and every effort w lich he maAeti 
to free htmfelf, caufes them to penetrate the farther ; 
they have been known to bnry themfeWes entirely in a\ 
^few minutes. Sometimes they prove fatal ; at other 

|es they make their way o«it again through the ^in 
various par u of the body* If not moiefted, the 
ffcK|fc is an fnoffenfivc animad. He finds a hole, or . 
hoUil^l'i^hich he makes his refidence, and feeds on the 
haTh and roots of vegetables. His itefh, in the opinion 
of hittOert^ is equal to that of a fucking pig-^-Is found 
in the northern States. 

Hare, Of^^'wbis animal we have two kinds, vtrhich 
appear to be different fpecies ; the one is commonly 
called the white Rabbit or Coney ; the Qtb&r is (imply 
the Rabbit. The latter burrows in the ground, like a 
rabbit. They have both been found in the fame traft 
of country, but have not been known to aCociate. The 
former has been found in the northern ftates, and ap- 
pears to be the &me as the hare of the northern parts of 
Europe ; thp latter is found in all the Hiates^^and is prob« 
ably a fpecies peculiar to America. 

Racoon, The Racoon, in the form and fize of hit 
body, refeinbles the fox. In his manners he refen^bles 
th€ (quirrel ; likt him he lires on trees, feeds on Indian 
coT.u acorns, &c» and ferves himfelf with his fore paws. 
His fletli is good meat, and hrs fur is valued by the halt- 
He is found in all the climates in the temperate 

le in North America. 

Ff>x Squirrel. Of this animal, there are feveral 

Trleties, blkck, red and f^^Y' It is nearly twice a» 
large ;'.s the common grey iquirrcl, and is fbutid in the 
fouthem States> and is peculiar to this ^ntinent. 

The Grey Squirrel of America does not M^rcc cxadly 
with that of 4i|.r^pC|1)ut i-i gcneraHy conUdered as <«f 
the iame fpecia^^ They make a neft of mc^, in a hol- 
low ttee, and h^'theyidepi^it therr p 
and acor^ ; tfu^s the plare ^ their r 
the w ma jfaand i^eie t^ey ^rhigllrth * * 

ffilon of notit 

e durtiir 


, is phi* 



* , 


in ^QAfifi«^iblt Qwnkeiti If in their 4At%hc^ ^"^"^L 
trith a Hrer^ i^ch of them takn a Qi'mgle, fktnm h»mr 
•r the like, •ad.carrifs it tO'th« wtter : thiMt c^oippM^ 
thef tfmbArkf «nd treft their tailii tathe gentle bniesi^ 
whi«h fooA waftf them over in ftfttftjr (.buc t Aickfoa 
ft.iw of witkI fotmtiitte* prodofcf Ii'-dt^rtk6|i¥e flii|^ 
wrecK ' The grtM^f paist of the miUei^ 9^ thu fpecics 
is IbnnU caflratecl* . Al- 'k' ' 

The Red S^nmrl is lei's ob %e grejr rq^rret. Xti 
food IS the fame^ft tha^ of the grey rquimlf ciceptthac 
it fometlroes fee^t on the feeds of die pine and oilMr 
fvef^reens; hence! it ir (bmettmef called the. pine 
fquirrel, and is found further ;t6: ^e northward thaji 
the grey fquirrel. It fpcnds part of its time on.<riiito. 
in qncft .of /fdotl'i hot con&ders its hole» under foiiii'% 
fock or- log, as 4ts home. : > 

^ The S^jftedSfMitStyAil^^ 
td* In fiifmaer i(ieedi:ini appWe« pffa^hev^wail «|m% 
fi^s Unds of ffuiland fecdft; aod kit ici iRiii«e» (lore 
lays up ntKsr acorns and gfain. U A»i»etsmM afcendi 
trees in qtiedof foed^l»fliaiway&>dciceod$ on {ho a|)i> 
pearancc of danger t nor does iC feel fecuns bal ip'iu 
h^iJe, a ftona vall« or £osnt covert placid-— ^Fouttd in 
the northern and middle States. 

Flyi^Sqifhi^» Thiiii the leaft and rmSL ilagvliir 
ol'lheclafs of fiiwrreU. A daplicate oC.the iktA con*^ 
neiflsthe fore and hinjder lees^ together ; by extending 
this membrane, it is able to Te^p najac^' farther, and to 
alight with mMe £il«ty than other fqi^iczels. It lives 
'^ innoles of trtc% aad ^ds on feeds-— '-^Is found in ^ 
.die States. 

'lire FkU Me^hm a genera} reftmblance i^ tho 
common hnufe nion^. its food depends vety mueh 
on iu fthntif^ In gardens, it ofiea deA.roys fOmg. 
fruit trees by ecti«^ their bark i in:^lds and me^d* 
Gws, it feeds on ih^ rt^ts of grafs»4oftittimes leaving a 
grOQve in the fward, jarhich jq>pearf'asif it hadhnen 
cut taktwith a gonge. In wood^^ they Art fiiid to iieed 
cm«cei-ns, and !Ca£iy«p al»|e ^pra«f ifet^t ^;thcsr 

MThe';a#Ter^S|lsil 'Riftldes j^ .fiei^ilc^ 
'-9fo4J^^ 'fiQrma);i% exti»diii>^it 




Uing eoniKacd toeethct hf a thin itieiDbiiifl(ri titaff ffw^ 
.jiiii the aninni|»ith wingi^ They fnquent the cathitt 
%f oldbuildin(*!(, whence they itfue in (he twilight, ami 
ISeed, oa the wing, upon the infe^tt which iire thfn to 
be found flying. In the day time they hecp thenrnl^i^t 
concealed ; and bieome tor|()id during the wlntcr<»— — 
Common to North America and Europe. 

Ground Mwft, Th it animal \t Uager than the 6eld 
moufe, but fimikr inibiMk excepting that the nofe it 
morie blunt Its bo^ ii^ a flate colour, and it bur- 
rows uhdev ground, and often dcAroys young fruiV 
Vtefr by eating their bark. 

H^tod RaU ** Thii is a very curiotii animal. Thejr 
are Uot half the fize cf the domedic rat. They are fin- 
fiulav^wtth refp'^^ to their ingenuity and great labour 
m conftra^ing their habitation^t which are conical 
Iff pyramids, abcut 3 or 4 feet high^ compofed of dry 
branches,' which they coUed with gteat labour and 
fcrfeverance, and pile up without any apparent order*) 
yet they are fo interwoven with one another, that ife 
would takd a bear or wild oat feme time to pull one of 
thefe cables to r^fces, a«d allow thei animals fufficient 
time ta Tttreat %vr.h their young.** 

jiimmtan Ric' . This animal- ntfs a long, naked an4' 
&aly ta'l ; ihe 1>cad is Ii}ii|g .fhapedji with a narrotiT 
pointed abfff, th€ jjipev jaw being' much longer chaa 
the lowerr The ears are large and' naked. Its coloor 
it a 6tt^ brown, inchning to atli on the belly, and ics* 
ftx cbavfe and harlh; It is fuppofed to be of that fpe* 
etes which live among the ftcmes. and ckfte, in the Blue 
M«untanE)» in Virginiay. which comes. out v&ljF at nigh^ , 
and makes a t^nible noife;- 

.S^r^w i^o!i/#t This is tJic' iVnalleft M^uadrupedes^^ 
and holds- nearly die fUme phice amoag them, as tha 
hunimufjg bird does among the P:aihered race. Thef 
live in woodSf andiare fuppotW ec^^doa gsain and 
Infedis ^Foand m New Ertglan^. 

Moie^ Tlie purf^e mole is found in Virgmiai thf 
black niuleiu New^Enghmd ^ helive^ in and aboivt the 
Water. They tdifi^fii;^ one another^ and bo^ $tot^ 
-. . Ihe Eut-op«an^ ■" -'.^^-^^^^ ^''^■':ik 

-T1^ UTatn^ MaWmmiMt^^ 
brown on tl» baek,v iiiif >l^iflril|||||i 1I11 liiilj riiiiti 

!c animals- i---..''* "^" 




Mmm* TIm bearer is an ampkibiout toimal, vkich 
<aanot li?e for ulj length of time in tbe wtlsi ; and 
can eitft without tt, pro(ride4 he hat %« cOfMfcniencet 
c^ fometimet bathinff hinafeU^ The largeft bsavers, 
iormerlft were four feet in length* and weighed $t>^ot 
60 pounds At prefent they are not more than three 
in lengthy and majr weigh from a| to 30 pounds. 

Their cdour ii gtneraUy a ^rk brown, but Tariee 
according to the dimate thax inhabit. Their hair it 
long and coarfe ; the fur ferfWcK fine* and h' 'hly val- 
ued. The vCaAor ufed in medicine is fou > fackt 
formed behind the kidneys. 

Their houfes are always (ituated in the le* 

times they make afe of a natural pond, b .illy 

they choofe to form one by building a dam acrois Tome 
brook or nvulet. For this pnrpo£e they fele^t a num- 
ber of fjpUngs of foft wood, generally of Ufs than S 
i aches diameter, but fometimes of 16 or i^ inches ; 
thefe 'they fell, and divide into proper lengths, and, 
place them in the water, fo that the length of the Hicks 
make the width of the dam. Thefe fticks they lay m 
mud or day, their tails ferving them for trowels, as 
their teeth did for axes. The dams are fix or eight 
feet thick at bottom,, doping on the fide oppofed to 
the fiream, and are about a quarter as broad at top at 
at bottOHL Near the ^ o^ the dam they leave on^ or 
more wafte wayt, or filding place4« to <arr|r o^ the fur. 
pins water. , 

.The formation of their cabins i« no lefs remarkable^ 
They conftft of two ftoricsj one under the other above 
water. They are fliaped like the oy^il Vee-hive r ^^ ^ 
a fize proportioned to the Bamber of inhabitants. .The 
waWt of H:ie lower apartment arc two or three feet' 
thick, formed like their dafas } thofe of the «ipper (lory 
aretiiatteri and the whc^?, on thcviiifi^ic^ pmdered 
with mud. I^fik family conftn^dts and in^bitt lea 
otprn cabin. The upper apartments a^ cufiouuy ftrci^*^^' 
«d with leaves, and reftdered neat, clean and comfort- 
vi^i Thp winter i^ever %prifes tjbefit aAiipfls be- 
fope£lklir, buffneff. k campleted } for ibeir houfes are. 
lihtlhear by the |aA of S^^mber* f«d their 
^proirifioris laid in, which^^lifts «f fnu)l|>tecef 

>w<ir lij^tiQeats. ipi^pK 





1.1 I.-" I 




^ * // ^1 









WnSTiR,N.Y. M580 


^ X\ 4 



hf V 

ft»i»»>Aliia##ait i| if lgy t4 iiiM^W % iiiPi^ 
ivtu jrftet'' ^titf' utt aofil0flidicid« ' In AEmoKBr^diur 

IWtles m tiN^e In Ei|ra|»e#4|nif ivr vii% iti^^r t» 

tbem in-tiN!tf te%cA;|*5-^iy'* -;/. -v-vi . .„^. .- ^., ,-\- L..- 

Ifpo ibeiittf tr ilid cettll^ttCttt^ baixe not fnanie t})^< 

t»prnvcnientf whicli are tn be tcfvii iil coily wafetiat* 

ftiie-^Fdttild'Iflf^ the ^m*** ^ ^ • - ■ ; i . , i ^ ^ 

'^e Mt/^H^ or Jlf^ il#i» lb ak»irtr^f ilfc^s In 

ItMii^Md i feot m ctouMbiettcc* This aiHBiai is 

>fllii'|flM|i^ii^th dfl0»4^ i^Hic^ %Knite a Aa>fta|Me that 

v^ft«k#]|&i^r of the t«^«£i^l2lp^^^ ^abtn ia 
^l^nimm ana iii«MW 8tawa>^ V'^v^'*^ j\- r. ^ 

^ms ^rliicll are C0nciate4 4iriU»iiiMJM ikm^ aiMl ' "^^ 
m M|e &a, and feadt on m^nne planes. The:60mikmkh( "ri 

,#ft, •< w 


-"«P^ .^ 



Nvmbtr in tach C(f0« 




The Owl kind 

The Vulture 

The Eagle and Hawk 

The Kite Hawk 

The Crow 

The Woodpecker and othexs f> 47 

Graniveroui Tribes 62 

j1h2pli^oiu or jlquatic JlMs% comprehending 
The Crane ^- 2 

The Heron ' 16 

The Wood Pelican, fee. 46 

Teal 37 

The Plover kind 13 



■y. . ;. . ^ 

Total 271 
The birds of America, fays Cate(bf , generally ez* 
ceed thofe of Europe in the beauty of their plumage, 
but are much inferior to ihcm in the melody of their 

Tlie middle ftates, including Virginia, appear to b^ 
the climates, in North America, where the greateft 
number and variety of birds of paifage celebrate their 
nuptials and rear their offspring, with which they an- 
nually return to more fouthern regions. Moft of our 
birds are birds of paflage from the fouthward. The 
eagle, tlie pheafant, grous and partridge of Pennfytva- 
nia, (ereral fpecies ot woodpeckers, the crow, blue jay» 
robin, marlh wren, feveral fpecies of fparrows or mow 
birds, and the fwallow, are perhaps nearly all the land 
bh-ds that continue the ^ear round to the northward of 
Vireinia^ # 

Very Tew tribes of birds build or rear their young in 
the foudi or maritime parts ^f Virginia, in Carouna, 
Georgia and Florida ; ycv^ all thofe numerous tribes, par- 
ticularly of the foft billed kind, which breed in Penn* 
fylvania, pafs, in the fpricg fc^fon, through tlide re- 
gions in a few weeks xxttt, makings but veiy (hart fta- 
ges by die way ; imd again, but few of them Winter there 
on th^ir rettttn foiMliwardly. 

H It 




Ic is not koown how ^ to the /bath they fontiime 
>Chdr ro«te» daring their .tb&nce i&oqi t|ie nortliern an4 
^iddle Sute^ 

The Svm^ ii the largeft of the aqiuttc tribe of birdi 
which is (eeii in this country. One of th^m has beep 
^nown to .weigh 361b. »nd to be 6 feet in length* from 
ihe bill to |;be feet ^Wk Wretched. It makes a (bund 
^enibUng:thatt>f fijtfumpet, bot|i?vheii ia the wat^ 
and on the wing. ^ ^ 

T|}e Canada Goofe U a bml of paflagc, and gregari- 
,«tts. The ofspring of the C^fnadian and common goofe 
jare mongrels, and reckoned ^n^ore valaab|e than either 
^f them ^mgly^ but do not propagate. 

Tl^e ^aUor .Partridge, This bird is the ^uaii of 
New Enj^land, and the Partridge of the fouthem States ; 
bat is properly neither. It is a bir^ peculiar to Amerr 
ica. The Partri^e of New England, is the Pheafani 
,of Pennfylyania, but Is mitcalled in both places It is 
a ipecies of the Croui, Neither the Pbeaiaht, Partridge 
;0r Qu^l, ^e found in America. 

Crxiow, Thefe birds are faid not <o pair, like the reft 
jof the feathered tribes. When the fem^e appears 0,9 
the wingi f^e is often .atteaded by two or three males^ 
Ifnlike ^lodier birds, (he daes npt bvild a neft of her 
.bwn, but takes the opportunity, while the Hedge Sparr 
xow (probably they ma,ke ufe of other ne^s) is laying 
her eggs^ to dep' '''s her egg among the reft, leaving 
the future cafe i : entirdly "to the hedge fparrow^ 
T3he cuckoY/'s egg requires no longer incubation than 
Jbcr .ow.o, -When the hedge fp^irrow has fat lier ufual 
time, ai;4 difengaged the young ciickow and fonle of 
jj>er bwn.4}ftspvii&g from their (hells, the young cuckow, 
aftonifiiing as it may feem, immediately fets about clear- 
Ingihfii'neft of thd^oung fparraw?, sand theremj^ining 
unnatched ec^gs, md with/urprifing expertnefs foon !ic- 
.compMflbe^ ^ bofinefs, iand remains foie poiTe^r of thp 
aeft, and the only objeil^f the fp;irrow'« future care. 

The Wah^ ^dt which probably is of the iame fpe(;ies 
.with. Uid Sfird of Paradife, receives its n^me from the 
ideas "die Indians have of its i^perior excellence { the^ 
^W^kon Bird being in their language tlie bird of the 
jCrreit Spirit. Its tail IS compofed of four or iSve 
|l«|(iHNrt»'whicI^ are ^hi^ tiiiies at long as 'itt bod^^ 



i!(Ul which are beiutifully fliaded with green and' |mr- 
pie. It carriies this fine length of plumage in the fame' 
manner as the peacock does his» but it is not known' 
i^hether, like hini} it ever rmfes it to an eft^ pofttion. 

The ivhetjanirvi of* the cuckovr kind, being, like that, 
a folitary btrd, and fcartely eyi|feen. Ih the fummet 
months it is heard in the groveifiiirhere it makes a noifi^ 
like the filing of a fkw, from which circuniftance it- hai 
received its name.- 

THe Hummng ^irdU the fmallell' of all the feathered^ 
inhabitants of the art. Its plumage furpaHes defcrip-' 
tion. Oh its head is a fhiall tuft of jetty black ; its' 
breaft is red f its belly white ; its back> wings and tail 
of the fined ^ale' green j fmaH fpecks of gold- art fcat- 
tered over it with inezpreilible grlice {and tfe crown 
the whole, an almoft imperceptible down foftens tlie' 
feveral coloursv and prbduces tile xn&fk jjleafing (hades. 

jlmphihioui^ Kiptiier.l^ Among thefc are the ttiud tor«- 
tbife or turtle. Spetkled land tortoife*- Creat foil fhelU 
ed tortoi|e'of< Florida ;' whentfullgrowii it Weight fVom^ 
50 to 40 pounds, extremely fat and delicious fpod,^ 
6reat land tbrtoife,^ called^ gophe^ ; its u^per' ihell is 
aibdut 18 inches long, and froA lo to 12' b|oad-^Found< 
Ibuth of-Savwnn*. Rircr. . . . , 

Two fpecies of ftefh^wat^r' t<>rtoiieS ihlialiit tlii* tide 
Water rivers in the fouthem States^; one is large, weigh- 
ing from' la to i'2 pounds ; the odier fpecies are (mail;* 
but both"^ are efteemed delicious food. \ 

Of the TW kind aio^feVeral fpectesi*the Yfrdi brown,* 
and-blackf.- '. ' ' . .'/ ' V _--] '^^■• 

Of the Frog^\xi^, ate many ffedesi Porjd'Ifog; grle^ti « 
fotift tain frog, tree frog, ' bull fro^.- Befides thefe, mt' 
the duHsy brown, fpotted frog of<Carolina; their voic* 
refembles. the grunting of f>yine. -^11)6 bell frbg^' ^> 
called, becaufe their voice i$ fanc^ to be exa^l^ like = 
that of- a loud cow<-bell. A! beautiful griQcn frog>hofei 
noiie is like thjC barking of little dogs^ pt 4he y^ping* 
of puppies. A'lcfs greeu frog, whofe iB^i^t tefemble^ 
thofec^ young chickens; liittle grey ijmdid frog, 
yrho make a noife lik^'the ftrikihg of two pebbles to- 
gether under the furface of the water, "rtere isi yiet an ' 
*«Ktreii»ly^ dimiatitiye fi^ies of fiog$,.C4lkd^by! feme* 




The united STATES. 

Savanna crickets, wbofe notes are notunlike the chat- 
tering of young birds or crickets. They are found in 
great multitudes after plentiful rains. 

Of Lizardt, we alfo have many fpecies. The jfOlgO' 
tor, or American crocodile, is a very large, ugly, ter- 
rible creature, of prodigious ftrength, activity, and fwift- 
nefs in the water, '^^y are from 23 feet in 
length ; their bodies are as large as that of a horfe, and 
are covered. with horny pljites or fcales, faid to be im- 
penetrable to a rifle ball, except about their head and 
juft bthind their fore legs, where they are vulnerable i 
in fliape they referable Uie lizard. The head of a full 
grown alligator is about three feet long, and the mouth 
opens neany the fame length. Their eyes are compar- 
atively fm^l, and. the whole head, in the water, ap- 
pears at a diftance like a piece of rotten floating wood. 
The upper Jaw only, moves, and this they raife fo as 
to form a nght angle with the lower one. They open 
their mouths^ while they lie ba(king in the fun» on the 
barks of rivers and creeks, and when filled with flies» 
mufketoes and other infefts, they fuddenly let fall their 
upper jaw with furprtdng noife, and thus fec^re their 
prey. They have two large, ftrong, conical tuiks, as 
white as ivory, which are not covered with any fkin or 
lips, and which give the animal a frightful appearance. 
In the fpring, which is their feafon for breeding, they 
make a moft hideous and ' terrify ine roar, refembling 
j>the found of diftant thunder. . The alligator is an ovip- 
']^rous animal ; their nefts, which are commonly built 
on die margin of fome creek or river, at the diftance of 
15 Or 20 yards from the water, are in the form of an 
obtofe cone^ about 4 feet high, and 4 or 5 in diameter 
tt their bafls. They site conftns^ed with a fort of 
jgoitar, made of a mixtbre of mud, grafs, and herbage. 
%r^ they la^ a flo^of this-compofitton, on which they 
depofite ft layer of eggs $ and upon this a ftratum of 
their^jnortar, ^ o? 8 inches thick ; and then another 
la^e^feggsf and is this manner, one ftratum uponan- 
^ other, nearly to the top of the ncft. They lay firom 6ne 
V to two hundred eggs in a neft. Thefe are hatched, it 
is ^ppofed, by the heat of the fun, aflifted, perha]psi by 
the ffniieatation of the vegetable mortar in which '^ 





are depofited. Thefeinal«, it it {a2d» cftreftdly watches 
}jer own neft of • eggs tiH thef are all batched. She 
then takes her brood under her care, and leads them 
about the (hores like as a hon does her chickens, and ii 
equally, courageous in defending them in lime of dan^ 
ger. When (Ee lies iMUHing af|0n warm banks with her 
brood around her, the young ones may be heard whining 
and barking like youne puppies. Ths old feed on the 
young .alligators, till tney^get fo large as that they caiv- 
not make a prey of them ; fo that happily but few of a 
brood fur vive the age oft year. • lliey are fond-xyf the 
fk(h of- dogs and hogs, which they devour whenever 
they have an opportunity. . Their principal food is fifli. • 
In Carolina and Georgia they retire into th$ir dens*, 
which they form by burrowing far unde^g^ol4d, com- 
mencing under water and working upws^dsj'Uftd'^^'* 
^^emain in a torpid ftate . dtutng the wuiten Further 
fouth,,tn warmer climates^ they are miore niimerottSy^ 
and more- ^fierce and ravenous, and wfil boldlyhdUtack a. 
man. In South America, the carrion vultiire is the 
inftrument :,of Providence, to deftroy inultitudes of ^ 
ypung allig^Knrs, wha would otherwifcrender the coan*:- 
try uninhaUtable. 

Be6des the allig&tor, wr have of this fpecies of' am* 
phibious reptiles, the browti lizard, i'wift lizard, or litdjK 

green cameibon of Carolina, . which, 4ike the camek(A, 
as the facuUy of changing iis col0W« Tb% ftrip 
lizard, orfcorpion. Blu« bdli«d,' l^uamous lizard, fi 
eral varieties {, larga copper coloured lizanl j fwi 
fkflfobfvlyltie lizard, wiib a long {lender taily-as brittle 
as that of the ^lafs £takt^ The two Uft are rarely feen^, 
but are fomeumefi found aboc|t old.l^ buflding^ ia the-' 
fouthern States* '^.^^^.^^ ^ 

^f^tefiTx.]; l^he diaradisrs byt^twhlah ampihil^m: 
ferpenu are dtftinguiihe4 »'e thefe, the^ belly, irfilr^ 
«liflied;with fcude, and ''the tail has both Icura^ and^ 
tesdm Of^thefe reptiles-the foUowing^are fountiii^lbiM 
Unified States ti-—^ 

lU^eSfuifce '% 

Y^yt Rattle Snakrr • 

&iAaiU Ibitde Snake. 
Biftard Rittle Saak^^ 
mccafia S^uike " * * 



90 tm* united arXATES. 

Grey Spotted Mocca/in Smike of Carolina 

Water Viperi with ailiarp thorn tail 

towk Viper 

Brown Viper 

White Bodied, Brown Eyed Snake 

Black Snake n^th linlar rings 

A Snake with 15a fcutie^and 135 fcuteltae 

Blueifli green Snake, with a (Iretched out triaDgnlal^ 
ihouty or Hog nofe Snake . , 

Copper Bellied Snake ^ f^ 

* Black Snoke ' , 

White Neck Bla^ck Saake 

Small Brown Adder 

Houfe Adder 

Water A^der < . 

Brown %ake 

Little BiSwn ^ad Snake 

Coach Whip Si^ke * 

;# :Coni^kei 

Green 'Snake 

Waminun Snake 

Htbbon Snake v 

Pine, HofQ» or Bull Snake^ with a hiNri#%car m his 

taa ^ #^ r 

j[pint Snake 
arter Snake 

Irrp^Sn^ke ^ * 


k SnaJEe 
^ row|i|{h* ^>otted Snake 
44»«>yeliovfifii Whitie Siiake 
.. luffing Sna|fe . ; 

-^RiiigSniJjM:- ■':<,,;. y; '»;' 'v '■ , .; 

^pj^headed Snake 7^ 

inb.e Haitle $nake Qftay he ranked among the large^ 
iferf!^ t%Americie. They arc fron* 4 to upwards of d 
i|et i^^^gth, and from 4 to 6 inches in dtameten 
TgrmMj^^ It i? (kid, they 11^ mnch larger. Thehrat^ 
!cs cohlw of fcveral artipilated crnftaceous, or rather 
y hags, foroUcg their tails, which, <rhen they 
e, ihake a r^itdi^ noife, waning people of theur 
lich. It is ^d;>they wltJ hot atts^ck a perfbn,ixi»> 
pr^tioai^ i|^M« When mokfted jpr irritated^ 



» fHB UKltED STATES. 91 

* they ereA ihiir rattles, mnd by intervali gWe the war»> 
ing]n. If purfucd and oTcruki»i» they inftantly 

V throw themfelvet into the fpirat coil ; their whole body 
(WelU through rage, continually rifing and falliiig liKe 
a bellows ; their beautifiil, particoloured fkin becomes 
fpeckled and rough b^ dilation f^etr htad and neck 
are flattened ; tlieir cheeks fw^ten, and their lips con- 
(Irided, diTcovering their fatal fangs ; their eyes red at 
burning coals, and their brsindiHiing forked toneuesy'of 
the Colour of the4iotteft flame, menaces a horrid deat|}. 
They never (Irike unkfs fure of their mark.' They are 
fuppofed to have the power of fafcinatioa, in an eminent 
degree { and it is generally believed that they charm 
birds, rabbits, fquirrels and other animals, in fuch a 
manner, as that they lofe the power of refiftimi^e, and 
flutter and move flowly, but relu<ftai)tly, tOi|prds the 
yawning jaws of their devourert, andj^her 'creep into 

^ tlieir nlbuths, or lie down and fuffef mmfeltes tv be 
taken and fwallowed. This dreaded reptile ^feafiiV 
killed. One well directed Ilroke on, the head or ^croU 
the back, with a Alck net larger than a man's thumb, 
is|ctll the large ft } and they are fo flow ol 
motion that^^p^ cannot make their efcape, nor do they 
attempt it when attacked* . Many lliflerent remedies 
for the bite of a rattle ihake have been prefcribed and 
-ufed with different fuccefs ; the followingj receive^ 
from good authority, is recommended as a cure' for, thf 
bite of all venomous fnakes. *« Bind a ligature ^g 
round the leg or thigh, a' ove the part bijteifr&'i 
to interrupt the circulation j hen open or fcarify ili 
wound with a lancet, knife or flint, and fuck the woun 
or let a friend do it ; t|ien rub it with any,uoi£tui> 
matter, either' animal or vegetable ; or SF thjit 
be procured, make ufe of fait. Take care td 
the bowels open and free, by drinking fweetoii 
milk or cream. If pqire^ioney be, at hknd, a| 
the wound, after openid^ ssifd^cking .it^i^n f] 
to any other thing ; asd^ ^ji^entifally df * 


^^ The Moecafin Snake isffrom 3 to 5 feet Jq lei^a^, «||| 
/ as thick as a man's leg'} when diiturbed by an tne^ 

^^ thjBy throw the«ftrdv6s lifto a ipoil,a^d ihim gradual! 
tiu& their ttpi^^kw till it faUs ba^]r|4f^#|f toochii 
i>-''- ' ' ^ '% -«" ^'' '.'^'' -•'■■' '^,' ■ th^ 






tiie neck, at the (knM'tuDe i^aling tMr long piBrpU' 
rorked ton^uf , aad ,<lircAing their- crooked •poilbnout 
fangs towards their eoesny.- Itr this attitude thecreii> 
tare has a moft terrifying ap|>earance. It is faad their 
bite is incurahle ; but the probability; is, thai it is not*- 
liike the rattle^ fnake they ate flow in their moti^A, and« 
fiever bite a • psetfoii' nnlefs provoked<— -Found in abun- 
dance in thefwaxikpt- and lowgrouadf in the Ibuthem^ 
Sutes* ^ 

Hie SUek Sntike\% of' various lengtmii^om 519 6 feet. . 
aU over of a (hining black ^ it is not venomous ; is uiefui ' 
ia deftroyingrats, and piarfues its pjreywiih wonderful > 
agility^ . It is faid that it will deftroy^ the rattle fnake 
by, tWifiing round Uand whipping it t<^ death. It hat^ 
/^been t%,orted alib'' that they, have fometimes twined^ 
thenfel^s tOfigA thi bodies of children, f<}tteezing; 
them till they%« Tlbey ai« found tu'ail^ the States. 

^htC9ach 0^J^. ^Mi^ is of various and bea«tifal ^ol^ 
Ourlyfonae parts brown»,or chocoiatefOthiersblaokiand.^ 
Others white ;.i«4S^6or' 7.f«et long^^iMud very ilender^ 
alui a^vve ; it • runs ^fwiftly, and is <2uil^ tnoffenfive | ; 
knit the Indians injaffine twit ifi is able lifiot'a man iU'^ 
twa with! a jerk «f i its tatt. Like the Mack' fnake, itv- 
1»ill HMiupon its taily withrits ;hcad and body, ere^^ 

The Pine ht iSW//.5iM^, ealkd alf6 the^-Honi Snake». 
Is the l^igeft of the ferpent kind known in North Amer- • 
iea^vexceptvthe rattle fnake, and pe^ap^ exceeds him 1 
In length./ They are piei- bhick and white ;;ape in-" 
JC^tmh with rcfjf^a to- mankind, < but devour fquir— 
rels, rabbits, and 'every other creature they ckn take as> 
|b6<L;. Thek'itatts- terminate wHh a hard horny fpur^,> 
|^l%tyJihey; vibrate very tfjixkk^ yiheu difturbed, , bttt> 
^^(^'attelttRt to ftrlfce with it- T^cyhavf dens ' 
iarth; to whi<;h they^ retreat in time of ^dli^gen • 
le QJfifr SiiaJ^'&»ymiyetY ftna^' head'; the up^f: 
If itr bjp4y • is o^^^plour blended * brown andi 
)(i regulafl»\a«M | ?athtlY^footted 'With yellow. • 
very inwiot^lR^ With fstkXi fcalesi , 

sly' eooiie^ thin^thol^ of other ierpents^. ^ 
^ dia»rettt#iirfiire. .^^ ^ 

,tl th« hbdy, ikot onli^at ^ie^ place ftt^^ hik-'M 
U Wo or^:Mp:||P^4r ■ jplpd^s;- ^ ■the.inufcles bei^g 'i^cii« '~ 
j||f9d'iaJi-<WB^^^tttft^^ . qijtile throu^^ tSs irert^ 





bra. Thef appear earlier in the fpring than anf other 
ferpent, and are ntimeroui in the hndj woods of t^ 
'Caroltnas and Geor^a. They are harmlefi. 

The Joht Snah, if we may credit Carrer'f account 
of it, is a great curiofity, Iti (klu is as hard as parch- 
ment, and as fmboth as glafs. It is beautifully ftreaked 
with black and white. It is fo ftifF, and has fo few 
joints, and thofefo unyielding, that it can hardly bend 
itfelf into the form of a hoop. When it is ftruck, it 
breaks like a pipe-ftem ; and you may, with a whip» 
break it from the tail to the bowels into pieces not an 
inch long, and not produce the leaft tindure of blood* 
It is not venomous. 

Tiie fnakes are not fo numerous nor fo yenomons in 
the northern as in the fcuthem States. In the latter^ 
however, the inhabitants are fumifh^ with a much 
greater' variety of plants and he^bs, ^''||i|i afford imme- 
diate relief to peribns bitten by the^poifonous crea- 
tures. It isi an obferyation worthy of perpetual and 
grateful remembrance, that, wherever venomous ani- 
mals are found,* the God of nature has kindly provided 
fufficient antidptes again ft their poifon. 

Fiihes form the fourth dafs of animals in the Lin- 
nflcdn fydcm. Mr. Pennant, in the Britilh Zoology, 
diflributes fifh into three divifions, comprehending i\x 
orders. His divifions are, into Cetaceous^ Cariilagtneoui% 
and Bony, > ' 

Cetatemu Fifh. >^ 

TJic Whale Dolphin Porpelie Grampus Ikhiga. 

' CartUag'meoui Fj/h, 
Lamprey Brown fpottedGari;^ fiih Red btUiea| 

Slute • Lump fiih . Silver or W|i 

Shark . Pipe fiflx Yellow Bream^ 

Dog fiih Golden Bream or S114 Black or Blue Bl 

Sturgeon fifli 


. Chub 

*I V- 

•, ( 

'Ed '' % 

.Conger eel 
Cat fith 
Snake £lh 

Week fi 

;^* Probably fomethat are' placed 
wie Receding. Wc are not able ac 

's (•• >! ■ 

^4 Tni ITH1T£D STATB&' 



FroA f fli 


flmatl Pollocks 







Hed Perch 

White Perch 

Yellow Perch 

sea Perch 


Sea Baft 

HoHe Mackerd Soft 

Wuc Mackerel l/lttmtMim 

SpreklcdMadkrtl Whke Mi 


telmoo Trvnt 


Pike or Pickerel^ 





Pond fi(h 

Toad fifli 



Hard Hc«d> 

Ale wife 


Tide Black B(k' 


Blttc fiik (Begallo)) 

Sheep'* HM«r 

Red Drum 

Black Dfum 

Branded Dfin 

Sheep's Head OniB»' 






Flyinc fifli' 

Sword fiOu 

Striped Baft- 
Shiner ^ 

The m^lttHHc Hr^eft oi all animals. In t!ie 
nortborn Teas C6m^ are found 90 feet in lengths s^n4~ 
in tlie torrid cone* where they are unmolcfted, whalea- 
have beea feen i5o ftet in lengu The head 11 ereat^ 
})r difproportiened to die fize of: the body. In the 
middle of the head are two orifices^^ough which* 
they fpout water to a great height. T^eyes are not 
larger than thofe of the ox, and are placed towards the' 
back of the head, for the convenienct of feeing both' 
before and behind. They are guarded by eyelids as in 
qnadrupedes } and they appear to be very fiiarp fighted,^ 
;uid^uick of hearing. What is called IVhale bone ^d' 
^res to the upper jaw,- and is formed vfi thin parallel 
fimttat }. fome of the longeft are 1 1 feet in length ; of 
thefe there are froiii 550 to 500 on ead^Gde, accord- 
>Ji|ig t^ the age of the whale. The uil^ which ak)ne it 
Utef J^' ttdvknce itielf in the water, is broad and femila- 
nai^pnd when the fiih lies oa- one iide^.its blowia tre^ 

iT^ir fidelity to each other is rehrarttablc. - An in- 
fiaiDicI Qf it i» related by Mt. Anderfon, at follows :; 

'* 6oial)lp|^ers haying^ 
and a femle, in co: 
long ioM terriblir 
with two men if^ r;»i||» 5^ 
lidiii^^ 'aU we|l^|K^ 


le of twtf whaili|^4 fnale 
wounded w made a< 
Ifnick d(9Wtt » bogl 
%w of ffe taflkhf^ 
The c/A^t ftiU auen^* 
it every aififtaace | till, at- 




,v.A *: 

-Tk* ^NITCD «TAT18. 



;|«(l, the Sfli tliat w«t Arnck, funk iindtr the number of 
4tt wounds ; while iu faiUnful affocUtCy difdaiiuii|[ lo 
.lorvife ihe lofi, With great beHowing, ftretched itfelf 
upon the dead fiQi« andihareJ iu fate." The whale , 
gqef with.f ouQg nine or len monthii and general^ pro-' 
ducei one y pong. one» nsftr above two, which are black 
and about to feet long. The teats of the female are 
placed in the lower part of the bellx* When (he 
fucjcles her iroiingy (he throws hevfelf on one fide, on tlw 
;rurface of the water, and the .young ones ituch them- 
felves 4o the teati* Nothing ean exceed tlie underneCs 
and care of -the fenifile for her young. 

The lamprey irequents mod of the rivers in the New 
England Stjites, e(pecia11f where the paiHige is not in- 
;tf tnipted by damt, That,part of the Lamprey Which ie 
.bJ!ow the air holes> is falted and dried for food. After 
tthe fpawning feafon js over, and tb%^oung fry have 
gone down to the fe^ the old fifhes iHth themfelvee 
io the robots and ^imbs of trees, which have fallen or run 
*into the Vater, jind there periflu- A 'mortification be- 
gins at .the tail, and proceeds upward to the vital part. 
ilK of this l^nd have heen found at Plyfhouth> injtle# 
Jiamp(hire,^difFerent dages of putrefaction. 
' In adfUtiOH^o the above account, Br. BeOcnap iu 
his Hidory of Ncw,Hamp(ljire, has given us the names 
fiiC^ diferent fpecies of infe4«» amd 45 fpecies of vermes* 
Their nances may be ibund ^Ifo in the American Uoi- 
tTcrfal Geography. f 

The WHteai Fly^ cctumohly hut Jmprppcrty called the 
Heffian fly, vfiAch has, -of late ycars^ proved fo de- 
ftfudive to the wheat in various parts o£ the UuUed 
States, has generally been fuppofed to have been im- 
ported from Europe. This opinion* howevefj^^mt 
not to be well /ounded. This defi 131^1 ve in&^F|ro|i- 

, ably a naindl^nW, and peculiar to the Dnited Ski^^^v 
The Itii or Cnnk fA* is a curiofit^. It is /ufnah^ 
with a cyft of blaci li^iior, which is a tblefablc Ai|h^ 
ftitute £crink. JlUm tt emits, i^djen pursued by its ^eii- 1 
emief. ^^Ihitf moment il||^iqttdr is emitted, the! wlfer 
h^eomes fikf ac thiokirtKpit iiS^d, In the eyef W its 
P»W*^* ^^'•I^^SS^I J^S^portunity^to make its 

^cfeiP. ^hre:]|»«f$^lQrfli^^rs,^8paedbyF^ 

#^e mtVi im ^p ^^S^^mkM p$m^'-Mtote^ an4 

/ . :ii 





tbb united states. 

is certainlf a mcft j^pt and curious contrivance. The 
whalemen call chefe fifli, SguiJit and iky that they ate 
eaten in abundance by ^me fpecia of whalei. 

Pcffidaimi Cht^aSer and MeMurt,'} According td 
the eenius taken ^ by order oTCongrefs^ tn i79P».t!he 
number of inhabitantft in the United States of America 
vfi% nearly 5»95o,ooo. The numbers at prefent ( i ^oqJ 
probably exceed^w m«ft*a«/. •** ^"J^ '*. 

This number is rkpidly multiplying by emigration^ 
from Europefy as well as hy natural increafe. The A- 
merican Republic is compofed of almoft . all natiopns, 
languagest charaders and religions which Europe, can 
furnifli ; the greater part, however, are defceiided from 
' the Eti^lifh r and may, perhapsi, be diftingulihiQ^l^ 
ddn^mtnated Fedtrd Amtmans. - ' ' * * * ' " ^ f \, 

The number Af flaves, in 1790, in all the States,' was 

Federal Am«9ic|ns, colleAed together from various 
cduntries, of diderent habits, formed under difFerent 
goveiiimeii^s, and of different languages, cuftoms, 
manhera and religions, have not yet aflimilated to that 
degree as to foim a national charaftet*. We are yet an 
innut empire, rifing fad to maturidp with prcf- 
pe^s of a vigorous^ powerful and rcipe^able tman*- 

hood..-, '^'■J'iif '■■■j ■•/-■■^'^ '■ '% ";r^ ^'■^' ■■■ 

The EngUrii language is unlvcHHtyiliHS^k^^ in the 

tJmjN;4 ^^tes» and in it biifinefs is tran{a<5ied, and the. 

records are kept. It is fpoken witli great ptirity, atid 

pronoun^ with . propriety in New England, hy pet- 

ip^ of education ; and, excepting fome corruptions in 

pronnnciation, by all ranks of people. In the middle' 

andip^tttti ftates .where they have had a great' influx 

of fo^lptersjt the language, in many ini|ances, is cor- 

rupl^ tiefpecially 4n pronunciation. Attempts are 

mai:ti% to introduce an uniformity of pronunciation 

throfa^out tke dates, wMchy for poetical as well as 

oth«|; reaionii ^ is hoped will meet the approbation aiid 

enbji3iirs^9ient of aUliUTaryjgid influential chiHi^iers. 

< J^t^imu^led ' with '-vm-' AiK|ricans» are tbe^^istclu 

^kmjs^f Inih, Frenc^, <iern9an«i%ides a]^|#^}!i41 

' thi^t except. the,^|pi^>smdviH^'K^l|«i^ in n ff^ ftil^JM'^ 

Ids iliiree, ibeir ilstiive langii«t^ tn^hich tbe^^ft- 

\ - 




Sam ' fp|^';%ilL^ _^ ^__^ 
#1, fa ilij*^^^ 



SW:. lUf ?, 




<Mi pf CQetr 




' :ie 

w^S**^: rVf *m"^* m%' 










t" ;■' , . ** 


/ *?'-■: 


j <»' 



'K* "' 

f . :'i. 











be tticlMr iproMrtkm to Orcit Bcikita atti IMbik 

«fii«ilHr«f:|^ff6 been atuteitctf la tfie Uttitd il^i^ 
wkh^t0ok0i^mU^ Of thffi^iiiiirJpfioir^ile Hk 
flK»ft' edliftil^^ tiz.— ^^-%iffie<f and lawcd 
leatt^i^idjr^iim, 0i<^^^^^ &m^ 

IMMi Mi it 

rftttd'fiii^s wip^^im artificers ^ alim of 4SCstw 



il f iili#ar]^s.|t aYinoft all Mhdu'for «fd!i)iarif lOe ^ 

|ia&»toir««ff4w^l,|wii^^ :^" -J ■• 

viiLiMe^ of ^ H^ 

pfoisciited ai 
idilt Jotttherni #t$ tlitf middlt and fiortli^^f s t 
J ' ; Qiiantli 

viH icextt of h^Siibt^ flianti^^iif ln|^ w 

aol jB|f c«ttiM^aiMl ftur art |na^te iii t|it Ii6#lwit^ 
Mid ^ flNi^; iibAuiM<* to as extent, not only # 
ibr t&iip^y nf tlie familiefl m irhieb ihey w* iliad%* 
Wt for i^, uM ev«a iiii1)«ie ea<^ ^9C%i|Ki««t{a» i 
lE%e fdiaemf .tf^diel, t^^ 

ougii^tii t^ il^<i^ f t gol^t^e^, peiMrter.iiit^ M ii^i 
ftone waicaio^liumf J^Bii«itlijP(#^^^^^l^^^ lipt(i|pTr_ 

toyJ&Mbi*'*^^^^ other idiriimem c^'NAlii^w 

Soi|ii,^^tiB|c:^ |^vb'.t]Hjr.ibi|a^ 

cuo^^lilieeii^ .^Eh««»iur| oil^: aft»4^ 

tii^E^ii9e^(0s|i||c4»si<^^ jmnie^liatilf Ml 
Juiiji^^f 7 1 ^iii^ ftoiir'aiiiJiiealof ^ 

5» *•>« 

ar«##>ed in0oft(lefi$ witl» ia, f^ni|^^|a ffipi««i^|^^ 
\Qi^ tROi^ irev^li Sen «i % v^^^ipMne^^^^lii^^ 

lonOaixig of ui^iptrds^ 8oQiOO«iir jOlf^li^ i jj|e|^|||iiii 

:J9it.kk[%4Mii:^in' J^M^Afit tio^ptef :l«ie(.i)ii tB^i% ' 



. jperfdltHre for t^ iltne year wi» i 1 

■'Hi . X' 



Bhm^ Diibi ^ . . - «44i^i^8 T fO» 

|ii)Ht#^Jmi!|» Louis'' .^v.^;-<>''' .^ '''8^i*o»f<-ifo. 

M^^^th^ UA^mmtil' llill tuinit wftv Jacorpo. 
ciUltlitmbA,' U h0^vaSmf$0 0^4iiM^a9i tmislbimii o# 

at rdnpoOft^ r^jf^ revf|||tKm|M« juuMceCisi mill' 
ul9p| ^^mmj9 webatis ream tj» btUeve, juTt Jet 
tbcir^^U^lp^it. Chfiaijaif profdt ,0^ Mik 
gipSitliidlif vnri^ fbniis» ani wi|h difffmt ijeai^lki 
doariiw»»,ordiaMic^ aii4 pf<^tv lleu^i^ <|fb 
nomiattifNii <;|Climv» are mate or k^ ^imia9|i|i.i» 
thf tJteiu^jitaMi» viiu ConmsaU^nali/b* vnfhfplim 
aas» Diitcli ll«farned Church, £piii:opalians. Baptifti* 
(hraUrt,4>r-^4ei«^&» Methocifl^ Ronuii C;aifaoiktt 
Gemma Luilicratts, German CaTvioia^ or Prc2^| j;fp|w 
anw Mof»M9i»» Tttoli^ Memu>iikiU» Umvet|i|i4f> 
anq^Shalicnk* . 

4^ife3^1 A«W«» iw$ orkinaljy |*0fil«4 IfJtei^ 
n»ed iiatMiM,,w^toh lited 9a|Uy>)(^ttiiti^ 
'JTb* %t9|ieat»»».who Arft Viftti^, tj|^ Jkore«^ ir«|ttiiis. 
tke natcvKfkt wjl4 bcafts of .aw|/or«|k, yhfekhaw i^ 
rt^itr iii lib >iPit>o^ ^^le fe,«^> ^lyitiwij^ 
liaQ<^ ol tW r^^ivf load^s m^m tfief w^ 

«l|r4ilk^^ f li^ 10 .any f^^f ^fi^^ ^^ W<«l^4fiS!^' 
»ca» iwi|ii«fQi|» ije^j^ tb» Jthid ,w»x€^a«^H •-■^»— 
£ogfi(hi,l^c«l^, S^wnilh, aii4 Bf^it^ nai* 
um6 J^thiir 4;^ m« parpofw j?t 0^ 
iw«h w pa^irtii. ^ghi as Cudli, Uum i^ 
¥»re aftfc^wfl^the cau%^ ljftww»ih^ 

I^gopesuk naM^ Tkc jgjp^* of dilfcwil princfi 
•ft«n Wi claim m ihc,^M^ trf# of, c«iiu^^ 

la ptopD^uon t9m prog»«fs of populatfon, ap||,u# 
growth. 4>f.lh« ^Ug|ri^«* ^^^ *fef iealoufiet of tilt , 
naooD^^, nirKfch W na^c i;ar)y dUcyyorks aivdii^i^ 
iQeutt on thitcoaft* ^erf^ »)a!r<pi# | $a^a^t Mm wm 
TfviTad I and' each |iowet took; nii^iA»^es ^ auc<e|ui.4|0%' 
f^cwnt iu <?p» po«feflBUw» at the e^ppnAt of a rilr^^ ,, 

i|^ incafciiffr pf«»t4 thf «fecaA«N* >«£ ^pai^^ sa»» 

M^|Bei>ettiN» INl^<* *•<* ^'P**^ ^ksk^n^m^ 
tcritt C^pni|li^ p>fe aM*^«al^ 

from tWi |>^io4^ Mef <^>ii|{a^ 
April, 177^ irlkeH joililitHi l^egsa btlAi^ ISNtti 

HpcJi» ^ flljemorabli i»ar i. » nwr ikakkvmiAii^ 

vhic^,^ in its j»yeg^ exhibiud U|4 noft aioftliotir 
cllamll^ and events, «o<f cbfed: iiilfc il f«MiMon»^ 
^Ml]r !gbf>o)» ^r the ^lAori/aiia^iiinii^ 
•biUeQ^tii^ea to 1^ QM0tL(^MW4»m^(i¥&it§Mj[i. 

feNfcen ft cTiftifigiitflicd and iiicei4i|^ afficit |l^ tW4|g^^ 
^lii0^ «^ wrttH t|i^ f^iH»li» »i^,IS^^ MiUi»#l>«^ 
HMMn t<^.be tiie fiilklisft of Jili «0»oirf ^ ' ^He^icctti^ 


tMH |MM«r st9& to. fcfoif tli« i^ijnoiy «£ t^^m ;t 

5«cf and Artjgrf^a, ^ i^h W^o^&td »i>o^r. 
M a|]^! wko allied 141 ipmii^g tlic^^iti^au^ft: 



i* . T * 

,^*i' - ^« 

.»^a<«* "VJ**" 

n vC-, 

i <. 

i^lkyfriT^D sfi^ttft m i*^^ 

frhidi OrMK iHtik cxpiUded n^tf «i luindM iii3l> 

wdi fioibpQg; Amefiel cndurdt CYerf orutf^ wm^ 

and i9^h tffWQ t butgtorioun^ ^nxtdlm^ 
ffoa n nMfigpr doiiiiaioo, 9}oApmi4 v ^nl^ «nn>S h*^ 

. f fWli ihc coii^afioq of tlie war to t^'^tt«ti^9micfttr 
iltic lifw^oliii^oii of (hnmimr^ in 1:7!% 'cii^ 
inbi^Mnts ti tht United Ststts ^ufiired lOimY <;t|4^«r<^ 
Mffapeiiu ffo^i ^ f^ttavftgsqit in^^ 
losiiri^ r f|69 PJNf# pn^Mft and ^tkidarly &^ UMK? 
«K>i»efr iU|4 (sminddptt of the fniefal f>f in^n^iciii^ ^ 

OxK^ |d of M&f^f nl^ Cl»« dele|»tet (tom th^ 
€tff;«il 8tal«i, t^WA jt tH^t time H«d*«tifi# tbf eojn^ 

fKMciatiMi^-ilie irboicrcl^jdH^ Mandr|ee<^l^ 
«iil«« of tiiii^ttUid Suilftk o9e<ilk>fie# # |!:«iieild m'^ 

wai ^iifmiod Biif^ili^ c^Ojie'Ui^d Suites d^ 
the TitW Qt iiany Amifi«4^%e^ai;or$. I^e <^ m^« 

#^ pimi^rL ie l8##^ 

cl^ llipidMiiit^^ ttio$ agi^i^ic#;»e m , 


+ > 

/ "', 


f^ o R i*^ my IB i^ * A 

«€ m« tbMi diiii AUniimtili^dib^^ 

tmfciiiy h»v» been aarlMd #ith wlfifc^ and ibt m#i(f 
oief they liafe stddplnl Mi lieeifr Ira^iffive 4kf mat 
aadbnfl pfoTperUf . ^ tlie dU« af»|Hn«itftmit9P to c9|pe/ 
#iildi tltt, Mueral' hs^Vf te^ itto^r lhi «(bl>iaiiMfoi 
#r i f^^eitttt «Mf juaithat i^ Aeni» sl^ of t lBI»Clfbdr 
\ Miili tkt alTttiki^tioh of tte dtM of !ti» Siid!t(d)^ 

If . 

H^ilt st«d tfle «kicini|9^B«(iiiit diiit Bit l»ee» ghrefi t6*. 
iliini«Mtiffei, conuiiercey Mtetattn^. ii|i4i tio nlHof inyeta^v 
iKmirom # tyro4>eltof the l^eie^^misn^Yii^lQcirea^ 
fefpe Aftlrili^jr of ©e A^rlevi 9^l«ir^ > 

hat once/ 

^ « |i ftcm^^ &«mi <«[€ iMi#ei of wlln^^ra« a 
4f iHit Iccae, •• to b« « fi>M|#t?til to l|j{ittkim£^|#th'.. 

aatoHiaMj Kiil'l«ei<wl«tftyliUf a» aiw aii *il ^-Mim!^ him lb t«tf 

,taii tHl^ die rcfl^l^i|iPtt*|lieiKV«M<^M^ ^- 

*■, <> 


Mi'k *^ • i«0«f« aecfw»tit»,coiififtf of iitee grand 
T^^jjyt i^»*fi«» l*« Jfe^asi or I^friEi State?)! 

''«#^^* \' . :. ■ . ^•''•' .4'"*^^ v:-'-: 

IJx^irticrorMArat CowhictjcVt* ^^ 

{leloagmg t4/Ma4atiu)fetu} ^ ,, ^ 

r .. . -I 

tM «n oM the |<Itw Eiiglaiid Jpac«f, a9d cooif 
|m^ An pm iC'^^ciitifim whif finet the yt^r 

T%>pii(lMOe«itk|i:i|M«»M»«i) cMBpifliciiat 

Plli«ir^t4N|4 . ■ ^\. 

WAAnAlUI V TttMfA&Y S. or Olft«9 

yiR0iifi4 / *8ovrii C4&0VIM4 \ 

]NotT|i CA40MM 


iiiM m il -— » .. 

•f »r-- •.-;-' IT *> . *» 

Ill iqiK III III ( 'I 



>fo*T»Eini «* sASTEilJf states; 

,- . ■ - > ■ ■ ' . , ■ ■ «>', „ 

$|»aar#ifi» iifi4 ili« AMtie p^m^ ^»iHktH ^tji«i» 
Occam andjl^ l#M(^lMM|i>^r l>f tic |^ of 
J^cjrjork, ttfoBtf liWteirfii^ 

pne in Ijhiptceii i)r £0^^1.19 |^|ff«^ 9N afi^i^ardi. 

^**;:. 's 




foor } tilt mihUf Itmtkt «iii 4ebtMlMri«P ^ ^« 
ftrft* tnd tbc m^rj tid too Irtfudit faia»pcraoec of 
tl^ bft deacof th# 4mttcr proportiOir ff theft twd, 
l^cintoriDcduiUcloft k^tUmAiak Indul^tiu^ie jUtih 
!»«)▼€ lital 10 the *ich, tiul abovt tho(e fuiStiinsl to 
whic^ the «|%ttinate fwfk hW vW^mt : this irmro. 
ibredxe hi^pkft diYifionof the thrfe« Of the tkk 
and poor, dte Amttican RepuUIc fttrnifliet a mpch 
fmaller proponioii than Aiif odier ilUbta of this lenown 
world. In Conne^cot ptiticuJarly, the diftfihotigo of 
.vcnlih and itf cencomttantt is inor« e<)CuU than fife- 
•where, and tbercfore, m far ai eacefior want "f % A' ^h 
jnay prove diiflruifl^vc or (alutary to' life, ';h<; ;fu*.4 it* 
ants of ihU ftatc may plead exempiion iVcn vVireafcs/* 
What this witter fays «i Comiearriit it rvticuitr, will, 
wiUi very few exccpuoo^ apply tc Ac*r Eogland at 

larjre. s'- 

f'ace ^iHC(miry^JKoimt€hiSt C^r^J New England is 
a hilly, and io fome . parti a mduntainous country, 
formed by n^tor^ to he inhabitj^d hy f har^y race of 
Iree^ iOdepciident teJMihTlcam. ^lie -mouiualns are 
xomparatively fmall, ronning nearly iiprti) and fouth. 
In ridg^ paraMel^to each Otter* Between thqfe ridges, 
jBor. ihe gfeajt livers in majeftic fn^and^M'S rej^e|vtn^ 
t\\^ ini)uir%|ble rWaleU m4 larger ftre^s whi^h |rb» 
ceed from ue mottntatiis on each fide# To^a fp^^a^ 
<m ^e top of a tie^bo«nng mountain, Jthe vales to- 
jHreen tha ridges, while in a ftato of nature ea|Uhtt a 
fomantie appearafvce. They feem an ocean of woOds, 
iliFefled a^d deprefl^d in its fuifaee Ttl^e that of th^ 
fireai ^ean itfelf; A richer# though lefs romantic 
««ew is ^ktMk When idio v^tes, by ilidiiiHioiis htif- 
haadmen. We bee*' ^ ^*f;>red of ihehr Tiitutat |pro^th 5 
and the fruit «fiihe1rH!*T. ^•ipear^ M^^^aded oribhards« 
ett<ni(Wa;|Reaibws, ii%^ with large herds of (heep 
iiid seat «attfe, aind rich iields offlix, com and dif 
%»io«rli»t#6f g^aifli; ■ ■ • ".■■': ■*•' ■; : '' "'^■ 

^tMi^f^HXk^: mtt of Tarbtii hrtadths, fromt twott 
tmtxktf nSii^ % and hy the li#iia Imi^ 
^»tf% md^^kitlimfmi^ iimti Ibir th^ig&^theiB. 
dhcfe is fre^Mly ilii wrctilfttiiNi «(«^ rifii # M 

-..:./ ,%1*er?_ 
•* ■ ■ ,. ■ ' ,■ 

«t^ i#'d»LA''ii«. 

tvfiH ana TiM* t 

begtm^earAofiMetiii, itt Coi i clK cm. 'niffetM^tt 
-of »OQ[nG|inf ft##1wl i9f l^iiigt ^^tcr, . «t fin ttft 
to mifttHeri^'ftiVknit f f i^ ti liiNlir whicii, ioterloek. 

^"liMk^r^*^ diflAtail ind fyiling ovr* the 
rncln tn/MKi|lfe?<tm4ei» flow aiiandetiog into tbt 
ft#efi lfil««i iNb t^mrf ok tht gbbe it better traaer- 
Yd than'Ne^SftgliiB^. 

^ Jiivert.y ,Th» firtrtcipal riv •« fn New England, tre 
pi:nob%^€, Keifliebeek, 'ilndlt)«coggin or Afnerifcoggin, 
8a(lo, Ypi^^^u^c^^ ^''1'^<'<7 M rriniirdk, Conncdtictit, 
itouHitdiiitk, and Omoo Hirers beildei ratny fmalkr 
■one».r - - '" ;■'■■'' '"- ' 

#^^^.3 NewJRijiglaii*, gafitiifettf fpeaking, ts 
t)mer adftfned fc^r .graz*in|( thRQ fbr grainv^ tbotigh a 
fuifi cient^^uirfcjif of the htier if 1 tifcd for homceon- 
T:irt(^P>f<)!i, if We fetcept wh^at, wi ich is imp^fled in 
r^inliderahle t^Uiintities frcmi them.ddle and fdudiertk . 
A^te^ Indiin c(frn, rye:, oats, barls: » buck wKeat, iti 
"anVi 'hempk cfencmUy fncc^ed veiy vhell? Wheat $• 
cakivated to ndyantagUo ifnany pa-ts of the interiolf 
country, btit on the ie^i^^aft it isfnbjeA to j>)aft» Aji? 
plies arc common, and In g^eral plenty m-.Ne# BWi^ 
land i and cider ^oniiitiitiei the princtpai drink of tm^ 
inhabicants. ftacitts do not ^ive fo weifas formerl^ 
The mheV comttib^i fruits arc itoorc or left ctdtfvat^ in 
different parts, '- 

New Eflg^Hud !s a fini graifMg cnar.try ; the>aBiet 
bftween the hiil$ are generally 1ntcrfe<5ted with hroblfit 
of w^it*r, the l^nks of which ate lin^d wi^ a itiB^ 
rich iifieado^ or interval land. Tlie hi|^ and 'rbcf^ 
gtptind i&j Jr» rtianf prts,' coveted with cloWi iiMl 
generally aiSbrils the nneft of pafturci It wili not hi 
• teatter ajjT wonder, thetefore, that ^c# JEnf^iik^ 
Nwrtls cf mmt rnt»eof'li\tMm.Mm inr dfrlvSildt 
•wwirtttr W%¥ted^wlu^~^tib^0ftiffin|P^^ 


lit ^ IfEW tflCLJm^ If 

m die year, the farmers ai;^ trnplojeci in pKipriiig ibo4 
i4>r tl^eir cattlt iijkM titt cold, winter t^fpe^Ui dcaU 
ing it out to thaili. The pleafiir^ anct-proSt of Ma^ 
tluSf ;is howerer a faiislying comptnfatton to the hove^ 
and. induftrtous farm^p. £.utter aii!^ chc^e are qnadc 
tcT exportation. Conriderable tiU^ntion hat lately beea 
paid to the raifUig or OiiCepw \ 

potulatm and Ch$raBtr^ .New England is the moft 
.popuWs part of the jUnked States. It contained, ac- 
cording jto ihe cenfui. of I79ip> i^oM^a^ %4^'* 
The great body of thcie are landholders aiScultivators 
of the foil. As, they poifefs, in fee (linpiei the farms 
which they cultivate, they are naturally all attached to 
their couiitry ; the cultivation of the (oil makes them 
irobaft aiid healthy, and enableSflhem to defend it. 

-New Engla;id mii'^y wtth,prx)priety, be citlleda nur- 
fcry u/m8n,ii7hen/:e are annually tr^nfplan ted, into oth- 
er parts of the United 3tates, thoufands of its natives^ 
Vad numbers of them, fir.ce the war, have emigrated 
into the northern parts of New York„ into Kentucky 
and the Wedero TcrHtcry^ and into Qeorgia ; and 
feme are fcattered into every ftate and every town of 
note in the Uniof). 

Theinhabitants'ofNewt England are ^Imoft univerr 
f^lly of £ngli;ih dj^fcent ; and it is owing to this circnm- 
ftaiice, and to the great and general attention thatJbas 
been paid to educati(»n, that ^e Engliih languaige has 
bieen preserved among them fo free from corruption. 

in New England, learning is mere generally diifufed 
jimohg all ranks of people than it> any othcr.part of the 
globe ; arillng from the exrellent eftabliihrnent of 
Khools in airhoft every townfhip and fmaller^iftridt. In 
tlwfe fchools^ which are generally fupported by a 
pObUc tBrX, and utider *he diiedir.n of a fcLool con-.mlt- 
tpe, are tatight the elements of reading, writing and 
•rUhmetic ; and in the more weakhy t( wns, vh<^ are 
beginning to introduce the higher branches, yiz. gram-r 
mar, geographyt &c. . 

A fcry valuable fource of infbrmntion to the peopl^,. 
i»)|^ Newipaperi^lj^ which aot^ ItU than thirty thru^ 





f&ndii^ printed e^cry w^iin New En^nv?, an J circu* 
tate in al^M^ *^c^y ^^^1^ ^^^ ▼illigc'in die ct untry.*^ 

A perfon of mJiiure age, who cannot both read and 
irnte, is rat«ly to be Toand.- By means of this general 
efhthliniment of fchoolJi; the excenfive cifculaiion of 
ncwfpapers, and th^ confequent fprejd of Icamifig, eir- 
ery^tow^nfl|ip throughout the country is furnilhed with 
iTieh capaWe.of conflu^ing the affarrs of their town» 
With judgment and' difcrction. Thef^ men arc the 
channels of political' inforniittion' to the lower dafs of 
peojie, if fiKh af clkfs nwy be faid la exill in New 
England, where every man t})inki^ hlivifelf at leaft ^tf 
good as his neighbour, and believes tJxat all mankind 
ou^it to poffels equal rij^hts. ♦ 

Hi/iory.'} The fir a cortipAny came toNew En^< 
land planted ihemfelves at Plymouth. They were » 
par^ of the Rev. Mr. Robiiilbn's coi^gregaticn, which 
iSor tw^lv*' years befori iiad live^ in Holbind» for the 
fyke of enjoying liberty of confcieiice. They cam« 
over in \he year vSio*.' 

^Before tliey> landed, havinip^ e» their kmeei deiMltl]^ 
given thankii tp €rod! for. their fafe arrival, they licinAed 
fhenifelves into a body ^ poUtic, by - a folemn c0Ufiitl^^ 
which they all fnbfcribedy thereby making it thi balU 
of tlkir |^ov«RUiifttiti -They chefe Mr. Johft CarVtf , » 
gen^eman Qf piety and approved abilities, to be their 
^Ov^rnor for the^^yeof. Vhi& urab ow the llth of 
Novanber, ti5id» j .^ _ - - ■./♦■ 4; ;,.;,:, -^■■, '•.*^>^, 

'Fheil* next obje<!^ vii^s to i)e» oh> a dOt^Ventent pladl^^' 
f^ttlemeiit;' In doing this they werd obUi^d tocncoin^ 
ter numerot^ difficulties, and to fuifer incredible hkrdi<^ 
(hips. M^iny of them , were fick in confe^uence ^tlut 
iutig«tes of ; a long vo^ag^ i ^tit provifions wer« had; 
the feafon Was uncomtnonly cold ; the Jhdiani» though 
ftfterwards friendly, were now hoflile ; and thsy were! 
Unae^^inted with the coaft. Thefe difiieoUies thejr 
fiini^ipBted, and on the $xft of December tliey were aU 

•' . . ' • . . . 

^ A<c6r4ing tb an aAurate eftimate, madt ten jteari*fl|^» i| 
•]^f{]«Mrfr th«r no left than 77,000 newfpaper«?were pirintfd %recii» 
Ift m lliie ^/l^cricaoStxti^wluch, in a |»|i^» m<mH' aJGbqiiot^l 
ti\mwh f>i four milUojruM and at 4 cefili each, would ntajw 
doU..ti^ The number fioce bat greatly ihcrcafedi 







$4e]j landed A aplaccr i%|li, In graltfU|tniiimeaiai 
xatioa of Plymottth iaj^pgp^, th« town twK ihey Ull. 
left in their nativ^ Und, ihef cull^ PfyiM&k ' This is 
the firft EngUIktown that li*a^ ftttiled > New Engh^ 
The whole compapjr that landed confifted of but<|di' 
fimis* Their fltoa|ion Wa# di^refltpg* aod their proC.^ 
pe&. truly difmal and difeooi^ging. TKeif nrartii 
qeighbotirs, except the natives, <vere a French fettle/ 
ment at Port Royal» and one of the Englifh at Virginia. 
The neareft of th^f was five hundred mlle^ frofli\h|Bm> 
and utterly incapable o^ affording them relief in ai^ritie. 
of limine or danger. Wherever they tunn^ their 
i^<s, diilre& was before them. Perfecuted for their re- 
lyeton in their native Istnd— tgrieved for the profanUttonj 
of the holy S^bba^, and other Ucentioufnefs in Holland 
*^fatigued by iheir long and boifterous voyage— Ulifap- 
|>ointed, through the treachery of their comciander, of . 
theif, expe<^ed country^— forced'dn a dangerous and uc*. 
kndwn ihore* in. the advance of a eold ^ wanter-r-fur- 
founded with hoftile barbarians^i without any. hope of . 
I^Uihan fuccour-^enied the aid or fiivouf of the cdlirt> 
o^l^gl«nd<-^9»tthout ^ p,atent-^wi|hottt ^^ut^ic prom-^ 
ift pi a fteaceahle anjoyxnent of their reUg^us Kljertiei . 
•i«rWom out n^th toif an^ fuferingsr-rFithott| 'tonve^^ 
lle&^ill9ltef^ rigoufi of ^t(e weather.— Suchi. 
wm^ike profpeast and fueh the fitu^^onof tbej^pi*' 
^ibltar/ Chriilians } »id, Ui add :to ^eir di^ieS^^t ^^ 
fetumd and yery mortal ficictiefi^reyjit.Ied.amor)ttth^ 
i(^0k^tmt^{o$;fonfStt oi i^fr. number bef^e ^.! 
a^nt of the n^sf tpring. To ftt|>port thetn undetr.. 
llMift tnall* they^had need of all the aids af^deomfprtl. 
l^ldl OtfiCHat^ity affordii aaid thefe u^ie fuffi^ifnt..^ 
^<il^ and tttuBolefbd enjoynsent o^theb i^gknii 

tonctled ^em to tbeir humble and k^nely fittiiaM'^^*^ - 
i^bdre their hardA^j>s wi^ unexampled (atience«, 
%id per(ev»!BtedJn ^^it* oilgrimage of aln^oft t^^ral^* 
kled trials, witk idi^h tedgnation and calninefs»:l|^av« ^ 
l^oof of great piety and uneonquerabie virtue. • 
' Th^pni4«n(» f^endly and uiuright c^u^of tht, 
SynonthcclonT Inwards their iieighbou,r$> the Indians*.^ 
%»re<iit^ ^%UI»i^ ao4.a)!y^ Oni^e ttth aff 

" jtcaildi^^ - 

§le/fijmk\m§l^Jit rro ^6h1^ nine Sachems dedac^ ^• 
UgijuicelMiliag Jaitm ;'dh MafalToU and iQany; of his* 
Sub-BacnnM; who lifed ^tmmd the tiafs of Ftcuxcnt 
«ll^ Maflachufetts, fubfcribcd a writiDg, acknowledging 
th9 icing of £ngli|nd Uieir tea(Wr, Tbefe o^mlaAiocs. 
are lb many proofs ot the peaceful and benerolent d^ 
pofttion of the Plymouth fetters j for hid ^y be^n- 
6tlierwif<i* difpiofed, they never could have introduced' 
and maintained a friendly intercourfe with the natives. 

The firft Juei invNew £nglattd,,wat foiight with fVord 
and dagger, between two iis^vAts;''' Nejther, of them 
was Icilied, but both Were Woiihdedin For this difgrace- 
ful offence they were formally tried before the v/hde 
fompany, and fentencedto havt *' their heads and feet 
tied together, and fo to be twenty ibur hoursi: without 
meat ox drinlE/' / 

It WHS in the fpring of 1630 that the greea' contrary . 
viis enterediioto by we Indians ih all: paits,^ from the 
^tirra^anfets round to the ea(iward, to extirpate the 
Englits. Tbd colony at Plymouth was the principal 
ebje^ of this coxifpiracy. jThey^welV knew that if they 
could el^ the deftruAion of I'lymout^^ the infaiil^^M'' 
tlement at MaOjchufetts w^4 ^^ 4p eaf^r^idrij^e. 
'Fhey laid their plan with- much asrt^ ^Hei^ C9fdc|r of 
having foipe diyer(ion at Fiy.:ifOjith, Uity in^ndc< ^ 
hafe Si%n npoi^ the Inhabitantsy ^d tho^ to h^e ef*- 
/ icddd thlir dedgn*^ ]Eftit, their p\qt ^ difclofejl tpihe 
people at CharleiiQWsii by /^hn S:Agaixi^r^, au Indian, 
who had always been a.giieat (riend^ toJl^e lihs^^ 
i^bls treacherous defiga of the ind^ns afajmed the 
)£ngli(H, and indiici^d tne^ to teredt ioru ^a matltfaia 
guai-ds, to prevent any fuch fatal furpnfe in futiilre. 
7riiej(e preparatiQii^, and the iinhg 6f'thp gritH iim»% fo 
terrified the Ixidians, that they difperfed, relinquijQbed 
thipir deHgn, and 4ecluied them(elves the ^ieiutfitof^tlia 

was in rd4|, the four c(4bnies of Piymout^ 
mfetts, J^onnedkicut and New Hiaven agrei^d upon 
Articles of confederation, whereby a congrefi was i{^mr 
td, conTi/Ung of twor commidson«f$ kota ci^jph cdl^y. 
Who isere chofen aa^oallY, and^?^&i&tt imii <^|r^^ 
tnd as the reptd^tivel^f «^ 19^iuted Cobn^ 
Ik* .. /^: . ■ -\New ' 



hf Oie aniclff ol* coiili^iHpfB* , igH^fi 

liyiftorrsOr^Mew EnglM; b^.coniuJ^n^Hiitcliiflte't^ 
Hiftorf . of M9ir^boiett8,,»Ti4 Mteot** Cpo|i||up^«i^ 

Hiftory oCthe tofi^rt^iei in fj^Ci^nd %f^y^^J^\kmp*$i 
HiUory of New HampUiiie-'rhefira I^ttterin Qordon^Ss 
Jfiftpry of the Amerkin I|i(voVtti9kni-HOo«; W4ni||#Qp^t . 
J«arnal-«r-Chaliner^ P«iitical Aona^»^-an4'; Goo]tih>H 
Hiftoiical Cdledigas oC the Indinij^MM HimM^^^nd^^ 
inj^IiPted- in B«(|on» by th^. tiiAq»ic4v5iaci«c^, m th«. 

'. ■v 



^ E R: 1^ (?« N T>. 

i>-^J-^ ^%1 PUNDJ^^ north, by Lt^wcT Ca^^- 
4 V ^'Tt 'JQt* ^*^* ? **^* ^ Gonneaka^ River,. 
ivIaa^itSom %w Hamp(k()re ; .f0tM;|iiiji>7 l/M'. 

f.'}- VjH'niont h mtwgSfy, divided by thft. 
^^._,- ,-j»ttntain, yhiie^^^ns from noith to iouth, andi 
Smtsibf: St«ate nearlj io^jthe mldjile. . t^ eWH di^i*,. 

WiMDsoa IViudfir 

iRiiTLAN9 Kutknd 

jXpptsoH AdMm 
5 (iP^^iif W* ^*#*i 









^l^e iilbent litfiBiH^ 





m^9» irhii^ f nil Iron weft io cai^ iqIo Q>oii«aia|ii 

Itf id^» 7 oe-SLfodsmkng^ O&ter Cj««k U aavigalllii : 
fpr boau j;o xniles... lu baoks are exceUeat laoci» Msg ; 
ax^muiUy av«r^vred ao4 enriched. . , 

Lfuiesiuid Spikes.'] M$|L>phrei» the btttlbt 
l^kp in this ftate. . , It is the.reieriroir of t|»ree coniiaiV** 
st>ie ftrea^is, B|ack» ^nen, anci £iydc rivers* . 

11» fon)? low lau4s, over agiiinft tliB great OirB»1i;||i 
rfmarka|>le fpriDg w^ dtlcQvered ihmk so^ years i|ipice|:, 
which dne$ up oaceao t%aor^iree<j^an, an4vhtti!ftf> 
ottl in laDother^^Ke* !l^ has a,%onf^^eUiQf fuljithuey^ ' 
SAd thrpws up< jcODiinuaUy a pccofiar kind of finite Autd*. ^ 
4^ thi<!J|^XeIlt)w.£^un> rifci^ upipn thf wateK^wiif»if^^^^e4^',. 
fp9^ and othier colle^iQils o£i water in, tlNt ^^\j^,-: ^ 
Vvmarjcably clear a^d tira^P)t«eot»^dj|Sbri al^ilii^ 

Tojfl trout and ''perchk. ,. :- ■.'•^ ■■t^'-.%^'V '■■^?^-"-- 

M^auahf^l] t;h9 pii^ijlsd^Qitiiliih-^ ti^^^ llVf 

tine oit^ wf^have already meottpiCed* .whitli ic^ldti Ul)^' 

Bifid i^^ke tlikippUiiUi/ TiiJM&enc f^ the e4§ to tht: 

till yoD gj^c td Qnio|»<Tiv«y4 "w^ttre theLin(^ta3it !«»:• 1 
roinates*;. The hetgbli of limd tSAg^eraU)r f^m ioi^/^Oo 
utiles 1^ ths riV9r»jiiid aboitt the fiuKe^dttUuice icpiftX^ 
ti^ Ne^ York.Uiie^. /^ iQ^l^i 

i^«f^taip» U heml^i^ pine»: ij^ce^ aad^other .^:^|..': « 
greepsi .hence it JiA» always a greap afpearaace* and^ t 
ajl aeectiint ha< i>)>«di»fid.tbfiJSfifCTippx«vi^^ of ^Ikr 
JSmv* GtcieQMotuitaiii. 
C/|NiMiri»3 ^ Kew jE^lapHi/. 

gppcf#y flpft^^ Tf ^ 




t : 

iii^ teefciAtle %ik ^ioAd^ fttte.. 

Lb apoa the iif«rsi 4t «1iStt piii^i of fc#eftl Mncbi 
lingled #fth tow^ intortids of beech, ch%*saii4 
%h?ke oak. B^ick frost tie HfefS, tUt I»m1 #thicUf 
timbered with btrch, fui^r-maple, afl^ ><Mteniii^ an4< 
irii^ite oak'of an exeunt qoalitf . The foil U naturaV 
^^t' «4ie«k»- 1 y^et bas4cf >4x)atsi Jift, hemp, Jee. Indian 
toni< biicfc firom the liverj iv-^freqiientlf injured by» 
the frod ; but on thr river it ii^ raifed-in as greait per- 
fi^on as invtif part of New Enghmd,^ owmg in> 
{•feat meaftire t<^ ^ fog» arUing from the river, "which* 
cidicT prevent or extrad the froft** Thefe fogt begirt^ 
ttt th^ tifhe the corn is in danger-from the froft, and laft 
Ult^cold weather colrimences*^ Frnit trees, in the north-' 
frn conn ties, h#^ not hitherto profpered«' 

^m^: and Mmivfiiaiwis.'i^ thfi kdiabitaiitfe of ^if 
(bte trade principaliy w^tb^ ISoftotr, K^w York,aad> 
Hartfbrd. 'The articles of export fre pot lind pearl aih- 
ts, c!neil:^(^ beef, hotfes,-grai^ fome butter sind cheefet- 
timber, ^0. ^1^ hibitbitanti geiieraUy,- manufadurd 
tl|eir PW3 clo|hmg, in^U^^^^^ 

:/"¥^^ft^ninii^ei 6f po^ s^rrd jieari iJ^atsc ao-e made in> 
#ycry <^«rt w the ftate. Bt^t oneijf the n^oft important'|u^^tires -in this ftttO is that ofmaple fugar. 

pi,pkeioii§MiH^m4Cknii^er^yx & r790, accord- 
tug'to thecenfus then tkkcii; thi^ ftat^ contained B^^si9^' 
inhabitailt8i>^co&^Vtng^ thiefiy cf emigranu ^om Con- 
iKai«^t'iilkl Mafa^ meir defeendants.. 

i^wo towitfl^ps'iii Oi*ngere<6tir>ty are fettled piincipal- 
fy%y Scotch p^ple.. 'f he body of the people areGpn- 
gregatiofisdi^. • '^he d^et dominations* are^ Fkeftxy- 

>^^he ^Miiittiits^of this ftilttf^e aft a^gbit^ ofj| 
j|le fr6m ^rioas pWce%.of dld^r^nt linlifl|eptl^ 
liers«nd hal»tls. 'They'^^v^, not li^^d^tog<^di«r l0n|( 
<tn«tt|fi Id dlimtlita; «lid forii[ tgciierid chi^^ 
finalfle Ki^^tdtfr,in ios % atsoA,#Biifaber of n^Hdnall 
^ iig^oni|4w«;i&u4er them a$ Hving tbgetlit^ 
■ ■ ■- -. '.- >.^; ;... - - ainicAbl^. 

1 1 - 



f ift «#ltT; 




«itfl|«tlii|#«l lifn I m ytc ngor«iUI]f tppoftd in Mf- 
ticular rcUeious. Mid |K;l'tic9k Unfti | jeaknto of Uicift 
nil^n, ana coMiciMit of tbcir libcflifft i dmppfiiums. 
which. (teiglflate mtiirallj firon the dstsid ^,cxI)lerie||^ 
id oppremoo, aitd the habit of Uying uiMiar a/rta gw- 
Vament-^and you hava a pretty juit iica of ^ chanc« 
tfr of thf pecfpla of Veraiont. 

MiRtarf Stt^Hgthii Ui tj9^ thipra. were «^ar«tdf ofi 
ip,5oo men upon the ihUitia roUs of this Hate. 

LitarfUturf aid /p^ovemeiUs.'] Much cannot be faid. 
in favour o^* the pi^ent lUte of literature in thi% &zU4t> 
but their, ptofpeds in this. regard are good*. In every. 
charter of a;townA. provjiion is made ^Dricbod^^ bv rfr*. 
fervtng 3< c^ acres oi' land for ch^^r fupport^. The attem- 
bly 01 this (Ute» ^i their 0<);(tber f«iU9n» in 1^91, t^aC* 
^ an ad.for the eftaji>liftiro^a%5)jr. a«ge in thi^ towa 

iof; QurlingttJtni. on Laki^ Chai23{dain,^a(ijdrapPPlQt# %%^ 

^Truliees., 'ii^er^ is a ^uri%ng Av^ade^iy i%thf( town dL 

lijiidcU^bury^n^arAut^^gt^* apd here* itis ivpt iiig^fobap 

i^, tbeColHga n(|a^ be,eIla.blUh.ed at ictagfi fvivre period* . 

(Z^TMi^i SenntQgton, fi^uatad near thafovA* 

Wftil cocner of^uie^ate» <;pntaix»w abouc i,4^..inhiahifi» 

li^^il^a.n^mberof h^ndfoine hoafeft §j^^^ 

f^ui^ch, a co^houfe, a^d-g^t, f 

Itisone.ctt:t%ol4$ft towQf iiithe,4NM(ff 

i%de4 a>^ th^ fW i^H* l^iaArdiriviaf; 

Wmdror.^dJtoUfi4ibf a^lii^a^ of th^lajpm 
4^ aUe||^J(eif.t6l.b^ th# ie^t of gov^t&r^iM^ m%yt9xu, 
-^'^ fo^rier. u iki»ilc4 ,6^ Conita^^ciit iiV^» alMi <^ 
t^i a^at X)6<^ ti^bitai^ t. the latrterliaMpon Ot» 
ur QiNiick^ and ef&taiitt ^wax^i oi; i^^^inhabitfM^ts*. 
<Qoth ate iioutilhiflg loWai^ 4 '^ 

K^wbMtf jsihe;&irc,toamc^QraQ|^fx^ HM> 
Lj eourt-tteHifi^ an<i, a trerjr. f iegaat meeting^hou^t for.- 
Ft)gregatrQaafi^> wtcb a ibeeplcj^ the fiir^4re<£led in the . 
)i$mt . 1^. ceieb¥a!lied Ce»& m^^o^Km. mtef lM|ei»., 
H|^mn9€nce about 9 jnijies bi^w;this iowoil .Newbory 
cojxtt^aife ftai^da Ofi ^ high l^da bp^^l, MOm t]|i^ ; 
j^vail ju^ coromanij;!^ ft fijipieii«leWvOl^a^lt|^it cf^M.^ : 
great O9 JtW^hieh is Ibiaed by j^ciMrtCKW bfiitdi%llM 
9r9?.. I| i«.a9e,«|,%|||||tf4)(^M^/a9^^ 

„ _.^_ _- fctr^drtfn •ttiM^^'i^^^ 

it tcseuu^oMb ii abottt foiirfeet iff dtcnoiifcT^^ Hi. 
ter'mg thh^ yoii lefceiul 1Q4 feet, and IMq o|^^m 4>«- 
cious room, tcr feet in br^adlb tnil^AO^ftif il^ i«i|tM 
the aiigje, c**f^«^tit al>wu 4r^#^^ <*^^**w fS 
iStU caverniVbf ilJ€l>tfi«)teK^wlfi^^ 
^anally pexcolwing: !%« fiOi^flftii^iitehbt^l^ 
iU roof appear Uk* mh\tsM^vm^orihMt$,Hm 
Uf ejbon^inuaUY inctiafii^ lii ttW»r iftd inuuHiitudiB. 

0^itkialfi^#^ di& die i\dei 4^ tbtsfi|bcctta*« 

|<pi Hall/avt tablcs,^butvbeitc2ief, «^.^ld^ a]^# 

e^'f ooar, ^h^ ill«ililii»tf<^ %2dl-^ aiMii' of^ #^ 
imMt0iM^ u^i^^»!^ mt^M^mi^ 

^* ^'Hlfr thlnMilwftf of' 

_- . . Itlg « , 




»> -^ V 



rl jrh%l»A of ^'oimtTf called l^«n«Mri before 
w . « J^IP» fMmwt bjr New YWk ni^f NeW 
iiittiipPfei «idiiielibtiBCeif(KinB.cIiumtlk»vil^ 
iCOttin «irvilHici# «i^^ ilk^ pftrtilrHlafs of 

#K^ it lioiiU bd IMtthoe ittemiiiing i^ iifefiil )q <!»• 
||9. Th«f if«te ISpp topHy i#>ae<l til! OiieejtW peac^l 
Wiin MtliUcf coii)^^ bebiseen Great Bfltam air^ 
Jb«r coionicf, tliife4idlabit9nt< or tkit jdiftri^ c0iin<lerixip; 
tHimT*lvet a« in^ ikmte of natuci^, and not wit^n ^!i»f' 
^urifdi^ofi etthtr-^fAllcw York or Hew HampiWe, \ 
aflbciate4 »^^ (prmtd foi iiii^*i^>m $ ^cmiikatK.n, 
Under' thft conftitutioiiy thef liave evvnti^iied to e|er» , 
ciiie aJH^ tKe tfowt^M of an" tntdepende^ ftlte, and iHve 
be«r pro^^ered;' 'Oil t)to loordr of }4itf^hi 'k 79 1 , a^ee* 
Mf to a4i of CottireiSi «f Bece>nB«ir 6ch^ 1706, thts 
llate beeafAe one of the Uinrited Sta;te«, and ciffi^!l!m'n , 
ehe.foairfMitli, and not the icaSt refpe^ble Pitlqi^il^ ' 


the A^^can Union, 


Dh Sanjniel WUlia«lsli«i Wifth ^ kiftc^x^rt^- 

$tite> ii^'OiieTdtvm^ 





.1 II 1*1 , 1 1 II 


i m ii j i f i ju i 

V,l » 

Mile* ' ' 

N E Vf 'm:.A'Uf.S H i-R'E. 


Gr^Atert breiiddi oa >• between 
Leaft breadth 

• nLoi..:.. T Tl OltMBEO north, hy tlie ProfviiK« ^ 
if^mrui.} J^ c,f i^r>wcr Canada j ?a% by the. Dlf- 

triiftof Maine and^hi; Atlantic Oce^n; fomh, by M.if-^. 
Ikchufetts f w.ft,'l>jr thc.wcOerh bank pf C^^ ine^ftknt* 

j|crfctJ^:#Wl4ch it feall loo.doo 5icr*s iirc wntef.' The 

Jim tkditllrttittli*^*^ 

totil • 14I.885 


Iv '* 

• i?W<,^//««r C««/o'-l' T1iMmJ« bgs b^ aW I tl to.1^ 
-of &a«osia ; a\i<l chilli ^t its fottthpafV corner. .The mif 

the ikor^s of wl^ich^rp r6c^^ t^e J^^'Tf j^'T^'^it!)-^^ 

{Un4r ixJ^cJlit adinlnmjr Wljlcli ate jnlt n;.iHk^^tm^ i' cr . 

e4 br ctfltclc< Fn^tn ^fca tio rcmavkabivs high Ivjna^, 

:i«pp4r ftf«rftr that*. i& or 30 tijiles, then commences a 

' 1IBcS»t8tJ<>t»ou5 co«ntTy. - v ; . 

ThVlandsbordetms-on Conncflicat river are Inter- 

fp«ffe4 %it1i qttcofivtt incaaowi d^ iptcrvHls, rich ^n4 

■^,:mmi^:l t'he m<»ft noted xnojintafif in t^'^ State 
are the White Moumiinv one ofvirhictiii called Mount 

^ht^h ;^e aU d£icribod.4n iht AnJiefen U>iver|sil Ge- 

.*]^.iJ jVf Ivc of tl^ Wged ftreitjijm i<2W "^rtVland 
»«^ei^ nipw^ or left of their praters ftom ^^^o^- 

/^^e4»x:tit river Tiles m^ebg^ a^\^Jf^ ^P;' 
^ratt ihe IJml^d SUt^^s fro«i the tnulh Province of 

biwidlle 45th Jeitr^e of MitudH, to the head i\>nng 


NIW rtAMP,iUAl. 


)f toiaHMffee. Its menl co«! sabeat ). S. W It 
extendi alohf^ the wvftem fide of Hew Hubpftitr^ >«it 
iTOinilef. and ttjcii p>ffcfin» MajftAjifetis. x 'sltt 
fntaller Urtsamt,' t% reeeifci from NewUkmpfhtre* pptr 
A^onoofuek, Ifrael'i riTer, fobn'i river, Great or l/>w- 
oAffiMpnoofuck^ Sugar, Cold and Aflmelot rirert. 

_ jCHcut rWer, in iti coorfe benreea New Hamp* 
(kifili^ Vermont, has two confiderable falh $ the firf^ 
are cjifed Fifteen Mil^Fadls, between Upper and Lower 
Coos ; the river If ripid for lo milei. At Walpoleiia 
i«cond remarkable fall, formerly known bj the name of 
the Gkeat Fall, now denominated Bellows* Fall»» In 1 7R4, 
a bridge of timber was conftraftcd over this fall, 365 feet 
long, and fupported in the middle by a great rock, wider 
which the higheft floods i^afs without detriment. Two 
bridges have fitice been erefted over this river— one at 
Hanover, the other at Windfor. Tlie former is about jo 
ipfs in length, contliling of one arch of 150 feet chord— 
coft ifetween 1 2 or 1 5,ocp dollars ; the latter, j^xi ^et ii^ 
length, cxclufive of abutments— co(tjib,Ooo dbllars. 

This beautiful iiyer»* in its whole lengthi 1i lined ott 
each Ctde with a great number of the moi^ floiiriflung 
and pleafant towns in the United States, tn its whole 
CQurfe it preftrves a diftance Of fron\ 80 to too mUei 
from the fea coaft. ^ , 

Merrimack river is formed by the confltt^nci pi 
Pemigcwaflet and Winnipiicogce rivers* After the* 
3Pe»nigcwaflct receives the waters of Wihniplfeogee^ tt 
takes the name of Me^imack ; and, pnrfuing'a couriteof 
about 90 miles, fir ft iiia foutherly and then in a() ea/iiezl|' 
dfreftion, pa(Sn| over Hookfet, Anin/k'eag^and Pimt^tck* 
ct falls, it enipties into the fejt at Itfewbcarjpprt ; From 
the W. it receives Biackwater,<ContoocQok,rifdati<}tN>ae#.^ 
Souhegan, Naihua^and Concord rivers : From' €^e ^aS^W 
Bow cook, Suncook, Cohas, Beaver, Spicket and Powow 
rtvers. Contoocbok he^ ds near Mooadno^f q^o\inUtei> ' 
is very rapid,, and id or 1 2 miles from its mouth is ibdi"^ 
vards wide* juft before its entrance into the Memin|«ck, ' 
it^rauches and forms a beautiful idand of ab^ | Or € 
a^re^ This iflatid it Ycmarkable, a? bein^ th^ $ot wherti ' 

^ « Mo wttry grtaint tKroo^h happier villies iKiflNFr 

« J^ driakv t^ |«a a loveliet wave iImb thtoe.*' JUaiewt 


f:ffW HAMFa HI Ri. 

a>Mi^DaAmiper£oiiQCil«o«itrfOfd2miT,ciflotL ThU 
.weoitn bad bceo taktii |i]r t pam df^InAuii* IMi Rm. 
nrhmioMa£Mk^l|bii(iaaMrrifd,tftt}ii»Hlifld. The 

JiuUtQi, 8 or l(ppuunUr» iattgof^tjad diinkbg tKcai* 
:Ivcf }^wiM«, iclilulMp* .WShe^iinproifBd thii dpponvnitf 
to maka her ^Cfipcii fiod tBat&c iiii|{bt efed,itirii||i|t 
dangtr of l^nc iwwied,lhe wiU^cnie </tbtir toittli^ki 
Jtilkd them aSufcalptd them, foo{k thiiir canoiTtiMt W- 
tunir<|daif A the fiver taHaverhiilL^ cairricd tlit Icalpt 
10 Bofto9,< where (ht was geaeffvo^ rewarUed . 

A bridge hat lately been proK^ed over Amolkeag 
.falls, sjohtt in leiD^Ui,aiid 80 tcct wide, fttfyported hj 
J |uerf. . And» what is renarlEable, this bridge was reo- 
derejd pa4abt<i for travellers hi,57 days after it was beg^n• 
vTiiefe arefeTcn othe^ bridges over the' Merrimack— -one 
at Kfwb^irfi^ two at l^averhil|» pne at Anidover, one at 
pr^cuty and two at Concord' 

The Pilcataqua is the on|f targe river whofe whole 
cottfreis in NeW Hampfkire. From its form at)^ the 
iltnafion of Its bfanches, it is extremely favourable to 
the piirpeAe «€ nafiga i iea j cn d^ commerce* .The mod 
rei)>e^able bridge in the United States* hs|s been ercAed 
over this river, 6 milei above PortfmoutlH 2»6oo ieet 
ijH )^fh* ^t cofl 68»ooo dollars. 

Zf£/j 'WinnipiftogeeLaVe is theIarge(tcolleAion 
•f w^tertlik New Han4)(hire. ;It is abotic ja miles in 
.length, from S.E. tb N«W. af^cV of lery unequal breadth, 
ij^ro $toiz miles. I^ is full of iilands, and is ^uppUcd 
with numerous rivuleti from the faitfounding ittountains. 

Thjslake is frozeTi about} month"^ i« a year, stnd many 
^il^ghs ^d trains, from the circunhj^cent tbwns, crofs it 
dfi th«.iee» ilnfutnmer it is ,n<avigable its whole length. 

Th^^eir coofiderable lakes, are Umbag^ (in the 
NvE. c«nier of the State, and partly in the DiftriA of 
*mine) S<mani, Sn^ns^pee ind Great Oflapee. 

SiHl0klpnMwu,'] Of thefe there are a great variety 
iathis.iUte* The interval lands upon the margin of 
ueJjme rvNty^^e the mo(l valuabU, beeaufe they are 
^^'^^^^'iS^^^^^^^^^ every y«ar» br the water from 
t& Qplnii^ iH&h brings down a fat (fime»^r fedin^enu 

^efe inUrval lands are of vaiious breadth, acdt>rd- 

log to t)^ ne^ or retnote Hlbiilion of the hillk. Qk 

.._ ■'■ ' ;■ ido&wAicttt • 


HKW RAMlftiriR'B. 


CktmMiOL^ riftr, tkey art from a Qtftrtcr of a mtl^ 
to i mic and y half on «ac& fide ; anJ it it oUtrvable" 
ilMt they yitii wheat in gre:iter sibdiiipc ^^ perfec-^ 
tioii than the fame kiQi of feiU eaff^ the hetjzht of 
hti>d* 'THcre laodft io ev^ry part of the ftate, field all 
the other kinds of gnit in the greated pcrftAion; bof 
arc aot ^ Sf^d for pnflnre at 3ic oplatidi of a i^p^r' 
qualitf. The wide l)>readin2 hills are generally muchf 
elieemed as warm and rich{ rocky moift land* 
counted good for pafture ; drained fwamps have rdeep' 
mellow j^il ; and the'irgdlies bfetween hiUf art generallf: 
very produtflivei • 

Apples and peats ^re trye moR cdmmbn, and the prirt- 
cipal fruits cultivated in this lUte. No good humand- 
man thinks his farm complete without an orchard. 

Agriculture is the chief bu/inefs of the inhabitants of 
thas Itate* Beef, pork, mutton, poultry, wheac^ ryt. In* 
difiA corn, barley, pulfe, butter, cheefe, ^4% hdmp, hops, 
efculent plants and roots, articles which will always find'' 
a marker, may be prQdaced*in almoCi any q^ntttyii^ 
KewHamplh^re. ' '"' 

TratJ£ and Maffufaattnt.^ 'T^'e inhirbltanft in iRc fouth^- 
wefterh quarter of this Uate generally carry their pro- 
diice to BoftcJn. In the middle arid northern part; as Tar' 
a^ the Lower Coos, they trade at PortfmAuth.* Aboytj.' 
the Lower Coqs, there are yet uo convenient roads direi!!^ 
i| to the fea-eoaft. The people on the upper branchietr 
of SftcoVi-yer ^n^ their oeareiV market av Portland, itv< 
theDift^iaof Maiitl'j and thither the irthabitani^ of* 
Upper Cods have generaH^r carried their produce : fotpe 
have gohc in the other dire«ftioa to New yorkibafket. 

The people in the country 'gtoerally inantifaftitro^^' 
their own clothing ; aod>(onfiderable^ttsintities of to>ri! 
cloth iot exportation^ Tile other l!(iamifiia:UTes a^e pOl 
and pearl autes, maple fa?ar, btlcks'^d tKttt^» 9^i 
l^me iro% not fuificient, however^ for hmne i^orutttop^ 
tion,'ihbugh it might be mnde an articjie of clcpl^r^^ 

Population anJtChardSerSX The nuthb^r of )i&b|& 
ants^^jn 1790, \m bi«n mentioned i^ the4;>if!^dm^<ta^" 
Me ^ ^ivilions. 

Tl)fri9habitants of New-Hampfhire, Itlce the fettler^ 
in all new countries, ate in geiieral, a ha^dy, robud, 
^t^vC} bVave people. 


Mftt, JitdmMt faU.'i Hie only oc^lcgc iBr Oiii 
State If hi tht towDihip df l^aoTer, fittoted ^m % 
betatifol plain |||p pt half ft mile eaftvof Cooiifaicut 
mer, in latiti^Rfl*' ^.)'. It was fi%mtd Dartmouth 
CclUte, after the Right Honourable Wmm,£0rl9f Dart^ 
moJi, who was one oiitt principal benefa^ora* -' It wa$ 
fotioded by |hc 4ate piou» and benevolecvt pRiJSte^r 
iHiiefmkt wbo» in i*i6^t obtained a royal char^, whei^ 
ro ample privileges were gcanud* and fmtable ptoviktm 
mzdtior the education and inftro£Hoa^of yoi^ih oTtho 
Ittdiao iiibes. In teading^ ^^'^^^1^ and of learn- 
ing, which ftould appear ncdtfeiy and expedient for 
ciTtlixing and chtiilianiziag tbie children of Pagans, as 
w«Il at ta all ^e liberal arts «idicienccs^ and^alfb of 
£nj;^liili jouth« and $mj otjiers.- It is |iow one of tht- 
apoft growing ^miSiaties i* the United States. 
^ file funds of this eo^ege confift clne% in lands, s^ 
monming to a^t 80,000 icres, which are iacrearmg; 
i|iVtilne> iaproponion^tothe growth of the country. 

The niimher of under graduates, in 1790, was about 
if en tiief iiat t fittw incrtafed» A gnruiinaf fcH«el» (|C 
ftboat 50 or €«feh%n, ii tQOf xtd to ^« eolkgft 
Hm Ihidinu trji tffidcr ihi Immediitf gbfemmtnl 
mi teftrttlUoti df 11 l^&Atnat, ^ it im» ptofeffor of 
Ulkiftf} 1 profdbr of i|iA$h«iii«tici tn4^fittairal ph^lo^ 
oj^t a pfmiar oC^ng1;^l^f^i wKltw^tium'ii^ 

jMtlt^oi whifih;ii it Etfieri^ lagt^ 

1^ |l^ Hon. |ohn ^^H^^iLU 0|PF Sxettr, «nd in* 
¥pi|iibrat^d hy a^ ol ;dmhly> to tf i^» bj^.:tbe»iiim« of 
^.in^illirps' .Exeter ^demy*^^* It t%a very rcfpe^abhi^ 
f^d' ix^^ * ^Ak^tbtii un^r the l^pe^ioo of a hofir^ 
af4r4^e#j|^|}^ immediate g^^ 
tidfi of a pi-eeeplpr, anci ^ aflittant. It-hM n fuiid of* 
i^t Uvo0oifi'e1ie ^^ i» in lands not yet 

pnil^ive. 1%tt^«i^ 

{ui|:€iimin«Em!y Itetv^h 5P 1^^^ . * 

^ An %«%iny at M^ IpTwich was hi coipo qite d in, 

■■'■.: r 







Tlitrc ii another acadtmy at Atkinfon^ founded by 
the Hon. NafSanui PttMjf^ who hat endoured it with- 
a donation of i>ooo acres of land. It was incorponted 
in 1790. * ;:^ 

At Amberftf a^ aaacl^ir was incr>rporafeed in 1791^. 
by the name of the '* Jwtm Aea^HtfJ*' Simibr iimi- 
tntioni arr forasinj^at Chaiieftown, Concord, aad other ' 
places, which, with tho pecuKkp attention which has 
lately been paid-tofchooh, by>the legifkitnre,and the- 
eftabUninient of fociaV libraries tfa ievend towas, afford 
a pleaiinff proipeA of the mcre^C'Of.lileratttM add ^oSt*- 
fm Inoimcdge m thit^State/ ' 

CM Ta«Mv.^j Pprtfmottth^is die ki^e(^* towfr la^ 
this I&te4 It is about two miles fipom £e fea, oil the 
fouth (Ide of Pifcataqua river. It contains about 64>' 
dwelling-houieSi and nearly as many Ofherboildtngs^- 
bvfides Xti&k lor public u(es | which are threa Congrega- 
dAaal churches, one Epifcdpal, one tJniterfali(l,a ftate^ 
lUufe, .|]iaricet-hou&, four' ^ooUhotifeSi^aail i^ worh*' 
hou^. . . ' '' 

Its 4siifbbtir ti one t>f ^e bedtm l3ia«onthiettt|^lrlB^ 
l»ifufficient depth of lifter for veii^ls of any bnrtheav 

Exetfris iV^mles S. Wl from Pdrtfinoudi, fittfi^a 
at the liead or navigatton^rupon S-wai](ifcti|^ or £1^ 
liver. It iipwell fituated &r4 maaufa^iiriiig i0Wn# |u(di 
has i4ready adioclt^mattufalfcoriuiii. Its 49iGlQ«y'$ <$ ^^ 
ipiiUs, alttUIn^ i^iaittjiig mj^ pa)^. mi»,imff «i^i 
two chocolaler'aad i^H!^ mifls»iroii iworHandt a prtnft- p^ 
ii^ offices. Tht^ptbl*? btiildings are- two Con^ga»: 
tk»al chmdies^ iM aeii^^ a^iew^aiid han^ToAie court*'' 
houTe, and ^^fAiiMtlxt piibltc offices of the State anr^^ 
hep^here.. l^rnMf' thii tiiwii. was £unoos for (hl^* 
btttldlg, bllt Ihls^^ ba^aefa te oal^^B^^ 
interruption hy^'un^v > 

Cdaeovd ii a «leafant, Ikcwftttittg * hibnd totyik, ^vnk^ 
ated on the^weft banlr^ Menimifict rivl^^ mila W* 
N. W» fffom ^B^rt&BOttt^* . tW Gene^ Codk of <lata» 
have eontapoilly hi^ their fcfiaoins hcte > and $n6<^^* 
central filoatiittw^^iuida llliiving bach coiM^ It ,«il^ 
jpbably IboiiwlMoaii^ the. pesn^mtnt ^llri^i^P^ 
aieat ; MiU^ of 1^ tfada of tha oppct t^tturf leeOf^ 


Dover. Amtierfty Kcenc, Chsi^^ftown, Plymotidi ^^^^ 
Havcrhillj^sf d^ the other mo^ confiderabte townt io, 
this Slate, , . > 

Ctir'tofit'uu'] Itf^he townfliip of Cbefter is a circiilmr 
e^iocBce* \M a mile in diaiaeter« and 400 ieet high,. 
caUe4 l^ltUe^alce hilU .Oath« ibuih fide, lo ^ards. 
homt iU hate, ^ the en^raaee of a cave caUed the JM/'^, 
i^ tai|^id)i» a room 15 or 3Q fce^ f(|Qajre, aad ^iect 
high, l^red and circj^d by a regular sock, fjrom the. 
upper part 0^ 'which are dependent rnvKf excrefeences,^. 
nearly^ in the form and fiiue of a pear, and, whe|i ap- 
pro&bed by a torchr throws out ^ fparkltng^laftre of; 
a^oft evo^ huft. Mai^y ^i£^t|»l (lories have been 
tdd j^ thi9 caiy^ bf tl^& wb«» 4«iight'ti^ the marvel*. 
l^VkU It^if ,a cc^Id> dr#9ry» gloiymjr ^ac^. 

, 4?«%i(ti*] The p|i^H>a^ denoi^mations <^ Cbriftians. 
in tb^^ State, are Qongiegation^ifts, Pre(bytfcri4n^,^ 
]gpil^paJ|^nf^.Ba{iti^9andiQu Thefe i^afmall'i 

iji^^t Qf,|9»(^iii»iHaQS im~anotbet-o£ Uniyerfaliftsi. 
in rbrtliBiouth' 

.jiPwgirA T^felt d«^^ Ea^iOi, of" 

anyfisirl <$NewHai&p^i«,iWiiln 11614^ by Capt. jehn^ 
Sfi^iibt ' wfc^^^wigsd rfie^^ Ci^or* ^^^m f enc^coi ;to Cape 
C^Y anj i|I^IiMl«e4irc0y^t|ll^he river* ^ircataqua^. 
C^ b^fj^turo to i^^ndt b« pob)^^ # deix»^iption of;. 
^ Imtpi i^b a iniii> e^ Mm» cp^^i^blf^ he pifl«»te4 
^lllficeipHaJ^^^ 1^ ii*tl^^^^ of l|i»B«cj 
i4iiJ*.:i v*lhflr l|^'ifttUim|^t^«^ 

Jft|<p;^9i«^fbins>^i| iirJ^^ 
iipoii 0f kh^ |0^eritQr#f7||»,i^ ba4r 

» Hqpi^te lej^ifattitet' Thiy ever bt>^e a pr6pot«tinnable^* 
ibirt <)| thf( e](p«nl«%M4 levies i»J^-Mriii»tiPi^ jpx* 
Ilii#^oiil «iMi : jMUlttiii myitions^ #hf $iir ibn^d by.^ 
^ colcm^ «r ^ cfovn. Jn ettry %i|#^ the o|^ot. 
filifiil^fc urge liiglf .j^ilil ^coa«;toim(» d^ Oi^ |^e. 

iibaiiii^i^^c^tlli b(^e ty^par^ 4^ t^;4;<wtm«ice^ 

lied l^ygiyia) mandmnf,. xh^jMjpt^iiiii^^ 




■' 11 »i ^T",.' 



F* :^ 

■.*5V « i^ 

(. .n^'. 

B^STItlCt o% ItAINB;^ i^ 

ihU r Ir^int* they flew.ei^crlf to the Amencan fttnd. 
ard,,wh<ii the voice of thiur cooatry dtchxtdior war ;. 
god their troopt.h^d ^ Urge. fliare of the hasard and. 
iktigttc, sn weU a« of the glory of acconipliiluiigthe' 
Ute revokitioiu \ 

Eor apdmplete hiftery of thU Sutc, the reader {»•. 
r^erred to the Rev. Dn.BeUnap'c, pahliflHsd in three ^' 
volumes %9o* ia i^^h written ia a puutjneaii hiftcm- 


\ 1 A 


• • ' ' ■ .- ' • ■ ^; 


'^^^^"^'•i JP^, from which it ii^parafeed by the ht^h 
Im^ I eaft»>y the riiMrVSt 6r«iip and, a line dl^wb 
d»e iyNtli ^Mits finifce^^e faid highi«ii4i^» iirhicli 
divides It fiT^ thl^PMfSate^if J4e 
hy tbe^ A^datotic Q?ito% w#fti by Nic#. Hwnpflilte. 

r i)ji$ftMi^> ^:i»«iiMlit#. oil M9ine W 4l^d4d; ttt«». 

five coni«i#i^-^tlat,' ■"■>■'."■ ■ 


9^49/ iPenbMltet 





lf»- ^ 

*« c * 

;?P|Sr7 ' 

Fm iffii Ctmhjt Sm/^I , Tlie Dillria of 

md' C6mmt* y ih^nrgb'tD devtted trad of ' 
coumryi cannot be called moiintainoiie. > A great pro- 
p«f cioo ci the lands are araUe and ette^ingiy fertile^ . 
ponicularlf between Penobfcoi^and Kennebcdc rinri. 
On Ibme fiHts of'the iea.'Coaft,*Mlandrart bll-mdif. 
forcnt l>biie thif defed night" eaiily be remedied, hj- 
manuringiit with a inanne^fegetible» calledToelMreed» 
which grows on rockf between high and low water " 
mark, all along the ihores. It makes 4 moft etcelleni . 
iiMnure, and the ibppl^t . is^ immenfcb, . 

The country has a Urge proportion of dead fwamps^ . 
and funkco laWl*» iR^h are tij^ drained, and leave.a 
rich fat fjiAV TK^ «niieri^'cotmti7 Is univerr4ljrrepre<« 
fented as being of aii^ excellent foil, well adapted both 
for tillage and paftur^» . The lands in general are eardf^. 
cleared, having but little oadtr bruih* 

The Diftria-of Maine tef tiatHraUy bi confidered 
iiVthtee divifiqns.— The fifti comprehending the tradV ' 
\fvd% eallof {feaobfcet river» of ibout 4,500,000 acres it 
^/femi, and he^l traa,ofaboQt 4^000,^00 acfes,]y1ne^ 
between Penobfcot and/ Kemiebecfc rivers : the thhrdt^ 
firft iett^dy and moft pop«U>os |t pre&nt, weft of Kea*- 
nebeck JiT^y coiktaimns^ alTo about 4,ooQ^0QO'S|cres. 

Tha climate does no^ matariaUf dii&r/roai' the reft \ 
o^e^ Efiglaad. V 'Cite weaiber ikmore regula^in th«.; 
wintc?» which uTuaSf laAi wiUi Ibvc^tf lroin:!tii»«mid« 
die of December^ CO the hft^^i^Ui^liioHRgtlis time^: 
the po^jmd fiie(b»wiitetHlttir«i#MiM»» , 
and iki^ng contloues ^mntaqrupted h|i^U)iws. 

The Sevadon of the lands ia genetal ; the ^fHty of 
the .«kv .which it leadctad fweei and ftuvbltofi iy th^ 
hfliliamifi qualities of many of ^foireft triect j thc^ lim^ 
pid ^»mi» ^U( httma mi ibitU, M^idk' ninftdlantlf 
water thtl couiitrTi anlrjtlifr fieg^lai^ of the weaker* 
all vaitf IQ fmiir tM*^ oi^the hcilthieft #o»iitfics ii^ 

Jtim-2> Thk liAr$ft*hai a fttcoaft dTi^bMr 34^. 
"IH^i In vdiiieli diftiaec thcif k.aii ubit^iiice of Mi v 
and «oiiii^<riKoiit iMvbottts ; htm^JliAAik^m h i^m- 
<ffl*ii^« j||fiW%i<i^ 'fo«t §m^ iht toaft, bfi 


m^ltfCT vn MA^INE 


whait it cftHed the imkmi fof^^ Almoft. the whok 
coaft is liaed with iikadb amot^ wlich vcflelt maf 
generallf anchor with iafety. 

The priaeipal are theiolk>#ing, ai y o tyt o fce tJfrdBi 
eaft to . weft : St. CMx» Paflamaquoddy^ ScboodKatf* > 
Unioo* J^obTcoC) iCetin^eheck, ShvepTt^^ AmeriTecig- 
giOt ( now fQoft gedeiallf calted AndrofiroM^iyili^Stet^ 
rivc5 Co&n'f tiverr ft07ar4^te^, Pr«iSaKttjt| llone^ 
fuch» Sao0,aild Menfom j alfo York!bldCH>^Neddoek' 
rivers ih^ totlnc^ of ^l^rlc, whiah are ihort^aoduw: 
conliderable ftreams* 

Bap and C^. ] T^^- pi4<i(ipal bays- aiji PaiTattia- 
qaocUijr, Machias, Fenoycotj Caibo and Walls* Of 
thefei Penobfcot and Caii^« are jhe moft reixMrhable* 
Both are fail of illaadfi, (boie Qis^i^ are Ipige enough. 
f(L)r towndiips. 

BroduSionf. % The foil • of Uitk eouhtt^i. ia genera}*. 
wlWre it ia properly fitted to «ecei# the fted, appeati 
to he very friendly^ to; the growth of wheats* ryey;har« 
ley» oati^ peai^i hani0» fkuc, v well u f<>r the prodSHB* « 
liofi d£ alnioft aU t^indi of euUnary rooti andfhtniii 
tad Ibr fingiiih gral^ i sM aUb for Indiao «oni| pi«^ 
vidtd4ht fifld bf prdcar«4 ftom,a mort' Hortham'cU* 
mata». > |^ppi nt nha IjpontaaHnii growth of; dM: 

^Thfo cottfitry ii.f ouaUy- fvod file, gyoihig «• ibr ^ 
Ugir#nA^hif|a 9^mm naat 4MtW ma^ bo Mi hotb^i » 

fiMMtfe'^ilif #iill«^ \'^ ^^ -;%;■■' ": ■ - ■ •■■ ■ "s-v •' --; ■■ - 

'l^ht iMiiiiril fiip^^ll^ cw0otif confifti o|;«hna^ 
pine and ljftf^<«^^ fiiiitablalof* 

iP^^i^^^wda ai^d i3M<ig)f9 1 iha white pifie tt, perhaps, 
0^ alijihtrithe aiOft u^f i|l Md^ iaqpocf^ wck4. 
wqiiid ib{^ iti piace m b«»^iii|^ Mapbr h«ec)4; 
vbitra:y^ |ref «ui)r, ^ti#y;tUiii^*?>i|eEiiro^gr^^ 
this couptryw Thel^||!^> »&r|^ i|g)uli^,.£ri^ 
uled«^c.^(;9^^t wprhi and i|tpf»t«i!afiH«& Kt^l^^^ 
hxxbt tn lUaJiQgany* Tfce low lands produce fir, '^ia(i 
tl»<^ is ikriiieiitei^ for Ahcrtt<»H^ ; h^t tty^iiik^ 
baUasi.diatIf hi^y f^<t« Thiahalfa«ii».coiltaMi«P^ 

^'.'' •■. ' 

"r- »- 



bark of die tree. The nr il if evergreen, refemblin^ 
the rpriice^ but Tsrf tapcrmg, ^ikk neldier tall nor 

Fh>m the difkreAt rivers, in thii eafti^m country^ 
witters may bt'dra^Mi for xiUIt "And all water work. 

Great advtntages airife, to thoic who live on the fea-' 
eoa(l» from the iheil' fifliv; vis. the lobfler, the fcollop, 
and the clalni. To thefe advantages may be added thofe 
which arife from the-fore^l* being filled with themoofe 
atid deer, and the wattfs bfting coVercd^Dntb^wild fowls- 
of difrerent kinds* . ^ 

JRitforh.Jy Thi» conntry^-abounds with lumbbr of va- 
rious kihd^ filch a* mafts^ which of late, bowev«r| havo' 
become fcarcc i' white bijne boards^ Afp timber, and tr^ 
Ct-y fpeciet of f]^it liiiibar. mannfi'/^ared from pine and 
oak ; thefe are ezporced i^m tKe dtfTerent ports In im- 
nenfe quantities. X>ried ^ fvv/^flies a capital article 
of export.) 

State oft,heramri.^f Thfe ereAtdn of la^cpUcgc,* near • 
Caljcb Bay, is- oontemplated, and a charter granted by 
the leglflature. /yc^deznics • in }^|Iowi^U,' Berwifik^ 
Frybuii; and Machlas, Intve been: incotj^oirated by the * 
legiflaturc, and endowed with handfome grams' of the ■ 
public ii^tids. ^^iiother'at IV^r^and^his been ioAittttedj, 
hut has not yet been endowed/ And it is but joH t^^ 
obferve, that a f|>irit- df imprbvct|ient is increafitig. 

Chief Towm.^VotiX^d}!^ tj|i;i;apit4bf the^Diftri6^ 
cjf Mkine* It is fitdated on apf di^cintoi7^ in G^co Bay, 
miQdwM formerly a pat tof-f^lmeu^^^^ WJfily, i7«6, 
l^is paft of the town, being die mt^jpopulods and meT" 
cantile, and'fiKiiited on the b^tr^)^ together wit^*^ the > 
ii?and^ whi^h belong to WmouHi,^,wa;i incorppiatlid by 
di^ liame- of ^Vtk^. It has ^ nnoll eztellentf (kfe and 
capai£idtt», harbouiy whlqlr isj SBildidns^ px ?iever com- 
^{^teljF ftozeii o^e^ >|fi;^ neai^-thernain oeea^c^nd ir 
eaiy of iteci(f. : Tl^ ii^(|bita»ts carry on 'i ^onTiiier»> 
b!e foreign tr^de. It is one of the netoft tbriying com- 
lilercial towns in the C<>miir^<>nwealth ol^BH^t^chuietu^,^^ \ 
iiUhough thwe-founhs if ii laid in ath^s by the 
^ritii]lLflc«t•i|l lf;f5r it b^M imec be^ . ent^ilieft|i^re^b^^ 
iiid^ittbiiiii wouta,|o0iQh»bitants. Aji^ohgltspi^bii^ 





kuUdiiqps are tht^e ehurchet, two for CoMgregittoaalifts 
aod one for EpUeopalimniy and a haadfonic court' hooic. 

Tork it 74 milct N. E. from Bofton, and o from 
PortTmoatb. York river, which it navigable for vcf> 
fels of S50 tonty 6 or f mile* from the (ea, jiafles 
through the town. 'Over this river, aboat a mile from 
the fea».a wooden bridge was built in 1761, 270 feel 
long* ezclttfive bf the wharves at each end» wliich reach 
to me channel* and Jt^'feet wide. The btidge ftands 
on thirtten piers ; and was planned and condiiAed 
by Major Samoel Sewally an ibgentous, mechanic si^d 
native of the toWo. The model of Chicles river bridge 
was taken frOm this» and was built under the faperin- 
ten<ianee of iJie fame genileman. It has akb ferved as 
the model of fidalden and Beverly bilges, and has been 
imitated, even in Europe, b|^ho(e mgenio^s American 
artifis, Heflkmv Coxe andThoropfon. 

JThis town-^ fettled as early as i6ro,and was then 
cafied Agamtmicus, from a remarkable high hill in it, 
of that natoe» a noted land-mark for manners. 

Hallowell ii a very flouriniing towO, ritaate4 at the 
head of the tiit waters on K^etioebeck river. Pownal- 
borpugh, Penobfcot and Machias are alfo towns of 
confiderable and increafiog importance. Bangor, fitu- 
ated; at the head of the tide waters on Penobfcot river, 
Kittery, Wells, Berwick, Nori^ Yarmputh, Bath, and 
Waldpborqogh, are thcpthcr mod conriderablc r.owns. 

Po^latoiiy Charnatr and Rifl^oiul ^^^ ^^ ^^'^ o^ 
thefe articles, fee t)ie uble of divifions. The Difliia of 
M^me is lu^pOfed now to contain upwards of 120,oqq 
inhabitants; * , / - , ^ 

There are no peculiar features in the chara^er of the 
people of this diftrift* to diftinguifh them from thei)r 
neighbotsrs in H^^ Hamp(Hire and Vernaont. , Placed 
as they Ve 10 like circum^pic^s, chey are like tlieart, a 
brave, hprdy, eater^rjztngt tnduftrious, hofpitable peo- 

pic. -;•"'■ " ' ■ "./ '.; . , 

Thci oreys^^r'relifftofi^ denpmih^tions are Conine- 
gationalifU And lU{i^s I ;tber!pj^r^ a fcyr £in(copaItatktf 
an4.Jllonalan CatMics.- ' ''c ^'^ ' ^ - '•■ . , ' - ' ' 

hSm^J The retti^ni^f t)ie l^mfti^ tribe f^ the 
only I)||iiiU«im take optbeti^ t^^ende in this 4mrid. 
Thejr^oni^ of abm i oa htM'90(id )iiit togetb^ in 






regnltr fecietf «t Indian OIH Towjb, which it Ikoaied 
on an iflaod of aboti^ ac^ acres, tn Fraobfcoc nvcr,]oft 
above the great kHU, Thty.itre Romgn Catholtci, and 
have a prieft who reftdes among them/ and adnit<|iftcrs 
the ord^Mficefl. Tll^ have a decent -houfe for pnbUc 
worfli'.pt wIDia hilit and another Imildin^ where they 
iheet to tranfaft die plibllr boftneft of their tribcv. In 
Aeir adeqibltes/all things are managed witix the great- 

fift order and decorum* The Sachems form the legiT- 
a^ve and etecntive attt!)ont7 of the tribe; though the 
heads of att the famiKes are myite<l to be prcient at their 
periodical public meetiogr. , 
irt/lery,yTh€ firft attempt to fettle this country was 
^ made in 1607, on the weft 6df of Kennebeckf near the 
Tea. No, permaneA^jfettlenisifit, however, was at this 
time effe^ed. USti n^n^^ that any further at* 
tempu were madei %ntii^tw^sn tlie years 1620 and 

The fsparation Jbf t!ii« di(h-ta lirom Bfaffachufetts, 
and its erci^n into ariv independent fts^e, liare been 
fuhjefls diicaifed by the inhabitantr i^ town meeting, 
by the appoitktment of the ^giflat|iK<^< Such is the 
ppid fettkment and growth of this oonrrtry, that thfi 
^^jieriod |i4len this contemplated fepiu:«tion will take 
ifiace, h probably not far diftaWt.' t "-^ 

Forfthe heft hiAorical account of this diftirid, fee 
lodge Sullivan's Hiilory, publilhed by lltomas and 
Andrews, 1795. v 

-;.. <• 






I,, ^ MA IS S A C H XJ 3 E T T S. 
^ biTUATiOK inD Extent. 


Crcateft length i^oT ^.^^ f t« 3^ t f^ t^E. Ion: 
Orcatel^bttadth ^1 ^ - "f #in3''«c4a^5»'N.S|6^ 
■^: 5iied> i!Haare:ii»les;^' ^•-•: ^'•■'^■. \ 

i*.i^;»i , 'IJQU1®>3SD nteth, by Verm«MtR^_ 

iT-; ,.'Vi.;; 



tamkOMftfi} fouth, l»y till Atl^mSei Rhode IflMiHn4 
Conncdiciit } well, by Hew York. * 

X)tv^L'i Thit|ttatofMAfl^cfa«rettiifdi?ide4iiito 
the foUQwing ettintics 

IMSddkfin 41 
Hunpflttre 6» 

^tf. i^.l|fl»J|M. 












< 9t6rf 7 




^^,1 f NortlumptoiB 

erbutoe " 

^4999{ 3<»9V 

5W07I "Worceftef 

I ^ Oteac Banti^oiif 373 



a* to 



, 1 II ^» f H y i ii ii i i>.j i '. I II <i m ■ ' t 'm 
14C0ttBtic| »^5 54377 65779 37578/ . , 

"; /P«:)f>uUtlon fuf<r ^Tcry fqnate n^ 66. 
•C2iii^.5 See Wtfir England. . 

/?iw«.] Hotiratomck irivcr rifes ftoiA fttiKat 
^fources li! the weAern part of this Su^»,ifi<l 
fotitheriy through Conileatctir, Intd Loil| ftiN» Soui 
^erBeld rtver (all* inttf CpnAeaicttt ri*|r» frorti. 
weft, between Deerfteld and Greenfield. A mofl^ti* 
eellent an4 beautiful tribft of mdidow lies on its hgAa* 
WeBstM met empties into t^ Conne^ciit at We(fc 
-^^pring^eld. QQtine^icut river pajTes tkfpviah this ftate» 
^ a«[d taterCs^s the conittf of HaiMhife* In in tbvxtt 
%^it'r6ns over fails, abov? pedrfield, and between |lorth« 
^nnpton and Springiicld/ A coi||panyt4ytl^enaaieo$ 
-''^•^The PropirietQis of the Loc|ts ilM CansUi tmObatu^-^ 
^ ficul^rii^^" wi^ tneorpQ^lvd^ i^ General Cpurtilg 
1792, for the parpofeof renderifi^ C^fuiedient j^eT 



M A?S 8 A C:« U S E T TS. 



ft it^ nattgible for TcfTelf of ^ordcii^ about to milti frdiii 
ttt mouth. There are 1 2 fetiiei 4ipo6 tbii riTep in tlie 
county of EiTeSy' over iev«ail of whieb bridges h;i?e 
beeneredcd. ^ 

-<Na(hua» Concord, and ShaiHbeen riTert, rife in this 
Oate and Htn a norUicafterty courfftintO'tht Merrimack. 
Ipfwich and Chtbacco rivers paft-lhrongh tbt town of 
IpAvich into IpArich bay. 'Myftic river falls into 
■ Vofton hsibour eail of the peninfula of Charlcftgwn. 
It is navigable 3 milci, to Medford. A canal is cut- 
* ting CO conneA this with Meniroack river. 
' ¥.' Charlei riter is a confiderable ftream which paiT^s in. 
to Bofton harl^ur, between Charleftown and Boftdn. 
It is navigabia' for boats to Waterto^n* 7 miles. 

J^ep^ua rtver^ter pafling over faUs fuffici,«nt/to 

^Irry itltils, nnitmiirith other fmall ftreainsi and forms a 

' tiery>conftant (upply 0^ water for the many mills fitu- 

litcd on the riv«r below, until it mect^thc* tide in Mil 

ton,, from whence it is navigable for v^fTels of 150 tone 

^ burthen toihe bay, dil|ant about four miles. 

North Hver',run8 in *a Terpentine courfebetw. en 
'Scituat^andMatfhiield,aTidpa(restothefea. Taunton 
river is- made up of fcveral Areams vrhicb unite in,or 
eiir|l|»^|lM|imr<jf BridgeWater.^ It^.courfb-is irom N. £. 
tOf S. Wi till itfaUs into Narraganfet hiXf at Tiverton, 
Oppoiite the noith end of Rhode Ifland. Jt receives si 
>On^idera^e tribut^rji^ (beam at Taunton^ from die 
•:.?', n#rthweit •■ ■■'■r--' .•■> - • '". • • ' 

iCapfSfJSaytf IJltmdsi Gfr.] -1 he Capes of note, on the 
..coaft of \his 4atc,ar«r^€ape Ann «nth^ north ftde of 
^feffachufctti Bay, and Cane God on the fouthv . Cape 
^^MalabaT) on^andy Point, extends id iniles from Chat- 
bam towards Nantucket ; Cape Pogt, the N. }i. pomt: 
of C^baqUiddi<^ KOayhead, the weft point of Mar- 
tiwi's Vineyai^ i / 

The prin<c%p^ays tsii <he c 0, \ft of |k^^cbu£^tt^, are, 
Ipl^ich, B<j^,(plymOuth| q;|jj|<S3f3 or JR»kiftable, 
and Bazaar<f s b*ys. Many itUnli^iare fcattered along 
the fioalVj :^he; xm^ looted of whi^ are rltm ffiaaly 
iRhith is about ^ frnlqs in lengidii^^ejteQ^i]^ ^«m* ftl^r- 
' ..ri^a^^' riter ^ tbt ;'i|c*|^' tQ il*r«flii^lMj#of Igfivici; 
•mm on the i«(uih, ^d k fepgarktcd fr^iiJvtH mpia hk^ 

' 1^ 



Tii ftperil placei ttt low water. It confHlt princip»iUf 
of fiind blown into ciiriom heaps, ^nd e^wncd with 
budic* bcarinir the beach plum. 

Nantucket Jjiund- liei fbath of Cape Cod. It containt t 
aecordingto £MQglaiii» a^boo acre^, bcliiJing the 
beach. This ifland wai granted to Thoma#Ma} hew« 
by the Karl of Sterling, in the year 1^41,^ a(ld the fettle- 
nient of it, by the Engnni, commenced in the year 165^ ' 
As the, ifland it low and fandy,it is calculated only for 
thofe people who are wilKng to ttepend almoft entirely- 
on the watery elemeilt for fubfiftenee. The ifland c^' 
itfelf conflitutes otie eountv* by the name of Nantucket. ■* 
It has but one town calkd Sherburne, containing, in. ^* 
J790, 4,iao-inhaolfcintf^ /' 

The inhabitants formerly carne^«n the^mdftcohfi;)- 
enibU whale fiOiery on the ooafl,i6at the war ajn^od 
raided this buAnefs* Ther^*^* Once/ howe/ery reviv* 
ed (t again,' and purfue thlrwhailes even tnio the Gieat ' 
Pacific Ocean. iWe* U nota lingii treton the iiUnd - * 
of jnatural aroirth«^ - . ,4 < 

The inhabitami of thii^iland^iuw princtptlly Q2talieri.|:A 
there fs one fbci^ df Congregattonali1|j{. Fony yf«ft 
aso there^ were three con|^attoAi «f Indlani, etfch of 
Which had a hcmie lor wof(h^#^4iiM««tiiMshci.>Tl^tr^ 
lal^ Indian psiftor diedi aoyears^mee, and was a Mrorch]^ 
refpcaafclc trhaiadcr. - t i 

Portia's yineymrd^ vr)mh^^s^ Utrle.t* the wdHward^ ' 
of Nantucket is 19 miles in length, and fbur in breadlK^V'^' 
It contains 3 focieties of C&ngregationaltils, at Ed^it*<^' 
tonjTi&un^ and Chihnarkrt^ of B^pttfts, witliout n^- > f 
i(ters,:and three congregations of' <lTnliani^ one of whilih^4 
isfopp^ied by'aia'orcUnned.Iadan ii|intller,'<aiid to the 
othcFj the Rev. Ikir. Mayhew jveaches in rotation, ^nfit v 
fuperiotends ihfi whole* Tiiis vand the neighbouring id- ,^ 
and of Chabaqu^ddick; Noman's land, and the £li^w ^^r 
both 'inm)dsH:p|iAlii^ Duke^V county ,^jSontaintng, ifi' 
^799^ 5 265 ^^l^t^Ml betweea40(> and 500 of whid» ^ 
are^ Indians and muhttoes, ^blimng hy agficaltttre*:>»' 
and fiihing* •' ... :■.- . ' , ■ '; ■% .^. - . .- /t 

*£dgaTtod« which inc^udes^thcfer^etilandef Cha^ -^ 
ba<|utddicl, about bhree dr four^mtles'loag, £«id df^ and ' 
a half bt^idt is the ihire town. The princip^ipsodii^- ■ 




tioni of the iflasd ire com, rje aod oatt*. Th«7 
iheep aod cattle in confiUerable numbers*: 

The other Ulands of confideration arc in Maflachu-' 
fetti ba/,' which U agreeablf diveiffiicd by about 40 of 
▼arious fixei . Of thcfc about 15 only are of much im« 
portance.. % 

Caftle iibnd it about three iniles«from Bofton> and* 
contains fbout 1 ft acres of land* The butldingt are the 
covemor^ houiCf a magazine^aolt barracks, and work* 
Shops. In J^me, 1792* there were confined on this iiW> 
and 77 conviifts, who were employed in the mamifadure 
«f nails and ihoet» and guarded by a company of be* 
imeen 60 and 7Q foldiers. The fort pf this ifland cpm- 
inands the entrance of the harbour* Here are mounted 
50 pieces o( carnioRiMiJid 44 other! lie difmounted* 

$dii ami PnikiSi(ms.% In MaiTachufetU are to be foundr 
all the varieties of ibil from very good to very bad, capa* 
idt. of yielding all the different prodoAions cdmmoa to 
the climat^» fuch as Indian com, rye« wiieat* barley, oats». 
hetnpt Aat, hops, potatoes, field beans tatd peas— ^^apples^ 
fears^ peaches, plums* cherries* $k» 

MamfaHmrti^^ Inhere is a dock manufador? at BoP 
ton, ft<om ^Rdiich between 2,000 and 3,000 bttuts, of 40 

Srds e%ch, /aid no be the beft duck evet before feen in A* 
»r ica» hiive been fold in one year, Manufadores of thii> 
kind have been begun in Salem, Haverhill and Spring- 
field. MaoufaAones of cotton' goods have been unfuo- 
cefirfilUy, thoiigh patriotically attempted, at Beverly,, 
Wcil^er aiid Bofton, A woollen manu&Aory, on an 

a five fcale« has been eftablifhedat ByefieMpanfliin' 
Ittry. At Taunton, Bndgwater, Middleborough,, 
ind fome otiKr places, sails have been made in iuch 
^oaatitiet as to prer^ent in a ^teat vi<afure the im- 
fiortatibtt of them from Qreat Britain. - In this State, 
Ikere are about id piper mills, which produce about 
70,000 reama of paper annusdly. .'The principal card^ 
maottbAorieft are in Boilop, in whlibl aie made, yearly, 
■boot i2,poo doiten of cotton and wool cards* Be- 
tween 2,000 And 5,000 dozen cards are ttade at the- 
other manuia^ries in different parts of the State. 
Shoes io large numbers are manoiaSured at Lytin— . 
BfBc and thread lace, wo(^en cloth, &c. at. Ipfwich».. 
Whi^k b^m its naturad ^adtantages, pron)ifes. to become 

* a aia&u{a^iirio|[ 




a mtnufaAuring town— Wire for cards and Hfh-hookn, 
at DcJham— and a dfe^hottfe has lately been built m 
CharleAown, for the dying of Alks, woollen rbths, ftc. 

There were, in 1702, 62 diflitlerics in fhit State, em* ^ 
ployed in dif^ilting hem foreign materials. In thefe 
Ui Cilleries were 158- dills, which» cogetheft contaTned 
1 02,1 7 3 gallons. Be(idet thefe there ware twelve coun- 
try fttlls, employed in diftilling 4(Mnel\ie materials* 
One million nine hundred thoufand* gallons have been 
didilled in one year, which, at a duty of eleven cents a 
gallon, yields a revenue to the govertiment of 209,000 
dollars. A elaft bouie hai been ereAed, at a great ez* 
ptnfe, in BoSon, yrhich promilb 'tm^tant benefit to 
the country. "^ 

BnJj^f.) The bridges that merifrndttce in this State 
are the following, viz. 

Charles river bridge, builr iii i7S6^f^f, tj^j feet 
lon)(,'and conned^ Bofton and Charleftown. 

^alden' bridge; aerofs MyUic river, conne^hg. 
Charleftown with Nfidden, buiiit in 1797^ 3,^!»o feet. 
lon^, and 32 feet wide. 

i,kcx bridge, upwk^ds «lf r.joc feet in length, ere4icd 
in 178^, andcotinelt^^le.m with Beverly.-' 

A bridge acrols PSHfker's river, 870 feet long^ aftd 26 
feet wide, bdiltlhth* year 1 75Jfc 

A bridge over Merrimack river in the.county of Ef«; 
fex, kbout t^JH* inHW ab<Mre Newburyporti built in 1 792* 
x\t tlie place wheit the bridge i« eretfted, an iflafid 
divkles the rivt* into two br^iiches ; aii arch ori6ov 
feet diameter/ and 40 feet above the level of high water, 
conne^s this ilhnd wi^ the main on^one tide* The 
chaimd, on the o^ier fide, is wider, but^the centre arch 
is bu& I4(> feet diameter* 

Another iBti[enioitflv conilfufted bridge has lately 
beeneomj^etcd ov^ tl as ilver at Pentucket^fr, between- ' 
ChSltmford and^llrtici«e, iti the county 5f Middlc^fez. 

Hiiv^riiill bit<%e, cO{me<SHn^ Hiverhitl with Brad« 
ford^^lP feet in length, buUt m 1794. • - 

Merritnaek bridge, between Newbury and l^verhil1». 
fev^^ hundred feet longer than any other over the 
M6rrimatl^b«itt iy^5 S un^^ "irhtcli, another has been i 
built ' at 'Andwer. 

Wea Bofton bridge, coniieabg th* >eft ^art efi 
BoftoCwi^ CaDabridge, orcr Charles mtr^ was coni- 



pleted in tbe fall of 1 793, \>cm% 5*500 feet in lengdi^. 
befides a caufevay of 3,640 feCt, making toeether near- 
ly a mile and a. third. Thtfe brulges are m fiipported: 
hy a toll. 

Literary t Hmani^ md other Soeleiiet.J Tbefe kiftitttr 
ttOBS, in Maflathoretts, exhibit a fair trait in the charac- 
ter oi: the inhabitants, and are as follows : 

7i&# jimeriean Aeddpny of Af^s end Scietieet, incorpo-. 
rated May 4tli, 1780. .The JMnfadu/eUt Charkable SocU* 
tyt incorporated December 16, 1779* The Bafion Mptf" 
copal Chiuritalle Soci^y^%T?i inftituted in I724» and incorw 
porated Febrwar)t.i2, 1784* " The Maffachuf^ts Medlcfd' 
Society t incorporated Notrcmber t, 1781, The Society for 
Propagating the Gojpel among the Indians, and others in* 
NoKiih America, ,'in0rporated Norcmber 19, 17870 
The Majfachufetts Society for Promoting /l^ricuUure, in- 
corporated in 17 93. Xiie Hijlwical Society, eftabliihed. 
in 1^91, incorporate in 1794. I^h6 Marine S^jcidies of 
Bofton, Salem, .and Newburyport^ The Majuchuftttt 
CongregatiMotr Society. The ' Scotch tihd Iri/h Charitahie 
Societies. , it9 Soei^ fir the Aid of Em'^emtSy inllituted in . 
1793, ii^cprpcn'/tted in 17915* "^he M(^cchufstts Chofitabk.^ 
Fire Society inUjitpited and incorporated m I794>. Ihfton 

fim,p eftabliflied in. i795'-^iid the Bojlon^- 


Difpenfa^ for the Medical Rdief of the Pm»^, infUtuted. 
in I796k%:':;:l,.. . ':^- 

! Literature/ Qlffle^et, Academies ^ i^c.l^ . AccordHlg to. the,,- 
laws of this Commonwealth, every town ihaving fifty 
hoi:Ueholders or upwards, i^ to be provided with one or 
more fchool-maftei^s,.to teach children and youth to read . 
and it^ite, and inftiuft them: in theEngltih language, 
arithmetic^' orthography, and decent behaviour ; and ; 
Vrhere any town h^s 200 families,, therc^ is alfo to be a. 
grammar fchool fet up therein, and fome di^reet p«r% 
top, well iniliru^ed in the La^n, Greek, and Eaglifh. 
languages^ procured to keep die fame, and be fui^bly • 
paid by the inhabitants. The penalty fw negleA of 
fchoois, iti towns of 50 fahiiUes, is iol — thofe of lOP 
iiunilieS) ap/i— of 150^30/. >• 

Ifi JBofton there ^re i^ven public Schools fuppoited 
^(Oly tvthe expenfe of the town, and in which j(h^ chil- 
dren of ever^ clafs of citizens freely a^ociate. lit the 
&«tio gsmasm. UiMkibfi rudimcats of the Latin an^ 



^tpik langtug«s are uttpht, and boys are qtudified for 
the iwivcrluies i into Uas iibool none are admtned (illv 
ten year^Aof a^e, having been pi evioufly weU^Hnilru^ed 
in Engliib gtammar. In the three Englilb grammar 
fc)iooU» the children of htb feies, from 7 to 14 years of' 
age are inftru^ed iii fpeUiogt accenting and reading the 
Engliih language, both proie and verfe, with propriety | 
alfb in Engnfli grammar and compofitiony together with 
the mdimenu of geography ^ m the other ttuwe the 
fame children are taught writing and af4^metic* Th6 
fchooh are attended alternately, aod each of. them it* 
fumiiked with an Ufher or AflHUnu. The mailers ^^ 
thefe (chools hstvc each a falary of 666} dollarapei an-^ 
nam, payable quarterly* 

They are all ttnderihe.imR:.''jdiate;fare of 'a ipommittee 
cf twenty one gentlemen^ for tlie time beings chofen 
anauallyi whoie^duty it is ^^ to Vidt the Schools at lesdl: 
on^e ill ti»ee mofithfi ; to examinie th^ fcholars in the 
vvirioas brancherin which they are Uilght; todevife the>- 
be{i metliods for the inRra^on and government of4he 
fchools';/to; .give fuch advice to tlie ma(ler& as they (hall - 
think expedient^ and by all proptr methods to excite i|» 
children a laudable, ambition to excel in a virtuous, ami*' 
able deportment,;* and in every brani)) of ufeftd knowl- 
edge." At lihe annual vitits^ion in July, I795,vih)erc. 
were prefent 4^0/miires and 850. boys.. Befides^ibefe 
tliexe are feVe#^ private fchools, for int^nidlion in.the>^: 
Englifli, Latins; and French languages — <in writings 
ariihmetiq, and the higher branches of maiiheniatics~<^^ 
and alio in loudc and dancing. ]Rerhaps^ not a 
town in tne world, the youth oi' which more fully €t^ff 
the benefits «of fch«ol education,, than Bofton. . And' 
when we coi^der bow infeparably the happinefs ifhd^ 
profperiiy a£. out; country, and the extlience of > pur^ 
prefeiH hapfiry gpjreinment, are coanei^ed with the edtt^ 
cation of- children,^^to6 rnncb»eredit cannot be given to 
the enlightened citi^inAS of this town, for the attention 
they have prnd to this important burtnefs, .and the ^r- 
thy txample fhey^hiave eahibited for the iniHatioa of 

OthftfSa; - ,i''-' '■ ■■ -'■ ■'■'''' ■* 

Nektin in^;26riance to the grammar Arhooli are tht 
academies, in wbichi as well a^ in the grammar ichooU^. 
young geotkiikft Jlise fittei Ibti^^to^n to the UHjU 







PuMMSR: AcADiMT, at Nciwbur/f was ibttaded ii»* 
early as 1756, by raeanstof a liberal d<|DatiMi from.the ! 
Honorable. William ])ttiDiiier»fonn^lyiieateiiaBt ^^v* 
emor, and a wortby man, whole name it has ever hnce 
retained. It w;*r opened in 17659 and iticorpos^aied by- 
ana^ of the General Comt, in ^782. Tius academy 
^is at prefent in a flourilhing ftate, 

Phillips^ AcApfiMr, in Anddver, was ' founded 
and handfomely endowed} April 211 r778» l>y the Hon* 
orable Samuel Phillips^ £^,. of Andoirer, in the county^. 
of .£iret» and GommoQWealthsof MafiachuiettSt lately 
detieafed, and hiiibrothov th^ Komorable John Phiillipst 
LL. D. of £xeter»Jii thetStikte^e^NewHampiliire. 
It was incorporated. Odober 4r i7do* ' llrta u^der the 
dirc^ibn of thirteen l!fuA<ses^ of TeQiMtdable eharaftetSs 
and fheiirimediatefiafeiof B^jhrincipal, whpisonc of the 
trviftees ex officiof m JiS^uiti st»d :^ Writing Mafter. 
Tliey ars.accommodated with a Ittge and elegant build* 
ing» ere^ed at t^ expenfe of the foundets, ^d '> '. 
brother^ the HonorabkWillUim;Phillif»f£f(|^ of r * 
ton* It is ruuated on a delightful eminftnce» near the 
mapfion houle of the Hcmor^le ^unuel PhHlips, £f«|9 
its difttt)$uil)ied patron, and fon of the dec^|^4fftunder 
«*-is encompft^ed withii £ili:ibriou9 airi .aod eommands 
an ^xtenfive profpcdL The lowej:j.ftbry contains a large 
fcUoolrodRi, wim ample -accommodalkml fot^an hun- 
dred^ ft udenis, and tvro' other apastniienls for al&rary, 
and other purpofes I th^\ upper fiory conEils.c:^ a fpa^ 
clous hailf rxstyfour feet in"iength,a^thiirty'tfai«e feet > 
in breadthyc. deAgned- for exh^ion»<^and'other |yubUc 
' oecaltbnSi^.. '■/■■ ■■ '^ ■ ^ .- ^■-- - . 

. The defign of thti^^Undation, acconUng'lalts eon*, 
ftltution j i6». ** The promoiidn of true piety and Tirtue,:. 
the ifldrtk&ion of youth, in the EngliQi) ^tin^ and.. 
Qreelj^ languages'^ together with wi tting, \aritbitietic,\ 
pra^icid geometry! mufic^ii^ c»ra^^»( logic 4ind ge- 
«gvii|>h^4 and fuch other of the Ubecai arts and i<^i« 
et^eesi ; IQV lan^uageti as opportunity ^d ibility may^ 
hereafter admit, atid the ^ju(liees fhall 4tred." ^ 

I.£2CE$t£R AcADAMY, in the towniKip of l^eLe^r, 
and yjeomAj of Wotceft^r, was- iJieVrporatedin ^7^. 
R>r the eniowngemeht of the inlHtUtion, Ebeneaer 
Crafts and Jmo^ O^i0».£^r't. g«aaoti% gate a la^te 


M A'SSA C It tJ S B TT » 


aof'conaio^oaf mtAfion houftt liddi tiul ^parte- 
luuictty ifl L«icefter« 

BttfTQi/ AcA»mT} «t Tatfmton, was tacorpontcd itt* 

At Htngbam if »vwe!l etdowed fcHool, which,, lit 
hofMfr of Its principal donor and' foundet^ it cwed^ 
DtrBy-School, - , , - 

lliere aciidemiss ate defigned to dii&miDate virtue 
and true piety^ tor promote Uie edaealion of yoath tn^ 
the EngUihc Latins Grecfcr and French bnguages, ia* 
vrriting, ari^fnetic^oratory^gecgmphy^pra^kicfil geom- 
etry, logic, philofopby, andfucii other of the libtral art^ 
and fcteltccs* orlanguages, a»iBay be thought expedieiiU • 

Harvard Vmvetfiyt in Cam(>ridge, talcct its date from' 
the year 1 658. lliis year the Rev. John Harvard, a ' 
worthy mintll(er« refiding i^ Charleffowti» died, atidhleA* 
a donation crf?jf*779» for^the ufeof the f^rementiotted' 
public ichool. Iti h(mu:!r to die memory of fo hberal ^-^ 
behefa^hn',^^e General Court, the f:fme year, ordereJ" 
that tlieif^hool fhoukljcaiee the name W ^SirMr/ (7f%r* • 
It received its 6rft charter in 1650* 

The su&ivesfity ooinilfts/ofJtNir elegant briek'«difi6eS^' 
liandTomely emc^ed^ They^^Qd on a beautiful greeitt ' 
which fpreads ti^the noixhweft, auid^cxiubits a pleafing-1 
view. ' ••■ ;.- 

The nanet of the icveratbuUdingS| aref Harvard Hal^r^ 
Mafiachiifetts HaU, Hollis Hall, and Holden Chapel. 
Harvard Hall is divided into (ix apartments ; ^ one o^> 
which is appropriated for' the library, one for the mu- 
feom, two for the^philofaphical app^ratos-; one is ufed 
for a chapel and the other for a dining JiaU^ The libra* 
ry, in 1791^ conuined. 1 a^cco voUinncf ; and wiU be 
continually increafing from the inter#il of permanent. 
funds, as- Weil as from ca£iiai bencfaftions. • The 
philofophical apparatus, belonging tbthis univerfity/- 
cod between t4.aQd/'.'l5CQ lawful moneys and is (he^ 
moft elegant and complete of any in America* 

This utriverAgr, as to its .library, philofophical Appa- . 
Htus .and profelTorfliips, is at prefcnt the hrft literarp 
inftitmion on this Continent. 

In Williamftown, in Berk(htre county, is muother lite- 
tary inflitotion. Col. £phraim Williams laid the foun< 
dftiiba o£it by a handibme^donaiiiDti in Iftads. l|i 1 79fi/v 

14* r MAS^A'^ntfSZTTSi 

|Mi^y hf lotteff; aQBl:pardy bf the4ib«ral domtion fM-' 
gtntlemen in tht town^ a briok edifice wiif «re^d> 8f 
ntt by 42y tnd four ftorierbigh» eoftttiniiie 14 reoMl 
for ttodeiiu, a Itrge fefaool room, A dintiig nall^ ^nd a- 
rddm for iHiMic f|p«lkhig.' It bad a'VfteeeA^fy an Ufher* 
and a mafler of the Englifli f^faooU Tb< number of 
fludeiits, in i*j^$t was fMtween 50 and 60t beftdei the 
ftholars of the freefchool. ^lits academy, tn i795;wai 
ereOed into t collegebf the le^^iUture of the Common* 
v^alth,by th^ name of WiCMAWrt'CoLueciyinbOnmsr 
of its liberal' founder. Tbe urfl; puUic commencement' 
Wis held a^this Cc^kge^ in September, t7c ;. ' The lan- 
guages and fciei$oeiltiAtaUy ta^ht in tlie Air^^ca»i Col- 
Ie^«s are taughkshcie. B<iatd/CnktOn and other expenfes- 
oi education arv yery^low f and ic'om^ts fidiation and ' 
other drcntxtftanaesi it is likely, in.a ihort time, to be^^ 
tfoikie an inftitution of coniidcrablt otiliry^and impor^^ 
' tjince. ■■...■■■ 

€khfTowiu,^\ Bofton it the eapUali' not onlf of 
Mai%chuiettsr but of Neir* England, iuid list in lar. 42^ 
35' N/ It is built on a^eiiimiila dr an irrc|;ttlar fonn> 
at th0 bottom of Ma^ickufettr Bay. The n«ek or ifth« 
muf which joint the peninfalarto ^c eontincnt it at th« 
fouth end !oC'the town,. and:'«lia<k'tQ Rosbttty. Tbe^ 
length of the town itfelf i« uftt c^uitertwoj miles, Its 
breiidtb iff V(i|!«ous.( It contained^ 1790,^^137^ dwel« 
Jing houfes^ and 1 9%o$t inhabitacnts. ^ Since whioh^ the 
number of «both has greatly increafed. 

lO Bofton» are ii0 hon^s for public wpiHiip ; of which 
nine are for Congregatienalifts, thiree for Jgpifcopaltans, 
two,£or^BaptiIls, one for the Friends, one for Univcr- 
^Itfts, one for Roman Cathtdies, one for Sandimanians, 
and one for Methodifts. .. 

The other public buildings are, the l«ate hsmCc, court 
hfiuk, gaoli Faneuil hall, two theatres, an alms^houle, 
a work houfcj a bridewell, and pojAuder magazine* 
On the wed Od^|if the town is the mall, a very beautiful 
public uralki. ad^ned with row« of trees, and in view of 
tho^ common, which is always o^en to reir^^iog breezes^ 
Beacon hill^ on which a handfome monument, commem- 
orative of fome of the moll important events of the late 
'U'ar, has lately been ere<£tBd^ overlooks the town from 
the wiQ^ aad afibrds a fine, variegated proijped* : Oft ~ 
' ."•'•• n*^- ■ : ■ " . die 




Ifce fettih ftite of tkk hilly a nagoifictnt ftnte hoiiite Ifis 
bi^lT been ereded. ^ ';--^r * r* ,. *v x 

3n« bariKNtr of Bofton is fftfcf and large otoc^ to 
contain 500 ibips at anchcr, i a a" good dejj^th of winter ; 
while :the entranct*is fo narrow, as fcareyfy to adflHit 
two ib'i^s abreaft. Ir is direzfified wttb mui7 i^diy 
fome of whifh afford ri^ pa^ringY^haj and gntin. 

The principal manufaAores here,^are rmn^ beer> pa^r 
hangings^ of which 24,000 pieeer are aaiuM^y ms^e, 
loaf fugar, cordage, cards, fail cloth, fpefmaleci^ndtal-' 
low candles, and glafs. There are' thirty diftifleries, 

X 2^breweriev 8 fugar houies, and 1 1 ro^ walks. 

4^ ' Sakm^rhe fecond town for fi^, and^the oldeft, except 
PJymomhjin the Commonwealth, containmg, in i;79o, 
92Shoufes,and 7921 inhabitants, was fettledln 1628, by 

fovernor £ndtcot, and was called by the Indians JNfautn- 
eag. Here are a meeting of Quakers, an Epifci^al 
(^;uch, and five Congregational ipcieties. The town is 
fituated on a peninfula, formed by two fmaU inlats of 
thefea, called North and South riVei'&.i A general plain- 
^nefs and neatnefs in dr efs, huildings and equipage, and & 
certain ftillnefs and gravity of manncrs/perhaps in Ibme 
degree. peculiar to commercial peo^le^ dfftinguilh them 
^ from the citizens of the metropolis* It is indeed to lie 
■unfiled, that the fober induftry, here fo univcriaily prvic* 
tifed, may become more- extenfive through the union, 
and form the national cha^after of Federal Americans. 
Southeafi from Salem, ah<| at fonr miles diftanCe|5rom 
it» lies Marhlehead, contaihing dne Epi&opal and two 
Congregationrxl churches, bcfides a fmall fociety of Sep. 
aratifts.^ The chief -attentic«i of this town is devoted to 
the bank fiftery, and more is done. iathatK line thaivnn 
any p(;>rt ia the ftatc. ?^ * 

Newbufyport, originally pare of Hewbury, from 
which its incorporation detached it in 1764, ani by 
which, and Merrimack riircr it is wholly enriched, 
is perhaps the moft limited in its exteatiOf land, ef any 
towaihip in die CommonweaUb> containing but about 
640I axrer. Jfere ar^ five Uoufes for pfthlic worfhip, viz* 
one Epifcopaliari, two Prelbyterian sind two CongregS" 


KT Ipfwicb, by theln^ans called Agawam, in the cotfh. 
ty of Wk%p i« 3« iDiHi N. H £. ft«iQ $oaoD, isdivided 









<.liita, five partihef » ^d tmtaint. 4«56i inhabitaiiCf. fbe 

foprtme judicial court* thciconrcs pf common pkacand 
M,7|eifiuQs, are held here once inAyeat) and* from its cen- 
, Iral fitualion, appcsfft to be the moft convenient fiUce 
.Jon 9II th#3ibilrts and public offices, in the county. 
,i,ii.jCharleftowD» caUed bf the aboriginal inbabiunts, 
'Mifliawtimy Keinorth of 9ofton» with ^htch k is con. 
^:nededbv). Charles river bridfj[e, and is the principal 
• town sn|Mid^ieiex cocinty. ^It^ir'verx advantageoiiOy 

•fituatfecnbi^ health, navigatton» trade.end manuU^rts 
<^of almoii all the -various kinds. Bunker^ Breed's and 

Cobble (now Barrell's) hills» are cdebrated in the hiftorjr 

-oCthe Amerkaiir'ReviHurioii; and no^lefs fo f^ r the 
, elesp^t and , deHgbtful , profpeAs which th^y afford of 

Bbfton» and its -chanmngly yariegaced harbour-i^-^of' 
rCamibridge and-its colleges, and of an eJLtenlive tra£l c£ 
«^highiy Cultivated couatry. 

Cambridge^ahd Concord «re the moft confiderable 
, ^inland towns itv the' county of Middleiex, the former is 
> 5I miles fr<mi; Bofton* and is a plea&nt town, and the feat 
, of the uniyerAty* The latter is i & miles H. W^ of Bof. 
jtotif and- -is a 4»learant,'he<{ithy» thriving- town. The 
vl^rovtncial .^di^vfs rat>in Concord in 1 774. This tdwn 
» is rend ?d, faniou5« in hi(l'>ryy by its being the pkce 
; where the -firll r>ppofition was n^ade, to the BritiiH 
.^trpopsy on the memorable:-^ 9th o&April, 47>75. 

Hy mottth> the principal ^ cown in the coiinty of the 

.. iatnename, and the capital of the OUColrn^ fo csdied, is 

,4a miles Sn£< Q^B(>ftonj and contains about aoohoufes. 

This town is ikipou^for being the firft place fettled by 
.the pious^ancel|oi!(i.pfihe.Ke^£ngiandh;rs, in t6ao. 
,, . Worce(^^ tie (hke (own^of l^e ponnty o» ^e fame 

name, is the largell inland town. inrNew^fengland, and 
.p^/iti|a(f4 ali^t 47 stales wi^ward of Bbfton. f rti^ng, 
tsiiMl^ ij^^ous^^bf jm^icfcjfifc catfied ' on very e»tcnfiVcly 
^iAjJiis to||n,:Vf Isaiah l^mas*^ whofe printing appara* 
,,tus,i8 th4largi^.i9.Aimfriie«*.::.. •, ' >' ■.^>- f \ 
.,,.yfi%lCQ^^ of Hiunp^rey 

^^^there^aip a PAemNr. c^very pleafant tewns, among which 
, .^ai^e 3|>rmgno5^^nd Hadky* on «he eaft< fide o^ the riv. 
.eri N^(thi«^i(o%:llitJi^d 



letts is coropofed ^ all a|»lf> bf>4ied^ wliite male dtiz«iM 
from 1 8 to 45 rears of age, excepting officers of govcro- 
menty and thdie who k3re held comiuiffiottis^ ftc. Mid 
fuch as did atCaiQ ihti age of. 40 years bdbfis^ie 8U1 of t 
May; 1793. The tirh6^ U |foniplete)y, iifwc^'atid ox^ 
ganizhd, and is fo^dd *i^^,ip^mCioo§, it brigadefl, ' 
confift'ni: of 9t2 re^mditi| oTin^intr^ ;4p t»oops eom^ 
p^Tmg 12 batta1ion$'of cavalry, and 3V ^n«|/^i>iee of;u^ 
tiJiery ; toppether forn^bg a' well n;^gi^W<l Wd^'pf). 
5o»oco ir/fantry, 3;boo cicVaity, ahd 1,50^ actal^ 
incn, V itb Oo pieces .of field ^rril^er j. '^Z' '" 

ReRghm, ] The religion of tJiit ComiDonwe^lfh is ef- 
tablifbed, by tljeir excellent leonftiiiitton, <jin a m^Shm 
eral and tolerant, plan. All jyerTons of ^atevef teKg. 
ious profefiioB.prrenttmeiit%« may.wiqjr&ip Godagrae* . 
r.h^y to the diAates of their own. confci^n^i^ tihsnok^ 
edy prorider^' tlivey 4^ n<^ dlflurbi t|iiie peace. ' 
, The fello. K tf^SH feterai |^£gtous deaoiimf 
tioits i^rihis^llale : C^ngr^gs^iidi)^ 
pad^lis^ Friends or Qua(iierf A^rejfbytenaiift, Msthodi^ 
yniyert^lifti;»^and ^m^n ^fsi^hmc^^j ^ 1 ^ 

P^afiorul The popuktlon of th^ ftate ts accnratc* 
ly ;ftated in t^e table of 4i«>ifion8. Thisetaintiet of £fl*ei» 
SuflTolk, a|iii?llanipCbiref are i3ie mp^ jf>0^das divifions 
of the ftate. Slfle$ has «i» many^ |^ 4 ^5 inhib^ts^ 
t^'saty {quart^'n^Ie^ . , ;■, > ' '■ , ,• , ^ ■-£•' ''\ ':"';'•* 

ConfiUiOm^'^ . See Am^ic^n Uniterfa^ t <jreograpli}r« 
. hyhrySl See Hatcbiafoii's Hffto^ df MUfTachulmi 
— Minot's Hiftpryiof thi infurreaicH^ in M^achufetU 
—Micot's cpntini^i^n of th« Mibry of ifae Ih^^ 
of Ma|adiufett#/a J»|v*. aftd^iraj^aiile^^^^^^ l>ab- 

lications of ^e Hiftosical $bciety^llaei|r4's Hiftortcal 
Colleaions^Chalmijr*» B<5j^bu Annali^,*od Oough'i 
Hiftory bf the Pfeopic cdHed vi^alei^ V . 









4)>raf % 4k AwDic.4 wtitij ConiKB^cQt- TEfJe 
Kp^ cioa||t|^<»id what fi csm^^cI JIUuMie JUland and 

; :c;«r;r;^l^^.JP^^^ nil SiaCaJi 4i<ided 
into fiitei.<iqim(iMf -^bigA i9?f mdividcd into 30 towi^ 
Aipt»a^|bUQ«r9 I 


V N 


H SCitvatc. 

CranibQ \ 

JohnftOB , 





, / ■ 

' 1^ < ■ ** 
■■■■ii - >i» " I . ■ 

C t» « ^ »o 


v ivi» fe »«»V 



J iW^ i & I 


ti»otit ' i&LAnn:^ 



■, f 



'Mg^tmJ^lmdt.y Namganfn Say makct «^ from 
Ibtfth to norths <teuvc9n ,thc ivurifi l^nd on the aiil aiul 
i#eftl It embofomf tfMiny i'liitile iflandSy the prifcipil 
<iif*«rhioh axeRhoilt Klan<i,«OlKioriiiicuiy iPiudcntf^ 
tiencei Hofief Dyer'f and Hotf ifisinds.' 

Rhode iflandj ft^m whith die $UU4a]rs its 0MBe,.is 
I*;. miles in lengths its average l^r^dtk i« a|>oQt $i 
iliilei; It is dieted into iti^ee tnwAQlip^ lllcwport, 
PoTtfimmtht %n& M^letoMns. this liUpit in point of 
Ibfl/dtmite and Htuationj may b^ratike^mmimg^'tht 
UndkMd moft diaraiitig in the #brld«* Ia' its maft^ 
IkMiriOiing ftatc» it Jir'^t tailed bf trarelkft ]^ ifiiibiW 
AmeHca. fiut the chaifge^ which the hiyi|^e< of^^afV* 
9fnd a decteafe of hii(toe% ha^ cffe£ked» it ^rcat ^^ 
melaaeholy.' flk>irw of the itieft oraaiQeAiai eowrttf 
Aatt i«tre 4efl^yfdtaiid their ifisgmt«t,'Orfi)iat!^ 
ikfi Irait 4ftei^^waiito^f em. down i and t^ altdm af 
iti piereat deeity^fiate iiKe^llMteQad liy iti^ian^ 

2. tib iMittiilfLiii^eft #iff^Ju^|iftlajtiff m^^ 

«it^^on2$liit IflaH^ befidfel neat eatite^iiAil hoi^; ' ^ 


tlioat^llfiii mileir kiliimW^t4^^^^i^ 

afftt-'iifcof povfted % ^ of afleAi% 1^ Hit naitt«io|NDfc 

jMociclihind, <alMlb^>^r^Jte<yane n 
fQtles S. ^ W. llM'Nkl#pott^ and h the fimchernnioft 
Iandb«lea§ifigt0^thellt9^ 10fae inhabit^lfill ol 4|tii 
iQAnd Wevf ^merly noted' ibli|ial:lAg^od ehte^y 

Mtdeni)aJ38aiid4s n^ly as itfgt as^^k*^^ 
Kes fftntftof it, andl&afart of fchetownilipof £%Rl^i]^ 

iitfMr/.} ^Fnn^enoe And Tiam^if rivets hcch fall 
tiiito Narvaganfei lay ; fiiMif<iniier^h the weA, the Utr 
t«f off^die ealt rtde.of Rh«4e IOand» B^videnee H^r 
lifts partly in Mtflaeki^tMi and i« <^a«fgi|bk* a& faraa 
Providence^ fdr.fliipt of 900 tonsk i&irtyxmlef ffoni^ the 
(1% r!|^antd» ttv<T^'^i|||P^ ^i^^^ 

X ^ataeketrftTeri cidled;'inorr flMicriii,#B>a^l^^ 





limm^im^iMikAm j^. 


« feu or tlif Gi«uBfi4«<W « r J 

%|p^P» &|M| lUNvly wi>cs« t)jMr;«iti«iBi j2>e«Mr ^«iiM. 

i^llp ii»[^N#v ^41^ ait|pu»^^«ie^Y» wkh thc^ 






tltauMMoah" Hi ^7^ Tht wmikm ^ Tvttk9m It 
tUrty-fiSf Muhooi tUNmj^tmo ate of thtdnoaiiiMkii 
otlkd BaptiAi, fi?t of the dcntMniMtieii of FilHiAl, 
fitt E^copiUtfiit and four QongregatiaQiUii. iTlit 
6am proportion «of tht diffennr &MMniBariow«Moiii» 

lUMM M fifptitHHIh aVM. Vliflllltllt' 8MM M A' MNpttlKl 

giroMbrit aiido*fc»yO<Bw<l ^iafeqfliwHlft<PMbi» 
iioil 10 tof terfknlai^ dtaommttiMi. . • 

. TliU Iniitntiogi urts AftfoniMledal WWvittyl*llilb 
cdimtT of Briftdt, apd ' ilw 'ikft comMiMMl^ ^ " "* 
there mitd9i l|$ die ycariTTO, tin C^M 
moved to ProTideaet, what, m litfgc *4i^pmi 
was erilko^ for iti MtonimodatioB» ^f tlit 
doiiatiobfiEf kKKfidiMlf»«ioft&y Iromthetawi 
4eiice. Itii1ltiKMEed««i a WU to ttie «all nf oit'l 
#Qd f4dte Hi'deftatediMnidDTindcfftitdilgb 
conumindnu as euMiiiftvt^ watfa^i^ "piolikeft^: 
aiftet k iiriatii forMIMtiiiiii #v^ 'ijbe odiT 
brlel^for flaliMMglri t5# $seti^^i^ 

a^profe^^^ dnr|Ait^l t piiolti&t^of i^taiM 
%iental pliilii^bp&rj 4 f«0^l^y #^^i^ 
4fti^oabi8if i a ai^edor wl^m^arsd ti^^ iiid^ ikmm^ 
tort. 1^# n^v^toli hsMra, libfarj^ of »ietiireci^ elj 
thie^^-thotiikad ▼dlttnwt^ anisa^iiifl^e^^^f^^ 
ftpimntits. Heatl)r id^ the fuo^ dif liti.4ifllj^v.„ ^. 
iai«iHift ifHliri^jie«^ e#|K» (lacc^ ao^ iMnoilbe p^^^i^ 

Ar^liiiv|iort ^m 1^ » floarfflyiy ^imtNUyj ^iiW 

'^e dsredioB:ofxi f«dbr«a)d^4^^ Ici^id^'leilih 
ed JjiMMwpw, Rn|^^ ^ 

SbrlSrl^} Jlitaj^Moe^^el^ w^^ 
JKfft ki ^7^^» fgif ji^f<lQ>o^ of^4^^ 

We'^ind:>o||^iant^:'AHURf^m'->hi^^ .tuld 

, «tfti(i«ryri»i'^f^i#ofH^^ 
VMldifefiu^ iorMrrftthi^dM^efn^^ 

«gi-f«li^' «0ittiieiii6l'ia 'kt8||#i!Ni%tpfi^ -liE0i^|idiii^* 

wwmwShat tf^TO^•flHm^tlf:liii'Miill^^<l ' 

'-1' S(^,fX 

I \ 



MmmkAt.'i lo tht towa of MM it Mooht ffofll^ 
or tu^ihtuM cail it Mont Htup, whieh it moarkablt on* 
If (oir> Hm liaTin^ booa the ieot ofKing Fhilipt and tbo 
.p(m# where he wa& killed. 

JSri4^0 The frcat bridge, in the town ol Prori* 
depcei ii i6o feet loni^i and ji feet wide, anduaitcp 
the faAan«iid iadlem4)attt ol^the cowr, Thie it not 
nmUbridgev The'hridleo^PatiicketlalUiflawork 
of cMftderahU iMInitiMei nod nitich higennitj. Cen- 
tMdjaad "Indi^ ^hndcet over . Seekhooh riftr; near^ ite 
jBfp^iht etfl of Prai?ideiiee, hmlt 1^ Mr. John Brownr<»f 
■Frovtdence» are worktof «ieat expeiiie and utiUty. A 
M|%^'^V^ Howland^t ftrrjr* uniting Rhode liland 
w|til.^evioa4»n the inain» wat eompleteinn Q^ber,^ 
It^^'i hot was vn^oit^nately carried away by a ftom^ 
^Ihort.tilne after. r 

StUitindJ^'r^d^m.^ Tbis State piodcicee etmhryt^ 

bark]r>.oa^ atMlLiMbnie (larts wheac» fuficient for hoint 

j^oniiifiDptipn n and, the vartous idnda of gra&s^' fruttCA 

and^e«^lQaf 7 i4ots and plants in great yabnndaifce, and 

Ml good petfeAioa t cider is made ^ ^expof^doa^*^ 

The/nordk5|fe0|ni parts of the State ii;te bot i&nly iA> 

liahit^ aJKli ^9ir6> mfire foeky and baittn thai, die other 

' tli^, t»a^ <sf tonntry iyin|^ between Somhi 

>WQ, -aiad ^^ CDnntiftic ut line^ called the Narnu 

.ff^^ jBOUjBtry^ «i«yoidlefit gFa^king land^ suld is ishabx 

t^^Uyja noiiib^lr 0f •odilftriotts, ivealtby farmers* Vho, 

j^Jb^ o€ the ^tf eft neat cattle in HeiwJS^Iand,, 

yfi^mg itomXt&oQ/^ t»Be^ weights '(hey keep. 

jIMf djbMi»fWlpke biil^ ^thfe beilt 

i|0i3Hy«^«i^:in la^^ge <taa 

trid^; /i*h« ; cftpptti irbm tht i5tatiB» ale jaaftc4, 

limiAmtfkafm fi^^'p^tukry^ ^onions,. 

|Ni|ter,el|iiij(biibf^^' grain, fpintl^ cotton and linen 
mfi^^\,^ apd WeftJhw 

dia goods^ ,af>d: U$di^i^^0m tk^h^MMokdxtti%. 
Up^aitda of^pp v^dls entds sind i3lea#'ai\p)^ 
diflfB«en|portari|i tma vfital^ The abinint of < ejilmti; 

^^l||iy J0gh 0f Septeinbisiv iT^ii* im* 41^ X;f J^ ic48kr^ 


%fioift MShAvm 



}|ttd|Mtenirr| r Tift IfihaVitanct of ckit toit att 
ftogtwnf^ ffMAf in thU branch of baAMfi. A cee* 
ton maiitifaiftorf liAt bten eredcd at ProYtdence. Jeaif * 
futtiaftf, denimtt diickfetv veWvit, ke. ftc art b^ 
maniifi^burtd wad fenl lo th« ibothctii Sutef. Imrgi 
qaantiti^ftC lioeo and tow doth arc made in differaoC 
partr of thk 8tau lor csportation^ But the moft con^ 
nderable mafiUfaacutt in thi« Staf» krt dioft oCitot^ i 
fuchi^i bar and fli^et iroiit fteel, nail rodf ami nails, iili. 
ptcmenis of hnfbandrf, ftdvei, pots and other houi^old 
VLiedfiUi the tro* worleof ihippinf^vftndiort» belk> *c. 

(^i^ feiikts.'} Newport and Pioviiience are the two 
principaltowns in the S^ tte^ Newport lies in Ut. 41^ 
<^'l(tti. 71^ tj'i itsharboim wh^ohisoneofthefined 
in the wotldyfprends weft ward before the town. The 
enlrance ^ ealV *nd fafe, nd a ^^irfl^ fleet wmf apchbr 
in^t» ^lii ride Ml pcrfea i^curity. The vown jiierliorth 
and fouth upon a gradual afceut as y ra proceed eaft* 
ward from the watcTi And'eihi^*ts a b«AiHifiiI t^w Ironiv 
the l|arbnar, and from ^e nei^hi>otttif^g hilli ^hich lie 
Wedward npon the main. ' 

' NewpoK contains iibout t QOO honres, bniTt ehiei^ oif 
li^ood. Icfhas 10 houfes- ibr public wnrfhb i 4 fpt 
Baptiih, a fpj'i' C^^rbgationaHlls, 1 for Epticcfpalians^ 
. f forQupl^rr, r^lor Moraviam, and a fynagogne for 
^e Jews. The "Othet public buildings are a ftate hottley 
and an 'ediBee for the puMrc library. 

Pm^idence« (ituated in latitude 41'^ 51^ on^thfi|iei» 
of ProVidi^rtet river} IS 55 miles from the feA, and 30 N»* 
by W^ ipotm New i r*. It^^ is the> cldeft town 'in the 
ftatci' H»fl|iBt^:WiU;^s,iand his'compan]^^ 

The^iiNiki dlvtded hi^ twft( p»rts^ h^^^ 
conme^edhy the biidge ^re*dy defcr^ied. Ships ffi 
^mbl^any'.iiie^l^ an^'ifown^^t^^ Afiiip^ 

of 95Q tosns, for tiieTEaft In^l^tradev was^lately built in 
(histdwm And fitted ft^ lea. ^ In if^t^ they ha4 tf^ 
fiiil of Vei^ls, containing f 1,^42 tpnsiK 
- !11nr p<Mie^bt^ii^sare an ^l^t^^B^ 
for Htflmf^ Solect %tf kre^ nHUi SI h>^ and beantifiat 
fUcjit#^ftiMi ftla^b^ r ^ meetly hdfifirJbc iiri^ds 
or;|^ie^r^^^ for Congregation^ifti, tw^#^i|i^l|l^- 
^>^B^e^.90«^^ tmn very :^ant} wa^^^ac^. 

cbttrch,^ J 


^wMtkt ahtiuUbait eemn litfaftv 7ofctrbT 40> in y/kiok 
if dqioHted a likrf|rf ibr the oft. of the townasd cdttp* 
Ity — a work bodt^ a aiarletluJiife 60 feet long, and 40 
Ibet wide, and a brick (chool iKnifeKin wliifth 4 ftbooli- 
aie ktpu The cottcge edi0c^ we baT« already niefi. 
Honed. The houfea >n thb town are geaefaU^luiiltof 
wood^ .thooffb ^icte art fome bricE buiUingf whtoh art 
large and ekgakiu Ulnt^wfthai an cstenTtiw tnda 
wim MaflTaBbttfttti, ConneAbnt ah^ pait of Vennoot |. 
jmd from itt advantagcoor ^toiittionr proi^iiet to be 
among the lasgaft towns in New J^ngbnd. 

BriKoUs a pkafiwit thriyii^ town, id^ut t6 miles 
Berth of Mew^iertfttn the maiiv ' ^ 

Im&(mt.] A few years finee there were about 500 
Indians ia this 3tate^ Thei greater part of them refide 
at Ch|Krle(lown. They ace peaceable and well ^pofed' 
tHowtf^s govemineiit, and ^>™ (hf EnelUk Umgtuwe. 

CuMtiit^J Aboitt 4 alUes Wtheaw of Kwvidencei 
Kesa fmaU Vittage^ called fktnche^ »phMaoffome 
trade, alad famous ht lamprey eels^ Tte«iigh \iik til^ 
lage runs Pktocftet fiver) which empties iiito Se^hoak 
mef at this plac^i ^ thir.lweir ia a beaviiliiK iidl of 
water, dtred^ovet which »i>rldge hat bfea baik^ 
which diTixles die €!<ommenw6al|h o#l|siffiiieha(etti^om 
the State of Rhode Ifland. The iall^ it* whi^ekngthk 
iffopwardaofjpafeatt Thcwater, paUb tfe^ugib feYeiir*' 
al ehaflas in a rock which nin» diaaR(etri«aHy atrofs the 
b^dof the ftream, and ftnttiasa-dum to tae wMeiK^---' 
^ Sifireral mills haire baen ereded Upon -tMi Mkt «ad 
the fyoijju and chami^ %hieh bat a^ieeii enftlNiAcdio^ 
ciaadoA'thc fK$»mfiim their rei)^aaiii^ wIMp, and tht 
bridge, iaietalEeii irery mt^ kf^ th4 biiulf :aod 
pandinirofttbereaie* adildi wMildotlierlbiabaieheeii' 
ladercribyHly cbakntng and yoreaiitkf. 
r^^Ci^i^im^ ln»t «ottW|^ii «f il^ Blaia is foimd. 
«i on the trhji^sr grtatetiff Cltastea IL m i^ t af4 
the fraane nf soireniQMiitlias not e(&ntianf aliikcdJby 
Qie revdfbtiom vf|i^ kgtiNitafe of tie dtate etti^t of 
thrte b>3iuic]ies«-4rf<Mpite or upper bottfe, eon^iBied of 
tctt m^flibets, befidea4lif gorem^c and deppiy jfi^nw^ 
sMf • ealla^ la th»#if«Kr;^j|i^^ 
in4ativM»>coiopofid ol.dcp^^it^liamtbtieveraliowoi*' 

Hlkli^QDE IjSL'AJIlli"^ 


ttLd there, are tirqt iefboi of this hodj 4on»j»lly, tiz. on 
the firft WediicMiir in^ Mij, iuid the Ulft Wednefday 
inOaobcr. . 

Hjftory.'] 'Hiis ft«te Wit firft fettkcl frAin Maflocbtt* 
fett$. Mr. Roger ^Uliams, a ^ninifter who came^fcr 
to New Engkuui in ^51* was charged with holding ii 
variety of enrort^ and was on that accmiot fiMrced tOFleay# 
his hou^ylaii^ wife i|iidrchiidreviV'«t Sakai, in the dead 
of wblcr, and t^ feelc a tefidence withio«t^e Itmiti of 
Ma0a(ih!:Uetts i Go>veiBor Winthrop adfifed hiiii to 
purfitf his coarfe to'Nehiganfer, ttr Nanragan^tVayi 
which be ,did» and £xed lumfelf »t Secunk or Seekhook, 
now Rehobodi. But thiit pkce jbcing vi; itliin'the boondti 
of Plymomh eoloR|f> Goycrnorrvi^inlipw, in jifriei^dly 
manner* advifed hifo to reaoi«e.jto,t|ie.othef fi4e of the 
rif er, where the lahds were not cciercd hy any patent. 
AccordfngJ^J^i in 1^5^ Mr. WiUisifei ai^ four others* 
cFoCed 'Seekhonk i^h^cf^ aiid lan^e^ wncm^ the Ind^tni^i, 
by ^hpm ^ey ;i^ei«'^4^m^y iee^lKed^ |n4.thtt%tadic| 
^ ^UJi^^ii (if a t0«^ti^iybkl^^ » 4^ of <^'l( 
mercif^ pirtM^dface 14 hnsi he eaUed Providence*^ « 

Hei^^^lHii^ of»ptheli( 

andfho|ng^;^ie^ we|«)£ec«4re4fi^^ 
UTx<9is<^^Mi^^ a^<^ddefabk^i|a^ 

fttffei^|Ba&h^^^^£^ f , hot thev enj^y^ 

ed libei%/of %«iiM^i^ whkh hii^ evqT ttncci J^ l|i- 
vtdd|il^::iitanitiiMi^iii tbiji;:Aste^ . "t -r;^-:--:::-'/ ^:\^- 

So Httle/hasi^ th«> jtvir^th^icjr to d^^inthrt relisicm 
here, thai nc^ conm^ bi#eeh* a Mnifteir and a (oeit tpl 

U'^m^tfitkil^^ that ^jvanr ' difenil 

fe4N^;^i#^<^^j^^|(p(n4i«re I ai>4 |hat the Ssibbath 

in thiir ^ii^in«nyM^pt;i>f the New.£a^^^ 

p%tH^Ji^/^iril4 tr^ltjieir ;tr^s b^M'ed gallantly^ ai)4 
they are hon<Hrf d ij|lhtil?iiig prodttced th^ '' " ^'^ ^" "' 


. '^^* 





(Srcateft lenfc^ »ooik*f«f*ii« f4*' and 4*n''N.-kt*? - ^ * 

^"^^''mfi^S^ caft, by- Rficdt Iffiina ; %Hi; by 
tKeSdtni^'#hi^|i' divides it f^om ll^hg- Iflstnd ; weft, 
by tbe StuifelM" fe^ ¥01*4- ?^ '^ ^^* " 

•miiitiesi and ab^lit Tbd^oDtrnOitps* ' 
The imtttet ttf tlie totintiei^ iSMt chief totmi, asd 


■,; 'J , '-'..If . i 



'^Qeiid ' 




^755 + «***^ 

i ... • , . ., 


( iMiieM" 

|Pf ;^':;S^^4|. : ,^» ^#C l#^ 



l!ie«t,rfa#:soTcr Infiteldf^; l)il^^dlbr,itte€efr€« 
Wiodfer fei!ViF rtver .^ofii tlie<^iPi^^iitii(Bb^l| fovoMid by 
Ae jiinaioBoTIP^fimiogtdn'iiiidF^^ At 

Martferdst ipecM tite tide, aiid dienee iitt^ itt a croelied 
elmnneUtnta Long iftnidAb«i«d« liitJnttli'ftMo 1^ 
f&ds w^f 150 m\\H Item kt iMutlivv >rv 

IftiJ^ts beaitfiltU itTerriiiiore baik» art fe^M >U 
|M>ft to its r<Hiree, are ilianj |leafaiit| neat, iwll Inritt 
toiTAS. It ivii«»%«||^ to HiliBciid, Qpwarde' of M^ 
t from ittfnoum r j^nd thct pfodiice of the coantrf 
MiQ^taiH abort io ftroasbr . tkicher in boats;. 


The Houfatonkk tiAsi im Wnkikkt ttmmft n Maia. 
chnfettf. It jpa&r tlw«^li ti ww km i»f fMeafsMC . 
towns* and enjpciet into the Somui bctiPMii Sttyford 
and Milford. Itlt nairigaMe twcin nUot, toDimf. ' 

Naugatttk U akimattrivc^ and emptiii iato die HiMi^ 
ikt»DicfcatI>ef^f» < ' 

The Thaam «aitM b«» Long KImi^ 8oi»tt lil Ned^ 
Loadon. it it na?iniU« foortefn milcf t^ Mteii^ 
landtag. .Melt it lofefl iti iMmif» at# liM^iCti latd 
Shetacket, on tbo caft, aad llatwieb^-fipb rifcr, on 
the weft. Tlieliitf of Norwicb ftandk onitlie tongoo of 
land between thefir rivers. Liille fiter, ajbont aWl^ 
from its mouth) has » semarliable and ttrj romiiitie 
eatarad. A ^ooic tto or twelre fbet in peipeadicttlar 
heights extends quite^adrofr the-eh«iMiel.of the rifar» 
^6fer this th^ whole nver |$ttches, in one entite (^et 
vvpon a bed of fdcls^dow. Here the f tver is conipre^ 
fed into a ^ra^< Harrow y^iuam^ iMtwcen two craggy 
clifiiioneofwliidi towels ^o a <f on6de|aMe ]lelpt« 
' Th^^^iinel defeends graAMdi|, it v«ry mohci^ alid 
eovertdwitlii^^oted fockst lopon theft tb^ water 
iWiftly iiimbles;, fiaming *wt^ tht moft Solent agilaN 
$\oMt 4l^n or twenty todty imSo a kroad bafim ^iwieii^ 
^eadt Mvttt^ Jki the bottMn o$: #e perpendttfltdaf 
mUs^ thc^ioclct 4re eufioiifl^ eacatated bf the confta«t 
pkmring of wa|er< Some ^ tlM^«aviae^ whichr ati^ 
all of a circola^ lorm, are ire or Hk feet deep^ llii 
(mootknefs of the wate^ above ii^ defcentf^-^^ leguhw- 
4t7 and beauty of the perpendiettlar fidl-— the ttrett^ii- 
doiit rottghnefs of the qthart 90t the eraggy, towering 
eliff v^i&iflBpeiidt over di^ whi^e, ^rM^t to die vi«sr 
of the 4*eftator» a fcene iadefcrih^bly deKghtfbl and 
majeftie. On this river a:reibine of the fineffi^illfeata 
in New Eligland, and thofe tAmediat^y below die ftlif, 
occupied by Lathrop's mUl^: are >pefiKftjpl not exceeded 
by any in the World. Acroft the moutik of this river ie ' 
a broad^'commodious Imdge, in the form Ha whatfr 
baikatagrtat expenfe; 

^tueket rivier, the other !>ranch of the Thames* 
fbiiif miles from it»<moa^ receives Qninnahangywhi^ 
hiu1t*^iibi»ce WGftamd In Maf^^ 




e^Hit«5^T I ciuTv 


M. i 


lEAiuick ami tIImqI Hopk, Qfen, wbkb «f ice bet«ttn 

Wiild|iam aiifL i^baiHMR. . Xheff4iYM9«7efed4»y nam* 

^ lierM> ^ilooks froqievttrf ^rtdttlt* C9tintr]r« At the 

' mouth oC ti)ft-Sli4||oc)rcta»a hndf^^etdmb^i^ii^, feet 

,fn lengthy, fapporte^ at each. end by pUbrt^tnd held up 

jb thiit>iakUliei^ bt^M OQ thf, tof»ri»» the oattirc of an 

PiiukatuiHiir^r is «n^ iaconficlelrajblc Al^anif wliich 
empties i{aoiy^iiiiigtOiiJbaki>Qur« It f<tfrms part of the 
4iykliog line b«twc«n;Co)QD!p^'(|t and Rhode Ifland, 

Harmrs, 3 ^f) two principal iiazbotii f arc at New 
Lpndoi^ and .Newt JEi^x^en. . .> > 
«, The whole of tb^ fea e^ad js^ iEi4cnted with harbours^ 
many of which arefafe and^commodipus. v . ^ 

(^maui SoU tmd Pt^ctdudonf^ i Gonne^iottt, though 

fal^eA to^e-extr^nes ofb^at.MidipQ|(jlf'in thehr feafons, 

and to friei^uc^t fudder^changesyift^very hesUhfol. It is 

£<ner4Iy brajsenlaud,made,up i^moumitir^Sf bH 

^aJUcty jind jii exceednjiglirilMrfB watered. Stospi imaU 

p^,ofii^;#trthin s^ barr^^^Iti picjIu^ipiiiprodudi^Qns 

afe Indiaii conir rye » i»^e«t in tiiajayr p^rts of the State, 

(^fMiiHiliai4ey^ irH^ aini ^od, and of late,. 

ifiif^ pl^t^&m i» larg«(||«»pUti#»-«<onje hemp, po- 

jj<i<;pe» of i;^erai kind$»spiMimp|insv; t^i^^^ 

'cq, ^p. :4Fri|iu of ||iJ^nd« which ail^pomhEiQR. to the 

^ftiate^ Tii« fci^i is ir;cry Welivcalci^gd for piifliirage 

p^^^o^^glf, lKl)ich . enables v^e/^aiiiKf 8 to feed iaige 

fip^l^no^&tataitUeandho^* * r- / : . 

. Mmi^i T^e tjiul^^Coiiitfaiciit is prtn{:tp^lT iP^ldl 

4li li^^ft Indift luandfiaad is carried en in veiTeUfr^ni 

^xty tO' an hundred mai forty tOfis« . The >«^ipQfti^ eon- 

r^D:. of ho#»yi!aules»03;en^pi|1( ftavei^ hoopsr<{>ine boardSf 

q^ktpiiakt^ ht^mh iriiii^n xiornt <i(h, beef,;porJc» Stc, 

liorfesy live c^ti and lumber) are permiited iu the 

putch* DMuiilhi ind, FreaC^^ports. : / 

, ponnv^^itu|. has k l«rg?c numbet of «oiAiag Vefi^s^ 

employed in catr^tn^ ^e-pfodoee <if die Spite to other 

States,, Ta ^^o^ Mand. Mii^t)iiiretts, md Hew 

Humplhire, tbcje»r|-y|K»rk»'Wh«#t, corn^a ry«; 1^ 

UoTtU and 3oo2b'Q»l#ii3(s 4mi 0«<>Fgia«J>u^efr "4^96^ 


C O M N fc C T I C U T. 


filted bed, Cfdtr, ipplet* potttoet, lui7» fte. tn4 rtcciTC 
in retarn* ri66» indigo uid money. Bat at New York 
it nessd^ and the ftau of the markets alwayi well 
known, much of the produce of ConneAientf efpecially 
«f the weftem partt, -if carried there i particularly pot 
and pearl aihes, flax feed, hecf, pork, cheeftand butter, 
in large quantidet. Moft of the produce of ConnottU 
out river from the parts of Maidchufetts, New Hamp- 
ihire aad Vet moot, as weU as of ConneAicut, which 
are ad)acen£, goes to the fame market. Gonfiderablc 
qv entities of the produce of the eiiftern parts of the 
Ai jCt are marketed at BoftOnt Norwich and Providence* 

This ftate owns and employs in the foreign and coaft* 
ing trade, 32,867 tons of (hipping. 

MaMufa^uret.2 The farmers in Connedicut, and 
t))eir families, are mpftly clothed in plains decent, home- 
ipun doth. Their linens and woollens are manufac- 
tured in the family way } and although they are generally 
of a coarfer Vmd^ they are of a ftronger texture, and 
much mote' durable than thofe imported from Franee 
and Great Britain. Many of their cloths are fine and 

?In New Haven are cotton rnd button manufadories. 
In Hartford a wooUenmanufaAory has been eAabliflied % 
iikewife glals works, a fni^if and powder mill, iron works, 
and a ilitting mttl. I^on works are eflabltflied alfo at 
Saltlbury, Norwich, and other parts of the State. At 
Stafford is a furnace, ait which are made laige quanti- 
ties of hq^ow ware, and other hronnjongery, fnfficieat 
to fupply the; whole State. Faper is m^nu^iAkired at 
Norwich, Hart^d, New Haven, in Litchfield coan* 
ty» and m many ^ther ]|>lacer. Ironmongery, hats, can- 
dles, leather, (hoes and boots, are manufa^ured in this 
State. A duck manofadory has been eftabli(hed at 

PopiMm md Charailer»2 The Stale of Conne^Cut is 
laid ou| in fmall farmi» firom fifty to three or four hun* 
dred acres each, which are held by the farmers in fee 
fimpley «nd aie ^naraUy weU cultivated* The State is 
cbequered^ith innt^merable roads, or highways, crofT* 
bg each other in every JtredkiQiu A traveller m any of 
wk totds. etCtt tn the moft unicttledpam of the $ca(e» 

O ^ wiU 


e irw t c 1 1 c tr f. 

j^tKfing a h<m(t<ft c0tGiffe» and M^hrm undet't^th W 
]ir%e^ct| M to aPFonfthe iK^eiffiui^ ^th^ fa^di 
d^toally. IV^lsolt ^^im fvi^mUcs a Well cultr. 
^^ted METdpo, lRr|ii<fc> >^^h tiitrt'degni^sof tndttftiy that 
isnecMMY^to liap|»fncf<;, jopodocei i* <; necdTsbicf 4n4 

Tlk^ vv)bi^lih^r.tiiai;« ;^UiMift entirely' qfSi^iili d^Tcent 
Therfc are^^ui<r!i or Getttaxu/and vcr/fewf Fretidi, 
^cotcih or ;Mi(li'i^eo^, in anf jisd't of the State. 

The people <»* C nnefticoi liv « hi^tofbfrc beed to* 
fond bf hai^og all tJb«iVVltff$ttte& \k3cd aacetdmg to law, 
"Hiefirevsd^i^ci^^^Df ihie jitigi ?>i;^' fpint afiSirded employ- 
ment and (upi>prt for ^ ntt^ero^« body «f lanryer^ 
^at; party fplHt} however, iwhidh b the bancfof pdtttc- 
al happui<^i*8, has never ra^^ed with fuch f to|enee in this 
Btatey^sinrome otheri/ |^blteproceeding«fia^el»eeii 
cbttdv<^d .genen^ny witik' «iach ipidtniiers and tandont. 
^Tfiepeopje^e wett fnfornifsd^ ^^t rlgKttj 

mnd jndfei^in tl^elii^^iodllhey adoptto (eeilf| thenL 
4lie SlA^.^j^s a great (hare of poIhM M^itMUitri 
and m li^ 3&te do the |nlgd>|Mmtf la gen^ lire m/n, 

l^oir^rfinie^b . '■j^)i^--i^'-msiti oF ^a^ct^!^ chiir^h 

. |ht not tetfopcrly be 

ji0# 3M&|:h\tt€hi& 
jorHBiiftiQn^.^nd claiiOBi ^ti0<p^ ^"^^hoo^ ithelrowii 
iHifiiaiie^i Ijqf ^l^^^^^ff^ ^^^ii^fX^l^gaX^ or- 

iidiiiM^Vt^mitfelfv lE^ ar^nop; 

inliteipeimeni^ #^a<fh d^^V the|j^ hi '^penerifl cOnl^* 
^te4^or^Q|tt«3 ben(&$t ittdilM^^ Tl^ aiTo- 

iftry/to eon«it#:^ iheV^e^i^! jrelfirei ^nd'^o '^'tK^ 
jnend jaeaiU^^s |o,^ tested by^e $|i^he$^ Irat hayte 
«0 vm^ i^ totfkfee ^i(^^ • Wien 4flfe^« atiJi? \%^ 
^chnltipek eo^i^ #e ^ed| by ^ Vtxvm% to $^t^ 
;^m^$ tm ^leiv p^er % pj^Jt :adri%y.. Tbeit are 
<i^c^ ifflbci|£tiOttrfn'^^ itoieet tiirtccf iii 

AU fftligtoiify that wc confident with tho p9«ce oNb- 
€ict]r,ar« tt»lertcc4 iiuCooneAicot i and a fpin; of llbcr* 
altty and calbplo^tlfli !s increarioff. Thej^ are v«rf 
few rdigiottf feds in fhis State* Ac bulk of the ()•(»• 
pie are CongrcgaCtonaliftf. JScfi^es tbefe, there ara 
^pifcopaKant at>d fiaptiits^ 

DamtiietMdmd k iht lati ^at^ After the eftabSr 
Kfliinont Of peace in ly^Jf a number ofeencleinen.were 
apppinted by the General A^embly to eftjiniate |he dam* 
ages done by the Britini troops^ in the ieversd towns 
which the^ ravaged^ The foHowing h the amoiifit of 
the loifes in the vfht^le Stater kk siOaey» valued- as i^ 

The foregoing, efttmateinclade^ merehandtze' ana 
public bnildtngs. Exclunve of thefc, the loifes are e(Vi« 
mated at;^i6i7,ood-. To ^ompenface the fu^^fers, the' 
lpei>vr^;Court, in May»» 1 792, granted^th^m 500,00^ 
a£i;«s of the vHiAcru part of Umi rGi^^t^lmis.oiCQii^ 
fieaiftst> whi^b%veft of Bsanfylvania; The remata^- 
der of this tra^li, of abbut ihr^ inilUojbii i»f acr^Si^ hai" 
^(^ be^fold by theSutei foff ,2<>D«0(^ doUii'iV 

CkkfTofO^f-'] There are a- gijeat iii|i«i^i«,-oif verj^ 
pljsaiant towi|s,.hoth mathftte andinU^d^Ia CbiQ|9e<^i« 
ci^t. It contai^ff Eve citic$<;arpQFa|^: wiUi ^jfw»(lir^ 
ji^rirdiai«H^ tnrciv^;eai2^s.r TWoof the^^^r^;;4 aii4' 
|>Iew Haten^ ar^e capii^s of the*St^to:, ^h^/G^rkV 
Afleipbiy isf hi^d^ft ati ^ fojPilMaf itti^y»aftd; atilM^ 
latter in O^obev^nmi^Jljk 

^artfof41city^^) ii^jai^iui^! at; thie J|ifi!4 of jaV^^o4^ 
^ t|^^«|c|ttideo|C^ abont ^y mi^ 

ftonittis en|r^?ceJn^4fte 3|^iia4 Its b$ildj»g| arei^ 
ftattt hoi|£3^ t.wof hUrches 1^]^€ot%i«gsition4i&« imd 09^ 
fi^ £piii<^pa]|[||i8i*(^1](efi4i^ alibc^t 5^0 dwelting houTcs, a^ 
i^^iJbeP Cf tt^iichar^ bfjdfo^^^ 

The toi^n is^ divided by a {inali; nver^: withvbjlgiirtoi 
stianttc b^V Ov^ torivcr It ji^ )^ge jmnelsng/ 
Uw twq divifion* of tfe«to^xJ» ^artfordi i^,v>Mf9iAU$ib>f 
oufly fiii»aied for tradf , hat a^f ijJT . iGtftei ba^ <»mntry^ 
enters laitgely intone «»a^iifa4iiriflg bi20tief4iM»# iaa 
r^, do^riikii^ commercial town. A baid;^ li$^ 
ba^(dkt)|fli«2ria (^ eity». 



CON KB C T 1 C 1/ T. 

New HateB (city) lies Mad i!:^ hn&iafz baf » whldb 
mftkct up about four mHfi nor^' ho»ci the Soond. It 
€omf pan of a lara;e plaiii» whicb li pftomib'ibed o» 
three fiaei bf higb mils or mowilaiot. Two fimU" ri?* 
en bottnd the tkj eail and^w^. The town wae origi* 
oally laid out in (quarts of fifty one rDds» Many of thefii : 
fquares have been diWdedby croft ftreets. Fpw ftrecta> 
run northweft and foutlieaft, tbefr are erofiM by four 
others at right^ngles. Near the centre ef ilie eity is the 
public fquare I on and around which are die.oublie 
outldiiiffSi which are/a ftatc houfe, collides and enapeU 
tibree chrirches for 'OongregationaHAs/and one Ibr Epi(^ 
90pftliaas. Thefe are all hand(biiie and comnodious> 
buildings. The colleges* chapel» (late houfe, and one: 
of the cniirches ^re oflrick. The puUic fi^uape is^ ene 
circled wi^'a row of trees, which render it both con* 
v^ntent and deUghtftid. Its beauty, however, ^ gftatlf 
dinntnifhed by tjie burial ground, aad fcretal^of the pulK 
Hc buildings^ Which occupy a canfiderablc part of iu 
li contaiios $if$ dwelltiifl; hoiitfeSc 

New J^oHdon (city) Sands on the wti lUle «f the rt«^ 
er l^amiSi near its cntrattee into the SouneK iw l»tii!ttd» 
41^ tf^ It )tas two plac^ for pis^lie wdifl^ one for 
EpiiPcoi^iaBtiand OMfcrC^|;rfgata«udifta»i^iit 500 
dwelling lioafes, and 4600 iBhabttantt. Its harbour k, 
the beft m Cojtor^ticnt^ A coiiGaeralile ^rt o£ th* 
towiciwaf burnt by t^<e in^nii^us Beniedid Arnold ut 
lySi. It has fi^cft beien rebixilt. 

NQnd(^(city>l|andsat thehea^^^Thaiiie^ riTer,. 
s^inileliiorthfrQmNew 1^ Ii is a ciaaniiercial 

cit^t has m rich and estenfiv| Wck countryi.and avsfis 
kielfcff ksT ituialadtantagfi atthehead ofnavlgation» 
Its^^^aHcm upoi^ a rii!er» wlsii^ iJhi4s ^ grcj^ number 
cifconvenieiift j^ts ^r mill! and wateir naishiiies .of aill 
hindSy renders >t firy eligible for maimfa^hires. ^ 

TheidhabittQtsait i»ot negl^ul t^ t)^ a^vantageai 
Whicli namrehaaib libeiiallygWen theift. They m$a-^ 
ufa^iirf l^psr ^t*aU hlndsrftockingf, docio, aiia watch* 
es»j^ife4i bntioiis^ ft^ $XKd eartheili wiuc, mm$o^p 
<^9^ale» t^tls, ani^ieffSftand aU fcMs ^ fy^^^im 
T^kithf co<:ttaiiiaiiW>nt ^« dw^lng hMb^ » caurc 
Mttfey two cburclU^ §k C<iWcgition>liflBi» aadone 




ht Eptfoopiliani^ nd glxmt 3000 ifiluibitaiiu. Tht 
oty itialiu^detickedyccinpa!ft divifisntt vit. CfacW 
fea, at tfee landing, th«towm and Bean hill 1 in tht bet- 
ter, divvlion iutti: academy ; and in the wwn it »lclioc»l 
i^piMliited by^a dpoation fvoin Dr. I^uucl Lathro|i|^ dfe* 
Qetf«d». The courts of law are held alternately at Mtw 
London ar . Norwidi. 

Midd}eton.{ait^).it pleaiantif fituatfd on the weftem 
bank of Connedicut river, fifteen milei footh of Haru 
ford.. Itifil|n;i»iinoipaVto^'^ 'n Middlmer connty— 
hai about jQp fiioufes— a ctiuit houfb-^-anavtl' office*-^ 
one churcli fbn Coogregatioiialtftc, and one^ for £piicd» 
pa}iaos. / X 

. Four milerfoiith of Hartford is Weatliertfield,aMi9^ 
pleafiine town of between' two and three hundted hoa«k 
fes, luoatediona fine foil^ with an elegant brick chnrciii 
^r Con ji^egatibnaiitis^ iThis town is noted for raifing* 

.Windf9r»1^i;n^toni XiEcHfierdt M^ord, Stratford, 
Fairfield, 6mfford,StamfbrdiWul4|llUl^ 81^^ and 
Snfieldi are a|il.coiifi.derable and plcii^aiir tawnsi 

world IS tl^:;edac2itj0n of aU ranks of ^ieppk%ore i«t» 

tbodcato jibuiAo C^omi^ Alino^ ei^erf td^ iii\ 

^« (late |s.dtvi3ed it^t0 difiH^siand^egcK^^^ ^ 

P«ib% fc|Kipl k^iii'^^^^ a' s^eir ofv lefs fttrt of.eyit^ 

Xear^ 9oine«^h«Mf wore tfiin oni thiid^ 6f,ihe«i6nicJ 

ati^ftl^froni a las on the polb^^4 tmmi^t^/btJ^Xtke 

kibabil»|^«, is a^ipfi^taU^ieo t^Jf^^ 

Ibc fe«)ppjd tQi*rnfc i^ the ird^€«ti0if ^^i^^ iihikBta fiid 

70|Ul».. l1ie^w|d^e;^;iba^a:gra|Qma^i£^ 

Kcpjt in every county town throu|iooit il%^ Sl^ft ^^ 


ji-i-^o^uia^^ .•:. 'V, /■ ■ /■ •■■v,^-'- '•■-;■ .1/. ■ 

**:: 1^ cpi^f .was^ 1^ in i^ooi an«l i«niaSn^lit: 
Ipporth^ntil:! 707^1^^ Sa^liro^ktz|ital^ir«7l^f 
ttj«a« veili^ed^iMif^at^^ 4l^o9^ 

i^ pir|acip4I]be|idpj^c^»K|-g^ in bo^ ot 



C^KNBCT I cut: 

40— nt of yiAikh wai hwk in 1750— the otlier im 
i79g-^« colkgt thtatftl, 50 feet by 40» with a ileeplti^ 
and a (liBi»|; haU» all of hriek. 

Th« Dubhc lihrary coaGfts of aboat 1500 Tolomes t. 
dit phuorephic«lappar4tas, by a late haacUbnc addi* 
tion» is now at complete ai moA others ia the Uniud 
Sattt, and contains the machinee oeceiSiij for c&hibiu 
iag eiperiments, in the whole coorfe m experimental 
philofbphy and aftronomy. 

The firft charter of iacorpoxsction in» gfanted^ b^ 
the general aJTembly of ConofAicpt, to eleven minifters^ 
under the denomination of ticttfleef, I'joi, ^ an aAc 
of the genertl alAinibly *' for enlarging the powers and 
kiereanng the. fonds of Yale college^ paued in May«, 
17929 and accepted by the <orporation» the governor^ 
lieutenant gt#etnor». and the fix fenior aiSiftants in the^ 
councilof uie ftkte for the time being* are, eaer hereafter,: 
by virtue of their offices, to be trnftees and fellows of 
the college, in addition to Ihe foniier corporation.. The- 
immediate executive governanent is in the hands of the- 
prefident and tutors. The preieat (^ers and inftra^U 
oraolth^ college are, a prefident, who is alfo profelTcr 
ofecciefiafUcal hiftory, a profeflbr ofdivinityt aprofefb 
ibr of aataral philoibphy and aftronomyt,and thnee tu»^ 
tors.. Thenambccof (Indents on an average is about 
i$% divided into fonr chi&s. It has iiaw j^iftoo)* tip-^ 
wards of abO| tndlis iecrealing.' 

The funds bfHiis co|kge received a ^cxf libc]^] adk 
dition bj i gt^MRtof |htf general ai&inbly in the aft be*^ 
fott nentioncdf which will ensible die corporation t«» 
ioppc^ ievcralnew prole9^^%ii» aa^ ta^ mahc a haudk 

liWBkf addition to tljiilibra^y^. 
iTillfe)^ and SepteimbeW: annnaUf> ^e feveral daflee: 

are ^ripniPy examhifl^jii all llieir clafiic^ |^ vi*«s.. A 
public ^^mbenceiti^t is, heU annually an the fecond' 
Wednci»^ Itk Septtc^r^ which ctfMs tog^tj^t a^, more: 
numerous a£^^T|lf|»it a|^mbly ^n i^ c«nacac4 W 
any other anniWmTy iiilfie &W, theCSi^lbAeauilMs 
OnfitM^ andCem^ tf^jHef^Ji Ae cftoftitittton of 
Coaneaicut is ibvtnd^ tk iStitir cliirleiiy n&ich. waa 
|ra«|ted bfv Chaises it. lii iQ6t| >k»4 >Mi a jaw 'if l^a 
mMt CwailBd fi'nk tiwi Ibtm. <# |09ernirient» iImi 



|Mopl« have not becA dUpoM to roo the batttrd of frtm. 
mg a Mw cenftttatioA (incc tht dcf larui»» of iodo- 

Agrfcable to tbif charter, thefkpreme hpQfoirwn^ 
Ihontj of this ftace U vefted in a governor, deputy 
gorernory twelve afliftanu or couafeHorfty and the ref» 
refentalive* of the people, ftyfe^ the General jffinMj* 
The governor, deputy governor and aififtants are an* 
au^r cbcifcn by the freemen in the month of May. The 
rcprcfentativrt (their number not to exceed two Ironii 
each town) are choien by the freemen twice a year, ta 
attend the two annual feilions, on the fecond Tuefdayv 
oi May and Oftober. , By thefe kws the general aficm- 
My is divided into two bra(idiei, called the i^/yirr andf 
Uwr hovkt^ The upper hoofe is compofed of the 
governor, deputy governor and afliftants. The Jower 
nonfe of die reprefentatives^ of the people. No law can* 
pafs without the concurrence of botl^ honfes*. 

Conne^cut hae ever made rapid advances in popu» 
ktinn*. There have been more ^migrations from this,. 
than from wnj of the other dates ; and yet it is at preibnt 
full o£inhabttonts» This ibcreafe may be afc^bed to 
fe veral caufes. The bulk of the inhabitants are induftri^ 
ens ikgacloi:^ bnibandmen.. Their ^rjns fumiih theni' 
with an t^ie^nece^aries,. moft of the oonveniencesVaml 
but few of <he luxuries oiP life^ *^tf ^' courlb^ mufti 
b^ seneralfy tempecaoe, and if th^y chooiei. can fubfi^ 
wiw as much, independence as is confiilept vrith hajjipi^ 
nefs^ The ^fi^^ehcc <vf the farmer is (bbftan^ ami^ 
does not depend on ineidenta! cfrcuffliftances» !9lte thae 
of moft other profeflion^. There is no necedky oi 
ftrving an apprentieeihip tc the builncfi^ nor of » lltfge 
kock «t n^ey io>comm^ rar. c It to advantage.; Twrnerjn 
whO'disat ittuch- ia barter, have Ms noed^ of moiie^> 
than iay odMr clafii of pe#plt..' Theeaft #hi mhkk b 
conifiNstiikilibftfteace is obtained, wdiliReis the huiband* 
man to iDifry voiinfl;. The culiivataml^of hit faMi and^t 
kirn ^iion^atna heaTthlul. i^ toiU cfatci^^ <!i"^li^ 
the daf-H»t> the fruit of liis oum labour ivitti r Iku^ 
fome heairt-4it i^hi devoiitfy dtnnka kit koi;iiteQ«i» 
Oodi^rhitdiulf lMiogli--ittii«f to reft* (||4 hii (Mt 


8mh ciNWBitaeet a« ihdk Intie gnttlf cnimibwiil 
lilhf Moasuig incf— fa of inbtfeiimiiin imi. Siatfc ^ 

Befidet, the people life ander afrte gOTcramtfift aadf 
hfif eno fear ola tyrant.^ Thcream noovet grown cftUM» 
with rkb and amliiUous Luidlordi* tO; haT« an tmdtin 
and pcmteioui influence in the elodton of oiyil»a flw > m. > 
l>rop(Brt]r iseqaallx enough -dtvidedt and funftoontlnne 
to be To, as long as eftatei dt £cend at thej now d6. No 
qualified perion is prohibiud froaa voting* He whobai 
the mod merit* not he whaha» the nioft iQoney»is gen* 
•rally choien into pui^lic office;' Am inftances of thiii ic 
is to be obfervedt that many of the citizens of GonneAi* 
€ut,irpm the humUe walks of Hfei hav«i» aiiiiin to the 
firft oflkes in the ftate, an^Ued them with dignity and 
lepunnion* That bafe bui)id*s^ of eledidneering» .which- 
if ib ditediy calculated toincrodocewioJcedana deiign^ 
ang men into office, is yet but little known in Conrit^fti-- 
one* A man who wimes to be diofen. into.. oficef^aA^ 
wifely) for that end* when he keeps his.defires to himfelf. 

A thirft for learning prevaili amongwalfranksof peo<r 
]^e in the ftate., Moreoi the young- men in Conned* 
e^Vin proportion to their numbers^ receive a public ed*- 
^iicaiionr than in any of' the* States; 

3ome have believed,. and with reafon*.||iat the/bndvr 
leff fbr aendemie and c^Uegiate edQcation'iii|Ut>great*^ 
t|kat it induces ^oo many ta leave the. plou^ If men 
^f libciM education woiild retorn to the farm, and ufa 
their knowledge in «nproving MiricuUnre^ andencoar*- 
u[ing inanufa^resi tliere could not be too^^ many imu 
^ leai^g^^ itt' ,the^ ^late ;. but this ia. tooicldom|hl^: 

Conne^^ipvr Had but a>finf n^ jtmportioii ol citiiB|p9' 
v4i»^' notipin 4n oppKjiingtlie^^op^ 
^reat'BqitauHBnd was>a^ivei and inBucntial, botb' in< 
^ field »4 i^ Uie cabinet, in bringing, alboui the tt%o» 
hition- 'fter foidiieM y»<?8«ppUM>4Slhy^ 

%r iaClM^foritheirbKnvcif ^ui4fi<l^ir«< . ^i 

., ip>atM«i!bM9«^in fiii^i^r <^ISginiiedicat|, liiov^h 

npiii^^khm^9^9^^ apf4i94 necd*^^q» be qpalified^^th 
1^ eacet>t»fi#ik. Dk* J^km^kiy Sfolm ^ truth- whaft 
}^^mi^ filitiM^ umgmJm^ «« villams**^ 




Too numif art Idli Md <liil|MiCe4, and mach tine it im* 
pToBukHf ftAd wickadlf fpmt in tt«r fuiu andpetu a«^ 
bitratioiii. The pabBc fchooli in fome paitA or thr 
dauehave Inma too mach otgtedcd, and io procurinc 
toRruAortt too litde attentioa if paid to tiicif morar 
and litflcanr ^oaUfications. 

The revokj^oM) whicli. lb eieatiaUf a&Acd the gof^ 
eroment of noft of the oolonk*. produced no rerj pei^ 
eeptihie aleeratioii in the go^Fcnifflcat of ConncdicuL 
While under iha Jjarifdiaion of Great BHtain, the^ 
cMed tlieif own gpfecnore, and all (isbordinate ci?il» 
officerct and made their own. lawi, to the fame manner 
and with, aa little conir<>l *i they^now do. ConneAicut 
haf ever Veen a. republic (. and perbape as perCeft and' 
as happy a. republic as has ever eiifted. While other 
States, more monarchicaltin their government and man*- 
nen, have been under a neceflitjr of underuktng the 
difiicttllc tajQt of aUcria|^ tfaair oldt, or funning new con* 
ftiiuttonsy and- of changmg their roonarchiealibr reptfb^ 
licaa aunneri> ConadSHent has uninterrujpted^ pro* 
eeeded ia her old track* both as to government aadi 
manneet I- and,, bf. diefemeana^ has avoided* thofecon*- 
▼aUiona which' have rent other States intO' violent pav>* 

At the aaniv>er(kf^ election oB govemor«v and other 
pnbUc officers, which i^held^Fe^rijc at Hartford, on the;: 
iecond Thnrfday ia Kaf , a^ fermon is pie^ched^ which* 
is pubKihed at tha pnbuo expenie,. On thefe oceafion» 
a Vaft ^oaconrie orrefpe6hu.U citiaensHMvtieiillirly tha? 
9^^g7t^ *i« coUeAed from, everj^fpstf t of the State ; an<U 
while they add dignity- and iblemnity to the important^ 
aad jojAtt tcaa^kdions of the day, ferve to exterminate^ 
party Ipiritt^aikd t* l^armoaiae the eifiVandrclig^ettS ii^ 
terefts of the ihtttb 

Cbnoeaticnt ha» been hig&Iy diftmgtiihed in Kaviiifr 
a fiiccefittii of govemorty eminent both fbr their relig- 
ious and politimacr^mplitoents;^ J^ 
venerable qameti iee American ^latsfid Oeosraphy.*' 

The HiAory o^this State has lately beear^obmbed im 
one aolttiwyby the B«P.|)tv1!)NuBbalL. 

; » 

i^ SB C O H X> B IT I B to K. 

... I -s • 

States eemfrehendi 

Nnr Toix, 
New JensiYr 


»>,«->-^«T TIOITWDED north, fcy Upper fea*. 
' -P<"«»*>^-J J3 a», from which it h fepamted by 
fbe Lnkes-; eaft, bf th^ New England States $ fouth, by 
she Atlantit ocean* Maryland, Virginia, and ^e Ohio 
river, whicH fepatates it from Kentucky i weft^ by the 
Miflinppi river. ' > -7 

Riv&tand Bayt,'\ The principal rt'^fi-l^ t^it diftrift 
are the Hudfon, the Delaware^ the Sofc^uehannahf the 
Ohio, the Miifirippr, and their branches. York, £>Cila- 
ware, and part ol d^ihefiipeafe Baytare in- this^diftridi 

^i'maie,'] The cUmate of thb Grand Divifion^ V^^Z- 
atmoft in the fame latitudes^ ▼aries but little from that 
of New England^ There are no nro fuceeffire year* 
alilce. Even the fame racceffivoieafont attd months dif- 
fer from eacb other every year^ fiaade there is perhaps 
but oiie (leady trttit itithe ohars^ifter of this climate, imfi 
Ihat is, it is uniformly variable*- The* chaiigee^ of -K^a- 
tiber arc great, and frequently fiidden.- ^ 
> There are frldpm more than four months in the yeai^ 
fe which t^e weather i^^reeable wti^out ^ fire. In 
winter, the winds generally come from the K. W. in fair 
and from the N. E. inipirct weather. The N* W. wind* 
are uncoihmonly dry as well- as cold.- 

The elimaHon the we(i fide of thi^ iyiegaiiy^oiin- 
tiios diffiers materially from ^at oihdie eaft fide^ in the 
temperature of the ak, and the tS^% of the wind upon 
tmt weather^ and in tlie quantity of rain uid mow 
iffihich &U every year. The £r» W. wmdr, btt the wefb 
flde of the mountaiDj are accompafiied by cold ai^d 
rain^ The temperature of the air is feklcm fo cold^ 
•fibthpf, by federal ^egfiees^ 9» on ^ caft fide of the 


' 1^ b)^ «fMe^lt appein that the dtimtte </ tliis cKH. 
l(<m of die Uxuted States i| a eonpooad of mod of tile 
idinates in the woiM i h has the moiftare of Ireland iq 
ipring I die heat of Africa in IbmnMr $ the tempetattane 
.«Cita!y in Jane; ^ iity of Eeypt in aatnmn; riie 
fnowr and cM of Normy, and thie ice of Holland iu 
winter I the teiapeils {tn a ceruin degree) of the Weft 
indiet» in evt^y fd^on i and the variable ^Mrinds and 
vread^er of Oreat Britain in ererf month in the rear. 

From thit account of the climate of tnis dturidt, it 
^ eaiTy to afcerum what degrees of health, and what 
^ifeafes prevail. As the inhabitaiiu have the climate^ 
£6 they hate the acute difeafes of afl die countries that 
have been mention^ed. Aithou^ it mig;ht beAippofed, 
that with fuch changes and varieties in the weather, 
there would be connected epidenucal difeafes, and an 
unwhokfome climate, yet on the whole, it is found, in 
this diftria^ to br as healthy »s uny part qf t|^ Uaited 
jgtates. " ■: 


I ' I w 

K iE vir r o R Jt 





» M--: 1 1DOUNDED foutheaftwardly bt 
£om^n^,^ IS the AUantic Ocean; caft, Ixy 
€onne^ttt, iMaHachufetts and 'Vermont; northi h| 
the 4^th degree of latitude, which divides it from Cana^ 
da ; nordKl^efiwardly, by the river Iroquois^ or St Law- 
rence, ana the lakel Ontario and £rie ; fouthweft Ind 
fouth, by iWnfylviBiia and New- Jetfcy. ^ 

CivH B^o^omJ^} Thi^ ftate is divided into 10 comi- 
ties, which hy an a£t of the leg^lature, paiTed in March# 
1788, 5Vere Xnhdmdci mto townfhijpi. 

^ If fN laokide JLbftg Ulaiid. 




Ifftvr York 






Ulftcr ^ 








UStr TO RX. 

jir. rmw. -m. ihM». 


^3.1 St 
75JS« ; 


1^440 ; 














nI fince ccnfuv 










I Flat Bnlh 


{doftien ^ , 
King (ton 
FifhkHl , 
Plattiburg ^ 

divided fincc theceii- 
f\i8 into 3 couirtin. 





















,« 30 340^X^0 ^cco^ing to the cenfu» of 1 790. 




German Hats 
j ** r Chenango 
7*000 J I Union f own 

1 2,000 i ^ 


comprehendiqg the military townihipi. 

'The nBiiiber of eledors, taken by order of the legif- 
lature, in the begmning of the year 1796, were 64,01 7. 
' iUuert and Canals.'] Httdfon^s ri^er is one of die largeft 
rivers in the United States. It rifes in the mountatnoui 
CMintry between the lakes Ontario and Champlain* Its 
v^Me length is about 250 miles. From Albany to Lake 
C^rgeif is 65 miles. This diftance, the river^s naviga* 
Ilk only for batteaux, and has two portages, occafioaed 
hf falls, of half a mile each. The tide flows a few miles 
above Albany, which is 1 60 miles from New Yor k. It ii 
f]iinr|ft|able foi^i)oo(»s of 86 tons to Albany* and for (hipi 
t^ Hudfon. About 60 miles above New Vork, the water 
b»coiaes frefli. The river is (loredwidia variety of fifli, 
which renders a fnmmer^s pafi*age to Albany delightAil 
mivmUng to thofe whove fond of angling. 

NEW r R K. 






' 5»94» 



1 2,i8tS 

itiin the State, 
luof 1790. 

Its 1 1400 


F the legit 
re 64,0 1 7« 
nplatn* Its 
,ny to Lake 
^is iiaviga. 
ii few milei 
ITotk. Itii 
id for (hips 
the water 

iety of fift, 

Tlic • 

"^Tfhe incteafiljg population cf'thc fertUe lands upoo 
ihfe northtrra branches of the HudTon, mull annually 
indttafe the amazing wealth that is conveyed by its wa- 
ters to New-York. Added to this, the groand^hu 
been marked out, the level afccrtaihed, and a company' 
incorporated, by the name cf " The Prcfident, Direc- 
tors and Company of the Northern Inland Lock Navi- 
eatibn, in the Ibfe of New York,'* and funds fubfcribcd* 
for the piirpofe of cntttng a canal from the neareft ap- 
prnxl mating point of tt.udfon*s rrve? to South Bay, 
which empties into the fouth eiid of Lake Champlain. 
The dilUnce is 18 miles. Thefe works are begun un- 
der a favourable profpefl of being foon completed. 

SiranaC river p4^es.tkrough Flattiburgh into Lake 

Sable rivet not far frqm the Saranac, is fctrcely 60 
yards wide. On tl;is ftream are remarkably falls. 

l~he river Boquetpafles through the town of WiUf» 
borough. At this plate j^re the remains of an intrench- 
ment thrown up by General Burgoyne% H;re he gave 
his famous war feaft to his •* uumerons hoft of favagcs," 
and here, probably, he firft concfhcd di^t ctlebrated proc« 
lamation which he afterwards brot^ftrth. 

Black river riifes in the high ccntry, neaf theibtireet 
of Canada Creek, which falls into Mohawk rif er, and ' 
takes i^s cmirfe N. W. and then N E. till it difchargef 
itfelf into Cataraqua or Iroquoii river. 

Onondago river rifes in the Oneida Lake, and maS 
weft wardly into Lake Ontario ^it Ofwego. 

Mohawt rivu' pafles to the noitb* 'ard of Fort ^tsifi^, 
wix, and runs fouth ward ly so nrant, to the fort ; them 
tartwardly 1 10 miles, into the Hadfom The produce 
that is conveyed down this river is landed tn. Skene^bi- 
dy, and i^ thence carried by land fifteen miles, overt 
barren (hru^by plain to Albany, throiiigh whicfc a ton^ 
pike is contemplated. Since the completion • of the 
locks and canals at die Little Falls, 56 miles above 
Skene^ady, the river is paffable for boats fron Skenec* 
tady nearly or quite to its fource. The pcrpendicniar 
(lefcent of thefe fall^ is 42 feet, in the courfe of one ndlew 
A canal and Idcks round thefe falls was completed tft 
the autumn of x 795. The Cohoes, tn diit river, are » 
^€St coriofity. They are lliree mSiti ^to tU entrance 


V ZW y O R K. 

.- i' 


into the H'jdfon. The rlycr is about loc yaf ds wide; tl^ 
rSciiOver which It pouts «i oytT^^,mU\_^w, extendt 
alinofl in a line from oi)e &de of ch^ river to the oiKf r^ 
Ri^ is about 30 feet perpendicuUf height. Jiicludihg 
(he defcent above, the fall is as much^ as .60 or 70 Tj^et 
A company, by the name, of >* The iPrefident, Diredor^ 
and Conpaoy of tlie Weflern Inland Loc)c Navigatton, 
in the State w New York," were ii>corporated by th^ 
Li^ijilamre of Kew York, in March, .1794, for the pur- 
po£ of opening a lock naVintion from the now navi. 
gabk part of Hudf&n^ river, to be extended to Lak^ 
Ontario, and \o ij^e ^eo^ca ^ake, ^hefe works ai:e 

nearly complete4* 

Delaware river rifM in LTtke.lIftftayantho, latitude 41^ 
a/> and tskes'its coiirfe fouthweit, until it crofTes inta 
Pennfylvania» in latitude 42^ } thence fouthwardly, *\' 
viding New York from fennfylvania^ until it ftrlkes the 
.Tiorthwed corner of 'New J^rfcy, in latitude 41" 24'.; 
and then paiTes off to the fea, through DclawaVe Bay, 
having New j€|rfey on the faft fide, and Pennfylvania 
and pdaware on tiic weft. , .^ 

iSiirquehannah B. Branch river has its fource in j^te 
sOtfego, latitude 42* 55'. Batteaui pafs to its fource : 
thence toMphawkxiver is but 20 njiles, capable of good 

Tyoga river rifes in the Allegany mountains, in about 
l^tude 4X^, runs e^iflwardly, and empties into the ,$uf- 
quehannah at Tyoga point, i a latitude 41° 57'. It is 
,1>Qatable about 50 miles. 

52;c^(^ca river rifes i^ the Sencca coqntry, and run« 
,eaflPlb?^diy, and ini^si|ijra|^e receives the waters of the 
Seneca and Cayuga Ijikes, and empties into the Onon- 
dago river, I4mijes al>iove the falls, at a place called 
Three Rivers. Within ha^f a roil« of Onondago lake, 
ai^iltfpring iifues from the ground, the water of which 
i« falter th^n that of the ocean. It conftantly emits wa- 
ter ic fuCEcient «^uaritity for works of any extent. It 
is prohable the whole country ^U be fup|4ied frpto 
this fpr^ng, and at a^vcry leap rate. ^ 

Oendlce river rifes near the ioufte of the TfOga, 
and empties into Jjake QfitartOi So milei eaft of Niaga- 

ra Fort 



Kr E W t D R K. 


f « 

T*hft^le1fnents maJc in tlb ftate, till within^ 't^ 
fezTi, werie chiefly u^O!) two narrow ob]on^<i, ;;xtenJin|; 
from the cfiC/ of Ne«^ York; ciiH an J narth. The xinc 
ca(l, is.J^<^ng I dandy which is 146 miles long, anJ QSif- 
^w, a6<;I rurroundcd Iby the fe*. The one exten^iiig 
xlort6 fs about forty 'TTiiilts in breadiht ahd btilr^xi hy 
the Hudfbii:' 'The new fcttlcmcnt* ti'afv^i hccn nwie up- 
6ti another oblong extending weft hfiil Iniithwctt Crott^ 
Albany. Such is the intcrfcdion (rf" the whole ft^te by 
• tjie brarches ofthe^Hudlbn, ihe'D'tslaware, the Sufquc- 
^.miuiH, and Olhcr^ riVers vi^U^vIf**'* ^^^ mentioned, 
that there are" few places throu'^hout its whole ettentt 
that ate ftiore than ij or" id ^iljfe^fiptti ibnic4ioa^ablc 
or nivigable dripiffh.' ' . " ; ' . . , , 4 

, Bays and I^he}.'\ 'fiit^ Are YorV.'Bdy;. vJti^h i^ Bl6e 
ihiles long uiid fodt brcAj', fprcajli'to tlie fo^thwald 
lKef«.r«lht city ofNcw York'.'.^^6uih &j^, ^tth %« 
ht ot .l'5 miks north' ot the r.oi thertfi bend ih Hudfon^^s 
liven Oheidii take, which lies aboui ti^eiUy Unites #«Il 
>f Fort S^ianwix ; Salt Ilalce ; Lake Otfegrt, at tbe|iea4 
"oi Siirquehannkh u^tt y Ganiaddrago Lak^r fii inile*- 
^tft of it } and Cfiatotjue Late, tfje /ource. of Cona- 
'^ongo xlnft whieH'tinpties into thj* Ai^cgart/:- \' " ^- 

FcUeoftheCountry'i momUwiSyY Tlie ftale» to'.fpeai? 
Sod and Prdilumoni: ^ J*;geW*Uf, .« -intep- 
jffeftsd by ritlges of moiit)t&ttis i^ijinniug' in a;'tiorthea'(l 
and foa Wweft ditet^ipn. Beyond the Alleginy moujf- 
tains, how<;vei-, the couyitry is a deatf I'cveF; of aiSne^ 
#ich foiijCbmed in its nuLural ftatc, v>i(h maple* bfcach, 
birch, cherry^ "blacVAwUlnur» J^cuftj bi».fct)r|r,- aiidTomc 
xftulb' rry tfecs."' 

The lands bet wetft ilic Senfila' aftd'C3y%i take^. 
a'f&'re^i'cfentt'd" asruncouimonly excellent, b^ing tAtivi 
■^xte^^}{ diverfified with' ge^tte |-ffing«, and d^et<ia 
ivith lo'ny trees, with little underwoo'i. 

£aft cf die AUegirty moumaihs, the ccuntry is hto- 
ken into hii's, with rich inter vinfeg' yaliie*;- Tli^'. 
hUls are clothed thick with 'timber, aad, 'when cleared^ 
a^ord fine pafture, .The vallies, when ci^ftiVated, pro- 
duce wheat, hemp, fia», peas^ grafs, oat*, aud Indicia 
corn. / 

Of the commcdities produced from culture, wheat is 
tSfciiiaple, or this aiticle, in wheat arid fi^tir, equiva« 



HEW. Y Q R k. 


J<li4n corn and pch afc \\kc^^^Ct td^d f^r^t^ff^t^pt^A 
■pnd rye, oats, barley, Ike, i^x Hpnjc eofrTuiiy^Bt^.. t 
^^ In l^me parts of i&cjit^ (itrg^ i^aifw i^«j|^ 
mrnifh for the. mjirfcet, fcuiticr iri^ 4|ie<Sr.T^ beft 
^sif^iirf tVii ftate,>bi^h|ie a|o|iig ^he Moha^^^iver, 
i(na ziorihdf it, an^ we^'of djc AllVganjr nipuntainf, 
<tc yet rpoftly in a ftatc oif Aat^ne,>uU^ ipft^vTiipMly 

f«;tClirg. ^ :^ '>."■■ ' ' ' -v''... 

in Sie northern /aSM.aQ(ettled' part* of the ftatei arf , 
plenty of moofci^deeis .bear$, fomo beavers, martins, and 
flftoil other inh^bitfisU of the foreft* . ^xffept "vplref. 
i)uck«,,growie^ pige|?nii/ alfo fiQi of naap^ J(inds, ani 
particularly fatmoh^ are takeii in gres^t abundimce In dif* 
%ent parts, and ejllieci^Uy *^ ^^ county of- Clinton. . 
^^'tbe fnoutli of Suranac river, ^btch, falls into Cha^- 
ipll|(oiV,tW fal^lton are found in fach plenty, fhs^ tt,j^ 
yfmL.ib t^hk wnr^r fytc hundrc:d~in a d^y^^with fpear| 
Kid fmall fcoop jietF . . They^ are caught fr qni' May tiU- 
No^K^pirib^^, aod liiake excellent ial^ed provirtonsivaQf.; 
e^4;^|^i^e^.by ipdK^ing za ho^t ia the eve^g». , 
iliiy. pl|aiii a fuMcient ^p^Ty for his lainily. , '. . 
ro^dciim and ChofolBer.'} For the population of tl^^^ 
%\t^ i|^or^ipg to tibe cenAii of i yoo, the reader is re- 
*^r<sd to.& tibl^ of divlfiQus. The aonudl inoreafe^ 
i^ tiSe tptir ytzxi f«icceeding t^^5J was upvwards o^ 
t^tOOQ, A great proportion of this increafe cpnfids p| , 
^IjMgrant^ froni the J^ew England States. , 

' Tnt revolution ilt^ its confe4^ences have had a verf . 
Iperceptible influeiice in diffu^ng a fpirit of liberalit|;;. 
iJunoBg the putch,.at>d in d^fpelling the clouds of igno- 
fipc V and national prejudice. Schools, academieji and ' 
iKillcgel are eftablimcd, and cAabliitiing, for the educa^,. 
^onof^ their children in the Engliih and learned )an- 
auagies aiid in Uie atts and fciences i i^nd a hienry an4i 
wiefitific fpirtt is evidtiuly sQcrea^ng. If fqch are the 
httddings of ti^aprpyenient in the daWn of oai^ empuct^^ 
tn^at a rich harveft^ may we ekpeft in its meridian ? •: 
The city, of New York is inhabited principally bf 
9ierchanti» phy^ciihs, l^wyer.s, mechanics, (Kopkeepit 
^s aioHii tradefmen, compoi^d of almofl all nations^ an4^ 
|n1^oqb» They nre geoerally refpedable in ihe> f(HM. 

NEW Y'dk'k. ^3 

Yral^profcflions, and fudain the repatatloa of conefl» 
pundlual, .air dealers. 

The manners aiid chara^r of the inhabitants of every 
eolony or ftate will take their colooring, in a greater ov 
led degree, from the peculiar manners of the iirft fet* 
tiers. It is much mort natural for emigrants to adopt 
die cuiVom of the original inhahitants, than the .con* 
trarf } even though the emigrants fliouId» in length 
of lime, become the raoft numerou::. Hencfc it is that 
Ac neatncfs, p^mony and induftry of the Dutch- 
were early imitated by die firft Engliih fettkrs in the 

province^^and- amU the revolution, formed a dtliingrtifli^ 
ing iraitin their provincial chara^cr.. it is ftiU diicern-i^ 
ibJe,, though in a much lefs degiee,. and \Kill probably . 

continue vifible for many years to ccmf, 

Ghi^ Towns.2 Thtre are three ii j cor po rated cities li^- 
tftis itate ; New York, Albany and Hud^n. N«>^f 
York is the capital cf.ihe (late, and 0ands on the routh"- 
wen point of Manhattan, commonly called York tfland». 
It the confluence of tlie Hudfon and Eaft Rivci|*. Tht 
principal part of the city ues on the end tide of the iiland, 
akhougn the buildings ex,i:ci)d from one river to the 
•ther^ The length of the city on Eall River ts about 
two miles j. but faJk much fhort of that di&:^nce dn the 
iianks of the Hudfon. Its breadth, on an average, is 
ncar'iy thret-fouitha of asmile jr^ a&d ii circumference 
may be four ruilQa^ 

Th* houfes arc generally built of bri'k, arid the roofs 
tiled, fchcfe ariR. remainiag ifew houfes built after dhc 
•Id Dutch manner. ' 

rhe mod magniikent edifice rn this city is Fedfrai 
Mail, fituated at the head of Broad Hreet, where. its front 
appears to great advanta^. 

'ri*« otlier pablic IniiTdmjfs m the city, are three 
houfes for puMicworfbip for ti.c Dutch reforn-.ed cyircli;^ 
— fovw Prcftiy man charches-- three Kri.'cop^i chur^he"*"^ 
— two fcMP German Lutherans ami Cilviniils — two 
Frieudi* mect^n^ houfes — two fbr Baptiils — two i0t 
MethodiUs— one for Moravians— <3T»e Roman CatlicliC 
tiiurch — one French proteftant church m|t of r'i^% 
aad a Jew*' fynagoguc. Bcfidss ticfe, there is dia 


NBV T O R lb 


iog-^the college, gaol, a new and fpacious {>rKbn» ao^ 
feveral other buildings of leTt note. The city is accom- 
jnod \ted with f<»or roarlcets in di^cfent parts, whick" 
are fu'f^tihed with a great. plenty and variatyof-pfovi. 
£c;0ft, in neat and exceiknt order., 

Thi» city is efttemed. the mofl eligible Tituatien for 
commerce in ihe United Stales, .It ;ftlmoft ncceflarily 
<K>n)Dr)ands tbe trade of one half of New Jerfey, moft o£ 
thai (i Cpnne^icut, part oC- that of MaiVac7)ufett9y and 
NewHampftirciand almoft the whole of that oi Wnnont, , 
befidts the whole fertile interior country, which h pen> 
fttrated hy 04)e of the lacgeil rivers intiie^ United States^ 

A want of good watej* is a great inconvenience tn the 
'cttizeQS?,.th^re being &w welb in the city^ Mod of " 
the people are fufplied eVery . day with frefk water coo- 
veyecl to their doers» froaa a pump.near th« - 
head of Q^een-iEtreeti which receives it from a fprmg 
aljnoft a roile from the centre of ttie city.: . .This veil u 
about 2p feet deep* aind foiu* feet diameter. Th^ average 
quantity drawiV daily from this remaiKablrS well; is iid 
hogOieads, of^^e g^^^i^^ eai«h». in foine^hot«fuinmet^ 
days, 2i6h<^nieadshav« been drawn from iti^and what . 
is very iingulari thtie is nevet more or .left than about - 
three feet i<f. water in t^te well. I^e water-is £i4d coOf 
monly. at three pence a^hogOtead, at the puaip. The 
Manhattan company was incorporated in ifpSs for the 
purpofe pfr cbnveying goodt water into the citjr l^nd 
Uieir works arenow in operation. . 

In pgint of i fociabtlity . ai^d hofpitalti^, Ni^w Yoikl^ ^ 
hardly exceeded by any town in the Uni^d ;itates. 

On a, general view of' this Chy^ as defcribed thirty 
;years ago,.ftnd in its present (late, t^ecomp^iiibn(4s!6at^ 
l€Un|f to the prefcnt age ;. particularly the improve- 
m<ii^ in tafte, elegance, of manners, and that eaiy un^- 
i4^fted civility and politenefs which, form t|ie happine^-^ 
of focial iniercourfc. , , 

. .The city of Ai^jA^ fuuated u^pon theiwft fide 0/ 
Hu;^bii't rty«r», i6q. miles north of. the. city oiTJ^ew 
"iii^jL in latitude 41* 56'. It contained, .in lyp^i S63 
dv^lfmg houfest built moftly b]f trading pe^t* -^n the 
" pn of the rJver^ and in die old Dutch Gothic ftyle, 
^^#ble end to th« ftreet; which cuflom the &thi 


HE W Y Oft It. 


{fttlen ^fOiglit with th«m from HoUaod. Mmnf new 
Louf^i tiowevtTr havtj! }u«ly been built in* this, city, aH 
ii) ^'iinodinAilljle. la I797» the xiumbcr of iahab»&* 
anu^ xhi« ciiy'.^ast 6o2 1» coUcdted Ixum vatious' pa7t«« 
An ^U a variety of i^x^uages are fpcken in Albany, 
as io any. town l^ the UniuJ St«t«»i but the Englilti 
yrtdommhte&f and the lU'c of every tether i» coniUiuly 
l:fir&aiug. Atiyentunrcs, in purToic of wealth, are led 
herd by the aavanU|{e» for ir<Ade yth'txh tht» place af« 
fflir^s.- . 

4 Albany ;ii uprivaHed in its fiiuiUOA. • It fiends oti ' 
the bank of o;)e of the fineii rivers in the world, at the 
hcai (ofiloop navigation. • lteiij^*ys» afalubrtoui: air. • 
It i& the natural emporium of ih« inereahng trade of c 
Uige- extent of couair y.weii and- north i a country of 
an cjicellent.lbil, abounding in every article for the Well v 
India market ^ •pieotii'uily .watered with navigable Uke% 
creeks and- riyers, as yn only part^'aiiy peopkd, but fet« 
tling.with alnioft unexampled rapidity ; and capable <^ 
aiT jrdin^ iubiinienceaud aMuence to millions of inhabit^ 
ants.^. N-opartof America ai'ords a more eligible open- 
ing for emigrants than this. • An4 when the contem- 
plated Jock^and canals- are completed, the bridge ovef ' 
the Mohawk rivfr ereified, and convenient roads open<^4 '> 
iiJto every; p»rt of th^ .cottntry, all which wiil^ it is cx- 
pe^edy be!>accomph£u^ >in aJew years, Albany wiU 
probably Jncreaie -and ii^uriih beyond almoil «very otb» - 
er ciiy^prtQji^'n in th».United States^ • 

The puUic Wiildiogs are a Low Dutch churc'n,' twd"' 
for 'PjrfelbyteriansvOBc for (Jermans or High Dutch, one 
fsr Epiicopalians ; .one 4or M^Mhodlftv; a hofpital, the • 
city haiiiiaud a har,dfome- brick giuil.!. " 

^t^he 4:U>y>of H^»*e» -has had the mftft r»pid ^Tdti^tii ' 
of any place in iVmericaf if we except Baltimore m1Ms>' 
xyknd. . It is fituated on the ead fide of Hudibn's rlve V- 
ia latitude 44^ 23'^ siind i« ! 39 miles norih of New-YoHti' . 
and 39 iniles fouth -of^AIoany. Itfis Atr7<unded b|t^ 
an extenfivA atid fertile back country* and, in pixiporti&jl'' 
taiU^^ff <9?4^^F^iQ0| carries <m a huge uadec 


N«W T i^-k't. 


Poiigkkeepfittt the (litre town ol Dntchcft eornit^^^ 
lar.iiiigbuffgh, formerly called the New Cttf» on the 
%uXi iide of the Huu(:>rT^nifie bm1«^ north of AlbanyMM 
KingtliMyth* cokLaif town o& Uliicr'^SkcnetfUdy, fw^ 
teen miict corthwclt ot Albsuiy, on the hu^* ii the 
Muhawk livtr-" Troy, fcvin nuUs above Albany, ». 
fkii^riihing lown of abouc 200 hou£eft-«-«nd Platifburg, 
in Clinton cobnty, fiiuatcd on the weft margin of Lake 
ChumpUin, are all conliderable towni. • 

TratU.J The fituattoo of New Yorkt with refpeA to 
foreign maikett, ha* deckUillx.the preference 16 any of 
the Itates. It has, at aU ieafoni of the year» a fhjrt and 
cafy accefft to the ocean. Not hiye the inhabitants been 
UAAiindiul of their fupeiior k .al advantages, but hate 
availed tliemislv^s cil them to their faiii extent. 
' Xheir exports to the W^i\ Indies are, bifcott^ peas^ 
Indian corn, «f> plec, oni«ns, boards, ftavesi borfes, iheep». 
butter, cheele^ pickkd oyitefSj beef, and pork. Bul^ 
wheat is the Itapie commodi vf of the 8i2,te. Weft In- 
dia goods are received inrettirn for theie. articles. Be- 
fii^Oi the above meniipned afti\:les» ate exported, fhnc* 
feeii,i^ottoA \k)ooV fsriaf 'ariilajcoii'ee, indigo, rice, pig 
ilpn, baf iron, pot a% pearl Alh^'fufs, deer-fkinsj log* 
ilpody'fuiiisf-mahogjuiy^'bees Wa«', oil^ Madeira' wine, 
rum, tar,pitcb,tmpentin6i Whalers, &h,fiigai's, mo^ 
U^s,ialt, tobaec<>, la«d» fcc.^dtmaiiy of theie article! 
aiieimpiorudfor-re-exporutior..' The trade of this ftate 
has gieatly iiicreaf^ ijcice;the rcfvt>lution, and the bal- 
ifnceis aloiolVcioni^antly.m it&favbun The exerts to 
foreign)>ans,for th«^yea^endin^'September 20th, 179 ir 
ogafkUing-priticipally cf the articles above enumerated, 
amoiiiited to 2.5 16} 197. dollars.- Tlie year ending Sep* 
t<B«Bber304 1795; they amounted to 10,504,580 dollari^ 
7$%&tijvand l^ave fiuce ttmsh/icclreaied^- . 

Mt(iidn4 Sftrings.']: The iRoft noi*J iprirrgS' in thii- 
i^te» 4rt> th<^ uf' Stti^^gaA They are eight or nine ill 
WtfmUr^ &i»if ^ ia the margin of^a^maribv formed hy 
S hraitch of DLayodaroflbra Creek, about twelve n:ile*r 
wefi iiROja the too^atnce «f Fifti iSreeIc,. isaii. Pudfon% 

Cfeat'numliers or'^peop]e,«ander a variety of makiiii^ 
HnSon to theie ^lings, aad'sany fiad relief; anid a con* 



IMi W Y OH'Kr 


fuiemhle ruinb«r % complete eyre, paTticaltrly fr. bil- 
ioai diforJers, ful rhcu.-n, «rU r^hxitioiis. !)«: ar thf 
wnters «.re urYfrietiJlj and even fatal in fome difordch, 
ihejr aught to be ufcd ttrnler the dir«cl{on of a phjdcuo, 
thoroogbljr a:qaatntei with the qoatitres cxf the Waters, 
and thedireafes of the patients. Ignorant of the fUvtA- 
bienefiofthe water» to their- comphints, many havf 
imprudently thrown awiiy their- lives iu^the uic 4?,^ 
tliem. - * 

New ly ' rmgs are heft in c«!lebr!ty to th** "• ^^^ 

Saratoga. uion is'^a plealknt village, fituated 

partly in a a partly on the dicliyity of hills. 

Tlie pool is i.iuatcu ori a ccmxnanding eminence over* 
looking the galley* acid iatrotfndei with, a few luMifcs^ 
%vhich afford but iuJiiFerent accommodations for th^ 
valetudinarians wl^^ rcfoit here in (earck oif bd^th. The 
w;m:cis have an a.Qrecabk tcmpftatiife, tAid a^e not uy^ 
pleaiunt to the tafte. , : • 1 

in ihe new. town of E^dlTalaer, nearly Of pi^fitc. tibf 
city of. Albany^ a medtcinal fpring hf t hiteif be^dir* 
coyj^redt combining mod of rhe vakkablc /propqtic* €f " 
the celebrated \vaters of SiratrJga. 

Literary ' ami Humane $oc'uiiis, 3 Thtre %r^ • very fe# • 
focieties^ lor improvement in koowlcd^e or btiBMmty%\ 
tbis^ iUtei and tbefe are^^The fociety wt promoting til^ 
ful. khftw»l«dge-i--Tbe fociety^r'the manumiflion -tpf f" 
davc^^^nd piQteAing fuch^f them as have beenot maf'^ 
be liberatedr— X luannfaftaring focwi)f— 'Aa agriculcif*' 
T:il {iKietyj lately eAablKbed, of which the membera of. 
the Icgifjaiure, are, ex offidfu xnfcmbeis^^A medical (bet •- 
ety, and a faciety for the iDformatioQ axid ii&ftancc o|< 
eiTiigrants.-.-. ; \ '•••'' ' ■ 

Literature, Collide, Jeaekffiei, %ff.J tJhxi}^ y^tl^ 
i754r there was. no coUes^ ia tlMi province; of Kewv 

Yprty. ■ ^ . ■■;,,..; " ■'■^'■ 

,Kjng*i^ iCoUege^ now called Ohlitobisi rtoltege^ vai'v 
foundiid in 1754. . This college^ by aa afk of^^tfae l^lf* -" 
latjrc paJETcd in the fpring, of 1787, wa- pbt^undtr die - 
caf^ipti24;,genileTnen, wbo ire a body t^coiporaitr by - 
the name and ftyle of *♦ I'Ke ir^uftecs ofCohimbisb eo^; 
%t> ift the dty of New York/» ' 

It is now in a thriving i^ate, and baa abojit-TOo ft^v 
dtcuJa the jfour claflesj.bjsfides medical ftudents. The 

' VI 





Ui U2.6 12.5 

US ^ ilM 

■tt liii 12.2 

^ as, 120 





Lil 1 U. 11.6 






















y ^ 



officers , of fndru^op itilmmi^tt ffPTcrhmeift; ^e 
ai.pre0deut» prpfeffor pf ^atheiiMjUes Ma futioral p^iio^^ 
phf,a proftflbr pf lo^ic anJ'gto^fapbf, ait^ a,j»rofcflbr 
tff Utigu($igef. A C9ipplete medicaV tc^ool 1^ ^en 
latcly^tincxed: tQ ^^ coQege, zt\i ^hlt .prtdtfFonyiipr 
putmed,^f th'c tttiAcesi iQ'eyer|r brihcE of^au impQi<- 
l^nt ff ieft'ce, who rcgul^) ly teadi ijbictt fdpcftiye bxvftach- 
IB w4tk rqjtftatapfi. ^ ; 

0/(h.e twclve'tocofporated acadcoucs, bne U s^t flat* 
1ii^fh, ill ]Ci^^« CQuntjr^biil^tfginaMii^nii^ railed from 
Broo)^yn fiti^% Jfi is ^tUatcd in a pldirafit, jbeiltby 

yilbf^e, , '^Ite bi|i)dinf? is Urge, Hafidfo^ af\a tonve^ 

, Meiit» and b called Er^vs* Haif. *ftii titi^tmf \t 

ii»ip»i^Mg^ ttnd^'tlfe xafe c^ a ^clp^^ otlTer iiiiit 

' Thcreli^^odieratEaft Haxnploil, ii>f^ Ui^jeaft end 
0%SMg |fl^<l,1»y*die haifie' dFCBnton acadifffijr. t%e 
«rther& are in different parK^ o£ibe Iftate. Befidet tbefe^ 


^t^lci^tnbotiiVnl of the parenu. A fptrit'lor litc- 

* nr^ fM|^dv(«ieiitriS eridmljr diffidnig i|i mitaence 

throushout the ftatf . ' * 

^'^^.| l!he irarit}0$ ' ret%t«tti denmniiMttOOS ii^ 

Ml a^i arfe tic f6!lo*riogV "Engiifli mfl^ftcttei 

at% Refor ii^iiiidi« Bkppft^, £plR:Qpalians,"^riend« <^ 

uikl^s/ 6en^n Luweran^y M^av^nly M^UitdiftSy 

ofciniCirt1idlicsJc'i^,,SKate£; iftc^ alew bf the fbl- 

ri 0$ Tina«j*. WftUrtfon. Th^ Shalsieri ai^ ;p^ftci. 

y/etiUd aiil^w lijibSinoni^^and *^« fbllowen c/|e- 

mrWiteSifetf afttJiicYki about ivekeixt^rQLm 

15^1^14; 1|4#eJ«rt^lt^^ ntiinbef, in't7$9||wsu 

]^^S^^ p6!rbf n: 

^ndt^ojlJi,jby i^ich wpr^lth«C4nid'*Ti«Vttndiirftamd 
:yii^ Tlie workV Vt this pl^e^ are in fn<^'^i rbiocmi 
tee, thit a ilrarig^r can ii^arcely form' an idea of tbeit 

' -veoftMiaioiw ' 

^•f^M T O R K^. tr^p, 

j^O0i£tr^€iiotL They ai« howevter (itoited on fuch Msi^^ 
ground as to command the comroonication between &>. 
Ia1[ei ptbm and .Cbapipliun. Opp9fite, on |he feutlv 
fide df the water that empties out of {^ake Oeorg^, is 9 
immntain^ to appe^tice;hii?cedi^e,calle(l'Moniit Pe»^ 
fiince, ,9rhere QeneT|^ ffurgof ne, m tbe late war, with 
a bolflner«j| fecfiecy ait^difpa^h ^almpft unparalkled,^ 
conveyed a ntqnber ofiannbn, ftoterind troofif. The 
cannon ^rere tsltied^ by large hraQ tacV.hs .frozn tree to 
tree, and from rock topck, over dens of rattlefnakes; 
to the fummit,^ wliich entirelT'Commands the works qf 
Ticonderpza. This circvmfllance muft ever be conftdi. 
ered ds a ]&Hi«fti&:at|nn'of. General St. Clair's fttddto 
retreat With the Americah army.f ^nd the obferVatipn 
Which he m^de on.l^ts trial, inihis own defence^ thii^ 

*^^oughhehadlpfta•ppftil^eila^ fareil.a (^te,'" wail 
afterwards yerifi^d. ' 

iproWn Pmnt iii-i t^Ui norft' of Titonderoga, ^n 
Ukf ChainiglxHu lEiie fort at this' place* in^hich a 
Mtf(h garrifon wasaTivays JteptKimn t^end^<^ion of 
CsmadatQ. th<^ American revqltitton, was the nio(l re^ 
lilar^ti the'moft expcnfive of atiy^ew conftrndt^d 
and iupp^ir^ed by the' Biiii/h goyerniiMQt in Korfh 
Americs|. , 

' .Ptti^M^/.l In the chanty of Montgomery is^i ^^^g 
ra'jpid i(rea>n» emptying into Scroon hike, ,we(| of lake 
iCebr^ej; it nins under a hill* the btdfe of Which is 60 
or 70 yards dbant^iter, forming a moft evrioas ahd bcaii- 
ttfuf^hiii iihi rock» j^s white as fnow^ ?1ie fury of 
the'Wter.aAd^e i^ughnefs of the bottom* added to th<ft 
tertifi^'np^ witlun» h^ hitherto prtTientiBd «i^ pe^ 
^om patt%Hirbui^ thecfaa&i. 

In itv^ townOiip' of Wi^>oroi|gh,1ft ClkitMi Cdjanif, 
is ti(te t^rlpuv S^tit Roek; A w^t cf a^ftninlMiala, wknch 
prcj^^ aSliout 5d yardi kto l^,CinnipMh9^ appf^ 
to hs^ife (^en hr^oti jby ibm Vi«1iht Ihodt cdf sattprt. 
It ^'removed fro0'tli« main ,ro^<N' iRoiipitaiiiahott 
70 Fei^tVyd the oj^pcyfite^Qdesfbenib' a^ ead^ ntliiMP, 
that cfniib^ceds^ other p!t>^dftHetr i|mi»' t^n oDce 
uoltcii. ' The ^t %ql^ ^ cbnMit aMttiW a» 
tktri^si^i is cdvirWl 'wit& W(||OMi TOV]iei|lMf 4ij| 
rockoii^€a€hilde tlte fifiiireif libovtiii^te^eet. V^ni 



'H'E iw t o"k X. 

■ thii point is a ijptciotis t»7» (htlttrei ftcm'thi ibisil^ 
^(land fior^wtft win({l1>f the' foncmndbe hii^ ai^ 

< weeds. On tne wisft (idem f<yar or five Speljr cnltU 
. Tftted fonntrJFhich A^o^bcTv at ctrutfnfeaibm, and in 
fertain fuaationSf fori^ one of tHemfoft beautiful land-'^ 

■ fcapes imagmable. "' SatSng under Ibis toad for fi;|reral 
miles itefbre you coicc '^crSplit JR.O€k» di|p TROuntaiinB, ' 
ra4c and barren, feem'^ tp l^a)|^'i>ter/the.jpjifrenger and 

." threaten deftroiflion. . Awaterl boUn<Sri;^ to tnie ii^ht, 
lies before Bim — ^Man: fee)s bit o^ littjenefs^ and infi- 
delity itfelf pays an otiwilUog KouMgl to the Creator, 
lofttaiuly and untcpcdeiBy the iR;ene cju^nges, arid, 
peeping with greedy >yc, thtough the fifiur^, "nature 
prefeTlts to the view a (ilv«r-bafon-tJ4 verdant lawn^^^ 

> hitimble cottagd^->a golden ^i^tt^-^sk in9}eAic foreft-^ 
a lofty mountain, and an " seivtrt l{ty, rifing one above 

* another in juft gradat^ii to the sMiazing whole. 

'Mfaiu.J The bpdy o^^fce Six cofi£ederated Nations^ 

viz. ^rhe'M'nhawkSt'Oiteidas, Tufcdrora?, Senecas^^'d 

( Onondagas,- ^ibabit in the wcfterii parts of "Uiis ftate. 

TL\: principid jpartof the Mohawk trn>erefiUe on' Gr^nd 

' river, in Upp^^ Canada. ^ , v 

The- ibllowirtg -Jijjrill give w idea of the chxrsi^'eri» 

which, according to Indian tradition,' are exciaded from 

.the happy country. •* Thie region of pure ^Irits the 

'Five Nattoia» call ^^iwia^. Tllieofrly^charaSers which, 

; according to their traditioiisi cannot be*adroitte<i to pair* 

ticipate of tbje pleaiures and- drlightft of thi^ ^^ppy 

country, are tcduced to three, vfz. fuictjes, ^e dtfobedt- 

cntito iht donnfels if tlie chiefs, and tnth as p«it aws^ 

V tk^r j^eaoa.9t€6umQf {i^Rnancy, According ;o their 

tradition^ there is a J^loon^f IniiHonilefs g^^^ near the. 

borderi of '^ delightfid ma^kfionroTEiJeanane, over 

whi^hall good and b^ave fpirlts p^ with iafety, under 

the coodura of a f^ithfi^d. and iktliiU guide, appointed 

• lor d|ftt purpofe ; but ti^en a toidt^ cf. any of the . 
^abov^eiii(i<Hijed ehiiraAers approaches this gulf, tl^e 
:condtt^or,^whopo£re#<»fnioftpettaetrating eye, mftanU 

ly diiTcqvers tbetr fpiritufcl-'fesitures iind char^<ter, ind 

. denies them hij tjkl, aiBguJng tiis-tesfons. They 

wi^^bdwerer att^i^ to avis upon a to^^iple, wbicji; 



"Sf' t4 

N'Etir TO |IK. 


lelbnf tihejr reaich die Riidd)e« breaib^s and (1i«ictsitin 
prefently aoyhi ihtj fatt with horrid fliricks. In tlkii 
dark and dfeatf gulf, ther ftippoft, refidet * fffat 
do^'foone fa^ a dn^(ofi, tntcAea with the itch» iniich ; 
makes him perpetually relllcfs and l^ttefttK The gttilty 
inhabi|ftnts, of this miferable region all catch this dtfeaTe 
cf the great dog^jind grope and roamfrpm fide ^o Ads . 
of their, glootny manfion, in perpetual torments.— 
S«>metlmestl^ey approach ^ near the lispPX ^^Id^ of 
Elkanane, thjit thej cah htar the fonjgs and dances of 
their fornier Companiogs. ' This only ferves to increafc * 
their tdrrrer>t«,'^s they can difcem rio light, nor d^fcov* 
er any pa/T^ge by which th^y can gain accefs *to them. 
They fuppole idiots artd dog^g go Into thd fame giilf, 
but have a more comfortable apartftjAit, whett thcy^ 
enjoy fome little light, » . 

IJands»\ There are three iftandsftf ^oie belonging 
to this ftate, viz. York Iflaud, Long Iflaiid^ atd dtJtteU 
Illmd.- ■ ^ ! . -\. " 

Lohsi; tfland tttends 140 mHes £. and teyminateft 
with Montauk Point* His not more thatlten,milc«ir\ 
brea.lth, on a medium, and is feparated from Conne^i-^ 
tut by Long Ifland Souhd. The iilacd is disi'ded into 
three counties ; King's, C^.een*s, and Sufilk. , , 

The fouth fide of the ifland is Jutland, of a liglit 
fandy foil, bordered on the tea coaft >)Pith Urg^ tra^t 
of fait meadcyi', extending from the ^'etl point Of the 
ifiand to Scmthampton. Thir foil, however, is weM 
c;4lculaled for rainng gram, cfpecialjy I.pdi%n corn. 
The north fitie of the iifand \i hilly, and 0^ A (iron^ 
foil ; 'adapted to the ciiltur^ qf jgraip; hay and fruit* 
A lid^e of hiUs extends ixom Jamaica, to Sot^ihhold*^ 
Large herds of cattle feed upon Hampftead plain, and 
on the fait m;irfhes,npon tlie fouth fide of the ifiand* 

Tlic prodilcc of the mrddfe and Weftern pzxi& i^ ^jir4_ 
riod to New York. The iiland contains 36,049 iidiiS* 
ilantc., ' ' :"_ ^ ..■ ■ , .'' " •■^' ' ■■ ■ '' 

Staten iflandlics nine mifes foatliweft of tlfl city iol ; 
New York, and (#rm^ Richmond couht/. It k about 
cight?ch Tailcs in tei^gthjar^d at a rr.ediu0, fixcirfe,yc« 
ia breadth, and conuins 3^835 iidwbltantsl /'XJft tfie ■ 


nzm s^%s^% 

iMit tlic HUM infdiiriinrrdiMjr^ llii4Qfeim7^ 

I . n Ol ■« 

» E W' JJE H S Eifi 



iw^ vf }• bWMieeii < the^tatcUes bctw6c^ the me- 
33rrt4th5»| ^ lridianof.Phaad.Jci*'E;ic«g. 

»^^j • -n T4 OUNDED.eaft, by Hudfon's river an4 
^«iWfarK/0 J^ ^^ f^^. fo^^ ^y ^g fea J weft, by 

Delaware bay andjiver, whlcb divide jt from the States 
of J>elawai:e 4njd Pcnnfylvania j an^ liorth^ bjr Naw 
yorlc. Containing about ^,$^/b f^uare xnileSj.e9|K||lo 
'■'i^t3*4f8do itre^. ' ..■.''■■■ ■ '■ ' 

^ly*/ i>fti^ow, P(fithm, "pfr^] New Jerfcy is divi^. 
f d into zj QOttUtieji^ as foilQWs.^ ' 

Ufi^fi CumbcrljuMl 



t'gtil iWtcca 

Saieip . 
' .Wbodbnry tad ^ 
CUvuccftct y 

B|irKpgton and I 
Bofdeatuw^ 5 


Newark and ' ^ 

Am^yfttdpiut > 

issr^ ^ 

SoitRdlitdiilisild > 

MMKiOoira . ^ 


Total Ifi. iU. 



I* II Wli * III /, -- 




and tht ^fcoaa f fad ooSeweftt^il^, 
TMt voft iftiikark^lftlyKi^if Afthur . 

fiikmert*. . • 

New York' Co^PliHadiUpia^ero^ tfifct im i^ i wah i g 
Bivers^tl^. theHackinraliaiiflr^iarailu Mtwctv Bttgts 
tod N«vark»4miAlh« A^i^lM bx Btoiifvick. 

PaiTaik is » iMry crookml titer. It it i^^Mok aboot 
noil mik< amfit »|o^taKif widrae tb<B feitf.' T|¥ 
aatafadt j^ Great Falls' ii thii^n^pi^'h o^^t]^ 
preatsft natural curioiUics ^.che ftater ^Thriivci^ii 
about forty yavda ^^id»t. and inpi;vei u|^a: ilow'* gtnlile 
cirriintttmtiik coming if^tbin a^Oiort dmnci« ol S'dcep 
eVth it 91 toefC wjlidi cr^fles the dtatmclitt deio^ndi and- 
iOIf absn^ f* i«atd(i^dtculi^lXria 0Q»wtfU|rtib^ 
One end ol tbl ^rft,. wHcfi Tv;ai efid^idl fll«dt br 
Ibnil viokttt tonjnil0on)ia, nature^ itr cMA r ft tlli- 
«tber, ib« inter, i^oi^ca lm» ^ritji inciMllblil i«dGiiift» 
fditttitng aa< aente angle W)th its,fdn«Bi&dire^)i<^ attd 
la TeQai«>(e4iat<>^l«rge liafbit^ liiieiKv ifi. taliftm ivM* 
feg courlci ^rou^ tb«.ra!0k^ aod- Jpreadr Into i^ 
broads anpQti^ftrealQ^ 1?hi»?c|;9ft t9aqli»lb«rto^t^ 
Iret bi:ojfdv^ Tbe fiUl% of!(fi«ij^wat«i^ O0€9^lii^ i cioftd 
of vapour t^ m£t^.ythi^.hy, itoati^a^dt^^e im 

ID the^^ tiwpcndofis J^enei li^ha n<^ liiliti^i^Mpg 
feown o£ HaiUi^fo» U «^eaed%pm'di& Gmi Bs^^ ll|il> 

PV«K. \ , : {- ■ ,•' : -.,-■■, ' ■■■-'•*'.■: :.::.'?». 

^^^IM thf^wirtl^i^and ibiia> bfawcJi^j one ©I ^IMli? 
' ha» its foui'ce in Morris^ tKeothtcJii ttam^riooii f 
.^v laiw^ilVfilinfif4Gkak^.A^ 

Pn^get-haA^^^ .^, 

Hacbijofab a|ij^aritaii mers» on tl^ poft^teKcii betweeft 
KcNMliii^ fbiladeli^^ ' 

■ Jt^-r-, 

vii NSW jtTRiririr:. 

im^imi hdrnm^ik y tiiiw.llorn|,Mli 

tfie northern part of Bei«cn» are mountainous. . 

Aa oittcii aa fivie-cighmt of ttioft ^tfaelbudierD «l>ili^ 
tift» er>0a^*lb.8rth of the iirfaole ftatci is alifioft entii«lf 
S ifaiM7 baiTtfn, unfit in nan^ parts fA« tftHtttatidn.^ 

Thii State has all the ▼arte ties of foil fr^'lhc worft 
to the belt Ittncl. The good kind in the ibutiietn couo- 
ties lies principany on wit 1>anks of livers and er^clts. 
The bairnii produce little eHe but (hrub oaks and yt\* 
lowfkilies. Thefe ^ndy lahBs yield an ihiitidtire 4^»»^ 
titf d^hog iron ore, which is worked up to fftix ad»> 
iFantage in the iron works in thefe cOutities. 

In the hSlyand mountatnous parts pf Uie 9tate>. 
which are not too foeky for cuUiratioir, th^ foil it of a^ 
ftronger lindy and- covered iii its aattihi^ ftate with 
tUt^ oal^ |Mchori«ih,€hieram8>.lt€: a#d^wbeii cultiv^ 
«ed/ product %rbeat, rye»* Indian cdvh, buck<r^iv|icat;. 
^tfvWl«yt|i«»andiMtsof aUkindr ^nmcm to die 
ifU^uite^ Tha hii»i in this hilly oountty is good fair 
gtstaint, and ^Mrmer» f«edgi>rarti!ifnbe«s oi& cattle foi^ 
$raw m)randPbfliidel|pW fiuurkctik. 

The 4ircha^d<, in lAa^.^irta ofdie Stale* equal aa|i 
In the VtSu^ States, and ffietr«i<ier it' laid {and nat 
trithoat lwaiRlti)tt> be iiie M <i^ the woiid^ 
' The marlets of New Yorkrand l^ladelphia- receive 
; tait'^onfidtrable pfopoiiion of their fiippUes fror^ 
ih* eonciguousvpart^ of'l^w Jerkf* Thefe fnpplial^ 
Imiitft of vegetables of fuat^y kinds, %ppXe$| pears, ^ael^ 
^ jj^^ti fiSaiR^berrtes, chernetiaA^ other trttitf--^ider 
|i ftrge quatttitieS) butter^, i^eijet hee& ^oric* ^ttc^ 

^ tM^l The trade ^^iitate^carrie^^alioof 
|»ity wit(^ i^^lTOib«^oi^ tM(0 fi^ citlle%. 

IflEW Xpt\i6Ti one Mtt aiijl Hil&l^i^iOn ikn. dtheri 
~^ 'JfwaHBtt^aclgbod]p4ii^ . ' . 


tm coun^ 

i and yeK 
life 4^i«»> 
ffcta ad^ 

he Sut^r 

pil rt of a. 

dftte vriitl 
ill caillivi- 

nott to die 

good fo^ 

r» eftttle for 

I (and tt^ 

»pties froIi^ 
efe fopplN^ 
ears, ^atljt 

er<:ial ctti£l»^ 


wii. 2f W S^i.ioaitoi otj&^,mo. a^^Jti^ 
«zelulWt of iKSttw-wjiAJtodysiBlMu! 0thef ,<p'*g»t « 

farmer.. *«^hiftt^ '^'^"f tei5.'f? 
fafUncM exeeSaiM.tWt Regret w^VIP* "f^,*?- 

Witr of a* fifli Jnibwy jila<ei, fcettrfw entMn^ . ?iy 

1IUi4 V«ntof adii^l^ion to til 
WiJldt/Uii^lSiAt Aqr oJd* « 

toon, |iirMili,||Mj»iiiiiiiii ikftdft aia'i 

*>^ ~ij _^ >j..ji^..f_j^ _ j'fej.jii]...*; 


NXlr ,:|£liSllT. 

t0 concur cp m4jb tWft ^Mteosiin^tfibreot parti of 

• the State. The IJBikitaLli ar« » eoUa^oo of Low 

• Dutofa|,G«kinaiis» XBftlmf Scoicbt Irli^ a^ Nfvv £». 
l^4cM»or their deictiidaittfl (National Jttachi|Mat» 
a«iil mataaUonyenieucei ha¥c pif»r9iif*'mdaet4 th^ 
fcverallundfofpeoplo to fettle together ia a bod]r» «mI 
iijithU way t^eir pect^Blir saCtonal itoa^icicri* ouftoms 

1^ 'aftd chara^er are ftill p#efeiH(H eijpoosalljr imumg tho 
pporerclaw of people* who have littlt intercouriia with 
atiy hut thofis of thcii^ oifn jiatiooi, Th« pcop^ ^ 
Neir Jerfey .ari^gfnf rally ii^uihious, i&iigal and hofpi^ 
tat>lt« "^aere are* oomparatiy^ lyji hut (tw mea or 
Marqfttg m- the State* nor can it be iaid that the people 
ill ge| have* a tafte for.thofctencet. The pooret- 
clals (in whkh niay be^nchi^ed a cc^afidecabie propor* 
tion of the inhabitants of the whole Sute) art- tnatten« 
tive to the education of their children* who are but too. 
gci»nr«lly left to gro^up in ignorance. There are» 
SowcvcTi a niiniher of gentleiiien oJF the firft rank in. 
abilities and learning in S| civil oficea of the State* andi 
in the fev(»al learned profeiOons. , ^ . 

Jl^i^gitft'J Thw^ are* in this^tatci about SP Ptt(kf^ 

\\' ^naii congre«^tiotiv fubjicA to tj^ care oi three Prd^ 
iytenesi'mil'hat of Hew Vbrk* of New Brunfwick*. 
and l^hiladelj^ia. Apartof the€H!u;g« of New York 
and PhHadtlj^a Fro^ytecies lies (n New. Jerfey* and 
pan in their own refpe^ve States*. 
: jBtefides thefe* there ar^ upwards, of 4f cpngregatioM 
■ ^ijien4B*-*-30^ofBap:ift8--*ieofEFJ^paUans^ 
|>titch Jftsefocmedf hefi^es Methodilb^-and a fettloncnl 
jOiflioia^VianSc All theie r^igioue .deiionunatio|» livft 

' log^thcrffi ipeacc aAd harmony; and axe ajilbwed* by^ 

^ the conAitution ofthe Sute, to worihfp Alnaighty Oodi 

alM^ahly to thodi%tes of their own confciltn^esv . . 

02^ There aise two ccJe 

|M;ea «i^ New Jkrfey f fm$ at Prmcetot^ eafied Naflktk 
mlL the d^cr at Bninfwick* called C^e^i^ College^ 


irirw 7 EH «ET. 


Thi thJUtttfAt Mkttoit^% bMA Mfkr tht * tire dT 
ft liiictffim^ltt'f ntHdeott, fl»ineiit|ftK l^tcf^rsiidtleavii. 
ing t and bat futniilied a number oF^ivilianii Diviaw- 
as4 fbyfietaHtrdf ibeirftriaakai A»»tri^a. n ' 

Tbete.aMva ntrmber.of good acfuUnfiiPt in ihii (i)ktie% 
vb«MJrmlio)iK Trenton, Hacbinfiilr, Orpi^dsde, Elii. 
aBelhui^f Buiinigton» and at Mevravk. Btfidta ihefo^ 
theteafe gonxmur fchoob «t* Sptiogfieltlit Motrift6ws>. 
BordentoMfD, aad Acibofi. 

Ciitf To9tmJ There ave a rtrm5er of- townr in tbii 
ilate, nearly bfcqual^ aadfi«portaaffe,.and vieoe Uiat^ 
Has nicT9 thun about five or fix bunda^d boAiet compaft- 
b bttUt^ T«f<ncon is one of tbe:kn^ft tcvwiia in New^ 
jerr^y, atid the capsul of the Rate.. It is i^nftted ott 
Ibeea^ itde oitbe riner Dtfhiivaro» opp^J^Ute the falls,, 
nrirly in ';|ie ceutre of the ftata^ fro^ n6rth to AMzthi^ 
tnlatiiudjff ^^ *i 'diui jfcotit 15' esft of the meridkn of; 
jfhiladel]^^. . ' ■ '^' ,' 

■'.■ Burliinton (ciiy)'*tatendi three ii^efflloti^th^ D«|^- 
vare^ano; one inile't4c1c at, right afiglet. Into the coti^' 
of,Burling«on«and is tarejncy i^^bs- above JSbiladeipAli^, 
by watoTy and fcv^nteen fey^and*-. ' * 

Perth Aoiboy (cityj|«MtVK>f land iY»criJide4l 
bct«reen Rarjun river and JAtirtKur KtkU Sound, ' I^^ 
Atiiacioft is high iand hteafUy.; 'It tres\op>eti to Sun^f: 
Hook»^ and hAi/ oife/o^ dMk heft haibouiis on^the coiki< 
tincnc' . . ^\,^ ' 

Brar.iiwids (:plt!jr) b^tttatisd' <?ii' the %th weft fide dft; 
Raritaii river, over <tii^|| a fiuefyrtdige mts'latefy betm 
biult, ti mda above Ai^^lboy. ^ J( contains rever«l hofk*- 
df cd houf^s, and o^tiasda of z^oOQSnhabi^ts, one^ 
half offwhom are Ptxtch^.'fts fSitiation l« k>w^d un*< 
pleaihnt, beiM-on the b^ of Wtiver^ aadrBnd«;a h!^ 
bill which riusbii^kiof the i^\x^w; , ^ . 

Ftincelon U arpJealkn^ vilb«%! (if 4boytJde hoide«»', 

iu^olkgelb^a lar^eediiltfa of Mm^^ "^^ ' *^ * 

>orou|fh) 1* filteeii miUs fwottf Keiiit 
il»fiH«^t^a^ itrs foileqofld^ 



Volt: ik^fiti 


f^4 Wit#*iv 



town* • _. _j 


SStafSSiS' -Ac TtoMio* *PW<*»T MffVA * 

wrey foldfcfSf give w ^*« ?^ir^ 

m ^i 


^, ^ 

f « 

:^'a>Sl* h:t: 

S . *' .^■?» 

=(»» jw 







ad.,,uU^A T3fOtJNi)lSl> f«ft| bf Delnware rlrent 
'**'*'*^* J JO? which divide! h'fmm M.*w Jf^fry | 
noTtM, bf l£w Vork ; nonhnktit Vy i^ part of Im 
£m I weft; by the Wiiibm 'firritory, $itdnpm of Vi|<* 
gtnia ). fouth,, br a -part of Vtrgirtiat; MarylM imd Dep 
ajirare. t)ie Skate liea in the foritrof Ji^taDklognui^ - 
ti'wIlHijfitkf^ fki^nfyhrama if dl<^i4ed into twene* 
tyvqine eonntie^' whtthrwtch tbair coaatjr townt» fiwi^' 
tloQ, A'^, lift-ttientioiied iii/the AxUawi&g/Tf^lei^ 

. CmmtJtt. ' 

Bodu ' 

Sflont j^iilsi f~' 
iMifitSiker . . , 








Weft ^beiUf 

U ncjifty ^ 


;t7,x^»' sSilnliuif^ 


7,jd*''L#wi(B5ifJ^-- ,* 


10499 <{ FItSflitefg. 

QhDelMvaffc Rivcf^i 


.aa^^Sdniyiklir Minti 
pfirBM««4|e^. Rivera 
€tai^ttfi|acbiu»; RivKf. 
Oiil. $toi<|t|e|M|i. KiVciv 

On W/Brla^-Siifi|if. 
Q« ItfOMMi Rivrr. 
Oil loiitata RSvcr. . 

.0kf MtUKMi^^lkRiver. ^ 

s. ir. ciQviier ;or 6ttt<< 


• » 

y . 


( ' 

> m 

Riverj,J There ans fix conhdqsUe nf^ wlic&^ 

YQuhlo^enjr, Mohoogabelay j»nci . AlTttaii/. Hi^ ba/ 
and riv^r Dektmurc aire navtga]^^poi^]^^a up to the 
j^at or lower falls at Trenton, 155 nitle£ The 'duT^ 
^ancc o£Pl|tkde]|i!Ma from. tlM (|a U a^oUl^ 4^0 m'^ei 
ii<;rofs tlie land<in a S. W^ oou|r%9 theTf^feir JeijTeir cb;)A^ 
^d 120 milti^bvthe (l|ip el^nnel oTthe DdaWave^ fia 
^u* it is n^ivigabie for a 74 gun ibtp. 

MounMimy^ face cftht Ctuntr^y ami Skitj A conCa- 
nuklo proportion of thi«.(late may be £aUw4 mountain- 
xtus ; particularly the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon, 
Cnmberl^ndt part of Franklin, Dauphin, «nd part of 
Bu^ks and Korthampton, through iHrhlcb pa&, under 
liarious names, tlie nuinerous judges, and' ^iurs, which 
colibdively form what we choofe to call, lor the fake of 
deamefs, *< The Gfe^ Range of AUegaay Mountains*" 
The Tales between t^efe, jnountatps are generally of a 
ncli., black ibil, fuited to the various kinds o^graiiiand 
gva&i iSome of the sioui&ains wilt admit of cultivation 
ahnbll to thcic tof^ The other pacts of the fta^e art 
geneiraily leTdf.bc a|;reM>l^ Taneg«te<| with hiUsai^d 

,, i^ glseat pi^ppofi^n ^tbe Hate ||goq<I'land» and sd 
ticoamlamble pactis yeay ^ood* v rahaps thepropoiy 
)|on of firl^ r»tei land is not mater in any of the United 
States.! Hie richeft part of the ftate that is fettled, 13 
XancaA<ertQUiaty, and the yaUer tl^ngh Cumberland, 
YoriE, and Franklin*. T|le lictiett i^ is ^nfettle^, is 
be^eett; Allegany ^ftr and hiJfJt "^ti \n the no^thWeft 
corner'of the ftat^and k the couitts^ Oit the head# jti 
the eallej^f^ brandies of the AHei»iiy^ 
:Pro^^^ JfattH0^ 
JMricuhurt^^xj^rhy tifcy Ibreta ai^eft t0jgei^6r> 

. fe it is diffici^ to fe|>ara|e the^ The pro^ce^ 

in9^^d!li£ei aftdVei|iiikts df lE^yiyil^uiift am ippf 

many and Various f vii.ivhcll» r{|^|n^iaAcM;bti<;1c- 

Whtat, irc>^,' guniK)Wder, taWn baU» i<^^ 

4u^s. ^mbeT,lhIl>si bricks^ &c.&c.iS.^^ ' '* 

ioiiie|ear'i 7d6i theit- exporci of fld^ imt. i5^t>ba 

hlir4i:;;ift:l7S7they wexi abicAj^"^^ 

• ■ ^ — they 

'^M', '^ 

If ' 


fnfef men «ab^eipd liin«li.| aa4 ia ,1799 dit]r,>9m 
36g,6it bMrdi. . 

•f t!!is ftatt it meiltioQed'iti the uble. it itSmtikf m 
ibr ererj (qitaie mile^ The iuub^ c^^miUtia is ttdr 
matcd'lt fipFJttiii of 90^900 between ft and 53 ]rea)i» 

llie.iib^tanct .406 t^rincqi^any the defceadantt of 

the £n||^t lTt6i» and GinrmafiSf with Tome Scotch* 

Welfli, Swedct, aad a loi^ Duteb. There axl aUh 

fmanjof the I<iib and vGenfnlns, who emignrted when 

young or middle aged. The Fdendt ana EpifcblmU- 

ans are chiefly of Engliih extradion^and compole about 

. one^ird oC &e ii^abitant^^ The/ liye .priactpalljr tO 

the ctty^ of PlMla4elphia» and- in 'the eounties of Cheftet» 

iphlladelphia. Backs and Montgomeqr. The '^rifli are 

raoftly Fre{byte#ians» but fome are CattioHct. Their 

ancefltors came, from the north of if eland* which ihu 

originaUy fettled from Scotland ; benc« they have 

fom^times been .^aUed Scotch Inih» to denote their 

doable defce!;Lt. But Chey ^e conunonly and more 

^properly CaUe^ Irifh, or the defcendants of peo|>le from 

'the north of Irelsind. They ii^bii jhe .svei&rn and 

frontier counties,jiad are numerous. 

The Germans compoie about one-qnarter of the in- 
habitants of Pennfylvania. lliey are tnoft nnmeirotts 
4n the < of the city of Fhiladelphia, and tlie 
counties of Fhiladelphia> Moiifigomery,. Bucks, Dau- 
>phin, X^ancaAeTt Y4irki and )9erthampton ; nK>ftiy in> 
the four li|{l, and 9ft fpreadin^ in other parts. They 
confiit of Liithmns«n(who ai:e the^moft nmni:rOu9' le^) 
Calvinifts or Reformed Chiir^, Moratianii, Catholics, 
Mennoniftsv TimkeiSs (oorrup^y calted Dunk^sVaiid 
Zwingfelters, who* are a * fi>ecies Jbf Qnakeis..' Thofe 
ar)e ajil dlAiingiuih^d for their teffperaace, kduftry and 
^cconomyt^ v^ ;, ,, 

The Biplifts (except the Meanonift and Junker tap- 
t!fts» who are German^) are chiedythe dtieendants of 
cmigra^ 6oai Wales, and ;u:e net numerous. A pro- 
fortionate afftalpiblage of the na^daal prejadices, the 
«uumers» cttftoiM, rel^^oes aad political leiitiQients of 
.all Aifct iipliiw m^^jl^nmn, ^maAa?. 


'More numerpus and fburifhiiitt in J^cnnfymmii, thai| 
ill anydffSieillit^^aftftttSw 'W ilsKm^ "i^ tiide im. 
fttivinj^ itffHtttliont are as ibllow : Tht Amencaii l%t* 
bi^intal Seeietf ,>.elcl at Philadelphia, for promoting 
1ir«^ knowledge, Ibimed Janoairj tAfytfj€i^'tbit So*.' 
•ciety fiir prcmoiing Political Inquiries,' in{^tute4 in 
lebniary, i787-'^Th« Gc^ege of ii»yfidans, iiiftituted 
in- 1787, -for the promotion of medic&l, aaat<3^ical and 
chemical knowledge, incorponltfd I789r^The Pcnnfy!- 
vania Hofpital— The Philadelphia Difp«ifar>', for the 
nie<£cal rAef of lihe poor—i^'rtie Peiinfylvania Society 
for promoting tlic abolition of Slavery, ftnd the Tclief of 
Frci^ Nfegro)$4 unlawfully held in bondagei^-TThe Society 
of the l^nticdBwthrenfcr propagating the gofpel amor.^ 
the heatheiis, inftkuted in 1787, to be held^ ftatedly at 
B^hlehem— The Pcnnfylvjinia "Society* for the encour- 
agement of n^jUtuiaduf es and Hieftil a^ts. Befides thefcf 
there is alfo a fociety for alieviating the iftileries of 
prifons — and alluftiane Society for the xecovering and 
re^oring to life the bodies of drowned pcrfons ; infti* 
ttittd i^ f 7 7a^A Society for the aid and prote<ftion c^ 
Iritij Emigrants'-^ An Agricultural Society*— A Society 
for Cerm'an EmigrantW-A Marine Spciety-~A Char^* 
table Society for ^^ IHpport of » widows, and families' 
^f Prei%teiiaii^Clergymcn---A Society for the infoiina* 
tion andaiSftanceof en)igraentsrrrSt» Gcbrge^s, St. An* 
dr&w/$, and Ac Hiberni*\n Gharitablc Societies* ,^Io(i 
-of thefi^ focieties are in the cky of flhiiadelphia. 

fyHegeTf jf^adeifiiej ftftd ^hpoif,^ J^ti Phiiadelphia is 
the Ui^terfity of Penniyirania, jand the College and 
Acatdemy of Philadelphia. Aix aft to wftitc thefe twq 
inftituttpns has paired t|» legiHatnirc t by their' union 
th<?y,will cpnlHr^te «neof thc^mpft i^eiRjtble ifemma«» 
rics of learning in the '^^rtited States. • , 

Die kinfotf College at Oarlifle, i2ofWiles wei]lwardb|. 
Philade^ia, Was founded in |.78;s. |n 17^7, th^re 
Were SaftixdcntsM^mghig to thi? college ; thjt ntanv 
hcrjs annual ificrca0ng« It was named after Hip 
Excellchcy John Btclcmfon. 

t lii f 7E7I a college wis^tinded^at Lancafter^ 5^ mi}«| 
from Phi)add|^a«, aiid Kemmred^ witl^l the« n;^ "0^ 





Franklitt Collm, after his ezctUeiir^ Dr. F\nlakUik 
Yhis college is for the Germans. 

The EpifcopalUnshavc an Acade^;;.!^ at Yorkt^wni in 
York' county. There are alfo academies at Germaiv^ 
town, at Pitt(burg, al Wafhington, at Allen's l'own» 
and other places^ endowed by donations firpm the legifla- 
ture, and by liberal contributions of indiriduals. 

The fchools for young men s.nd' womeln ip Bethle- 
hem and Nazareth, under the dire^ion of the people 
called Moravians, are perhaps upon the beft eftablifli' 
ment of any fchools in America. 

ChiifTowtts,'] The city of Philadelphia, capital of 
tht Stiite of Peniifyivania, and till the year 1801 feat of 
government of the United States, lie* in latitude 39* 
56' north, upon the weftcrn bank of the river Delaware» 
which is here but a mile in breadtl). 

It was laid dut by AVilliaip Penn, the firft proprietarf 
and fbuudet of the provhice, in tl^e year i6t83« and fet- 
tled by ;i colony fipm Etigli^nd. 

The groimd plot df the -city is an oblong fquarei^ 
about oiie mik north and ibutb^ and ti^o miles eafl^ and 
weft» lying in the narroweft part of the ifthhius between 
the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about five miles in 
aright litt6 above tieir confluehcck " 

The city "was, firft incorporated by chsirter under the 
great feal of the province, in the ye^t 1701 : Before 
thatjeriod it wasr called thftoVn ofRiiladelphia. 

The number o^ Inhabitants withm the city and iuli^ 
urbs, (including the diftri^ of SoUth'wark, and the com- 
pa^ly built part of the Korth^ Liberties, which,. to ev- 
ery purpofe biit as tc^ their govenunent, are c^tliidfre^ 
as parts cS the city ) was found, by the 'cenfus of 1.79Q, t^ 
be 42,5 20^ and the number of hotifek 6j6|i, amd ftoretf 
and work-ihops 415.* The number of inhabil^ts kiii 
increafed, it is fuppofed, niore than '^Miithird^fince. ' \ ' 

Theboufesfbr public worlhip areiftii^eroUs, and are 
as foUotlv : 

The Friends or Quakers 
have 5 

The Pre/byterians and 

SecederSf 6 

ThcEpifcd^alians, 3 

-■•• • R 

The German Lutherans^ t 
Th^ Germvi Galvimftsy t 
TheCitiioUcsi 4 

lilie S^ediih tutheiTaxu, k 
I The Moraviansi > i 

. The 




tlie Baptifts, x I The MethodiiU, « 

-The Uoiverfal Bamlfts, i [ the Jews, i 

The*. other public ^ndihtfs :m the city, beiiJes the 
ixniverficy and ^oUege 'alreaay ^m<qn(ioAed, are, the fol- 
lowing, viz.. 

A ftate houfe sind o^c^'s. 
Two city eoptt houfes, 
A comnty cQurt houfe, 
A can>enter!s hall, 
A phiIoC9phical fQciety'^, 

A dilpcBfary, 
A^<npitA^^nd office^ 
An aim's iho^fe. 

Twp Micorporated baoks^ 
Ajhoufe of corre^ion, 
A dramatic .theatre, 
A public obferyatory, 
A medical t|ieatre and ela. 

'Three brick mgrket houfes, 
A fiOi msu:kett 
A 'public .|;aol. 

Whether yrt ^qnfider the ilocail f^tuatipn, the iixe, the 
beauty, the .variety and utility of the imprOfvement$» in 
mechanics a^d mai^|i((lfires, or the induftry, the ^• 
'terprize, the -humanity, ftnd the abilijfies.of the Inhabit- 
ants of tlie city ^C Philadelphia, it ineiits to^ie ranked 
iimong the firli^^ties in the United States. 

Tti^borongoof J^tt^after isi^e largeft inland town 
'in die Unite^ States, ft is the jfeat .of ' jufti^e in L'an. 
reader county, and^ftands on Conoftoga yree^, 58 miles 
^bjthe new turnpike ro^, a little to* idie north of the 
Weft ^m .Fhjlade^hia. {t about 700 01^ 800 

jboufes, btc^^s a m'o^ elegant co^rt hoaikj, a nmknber tf 
Jumdfome churche^ and p^er public buildings, and 
kbout v^OQQ iiDn^ i great iir«^ortiqn of whom arc 
jinanufa^ittrirji.V' r . • 

, CplifleUt|efeatof juftire JaCnmWlsind county, 
j^dls 13^ mu^ weftward of Philadelphia. It contains 
tipMrds of ik/f o Jnbaltttants, iffiio live in more ttian 
^ooft(j)iAft1u^es»andw0r^ They 

haVe ^Ib^^ a dai^jioiifb and^^ 

Pittfburg,' oKl^ He ^ei^ernilde.ofthe' AUegfny moonr 
itdni, jao is&iles liir^ftward of Biila^lphia, ii beautiful- 
ly $tiiate4:ba a laJC|^e plains which Is the pQint ot lan4 1 
tet:t(^ 'the AUegiky and Monongahela ,riv^s« an^j 
ibdut ^ 4tiareer Ofa male aboye. fiieir co|iflaence» in 1;^^ 
iiade 4©** ifi^ Wifth* ^ 


*"£ N N S t'L \>^ A irf A> 


Bethlehem is iituated on the river Lehifl^» a wcftcm 
l>ranch of ikrDelaware, 55 miles north ofPbiUideliihiaf 
in latitude 40* 3;V The town being built parUy ba 
high riilng ground^ and partl>' t)tt tne- lower bank^of 
the Maiiakesy (a fine ci^ek> which ^oi^Is trout* and oth- 
er fifh) has a very pleafunt and healthy fi^uatioii»-ahd It^ 
frequently vifited in tl^e Aithiiier feafi^n by |(entry from 
diiFcrept'^aftsS: The profpc<a i* not exteSfive,- bein[f 
bounded '^ctf Hear by a dlaln of the Lehiffh hill^. 

Befides the church or pubirc rheeting hall, therie ^re 
diree large^- fpacious buildih|(s,, -viz. l%c breth« 
i^n -s or y dikiB Jhen'fi hc^ifcs; 'I'he fmgle fifters^ or young 
%<^(imeh*y ht)iuc, "wh»re tliey live under the cair offe* 
ih.ile inlptfd^ors^ The houTefor the uidow Wome^i 
\vhcrieluch as haVe not » houfd cf their own, or means 
to have thetrown houfe furnitlied> Uifc neariy iii the 
fame way as d6 the fingle fiftctifv' 

la the houTe: ^adjoining tbeclixtrcH, is the fchpol for 
girl^ jTandflnce the year i^Byir a^ fK)$rdiii|[ fchool for 
yotttig IflCdies frtnn different psut«f #119 are mibiidtd Hk 
reading an4,wriiingr (both Eng^ini^'k^OeH^ah} gram-- 

The mintftef <^the place h# th1if%ctal cat^atid^ in- 
fptdliorn of this as v«ren as of the boyi* fchool, which. 1^ 
kept iii a feparate hotife, fitted to that ptitp0lt) and are 
taught reading. and writing in both laneiiages^ the ru* 
diments of the liatin tdvt^i^arilkiXKtic, £^. Tli^e 
fchooh, eff^cisilly that fct' tKe yoSingl^i^^ ;ure deferv- 
edly in very h?gi repute, and fchouirs, more than ean^ 
be aecottin^odated^ ^t efi^red- ftCiH ^ fiitU of the' 
United States^; ' ! , : ' / ^ 

Nazaareth is i tftniles: ttorth ^oni ^^etf^ehein^ and 6$ 
norrh'-fi^Wnitr Philadelphia. It is a tradof^ood land^ 
containing afbout 5,000 acres, purchaled originally >y 
the Rev4'M!*4 G«o^ Wbhefieldi in I740|,;i^ l(P^ pO^ 
years after to the bitethren.' ^ * 5> 

Harriihurg is a vei^ ^euHihiiiig.nla^fi ahpnt tod' 
mile^W. by N. from PhUadeiphja. ^ 

ConJlitution»1 Ther fupreme executive powtr of the 
commonwealth is vefted in a governor s the leglflativc 
in a gei^cal ^flemblyi confiding of a fcnate and a houfe 
* of 




of reprtfentatiTes: The goyern^r is chofcn for three 
ye^irsy but cannot hold hb office more than nine yeari 
in twelve. A plurality of yotes makes a dioice. The 
repreientatives are eleAed for one year ; the fenators 
for ibur. The latter are divided into fonr clafTes. The 
time of oiie clafs expires each year, ivbofe feats are then 
filled vrith new ele^iohs. Each county choofes its 
itprefentatives feparately. l^e fenators are chpien in 
diftrjAs formed by the lepi(tature, 

Hiftory,'] Pennfylvauia was granted by king Charles 
il. to Mr. William. Pcnn, foh of the famous Admiral 
Penn, in confideratioh of his father's fef vice; to ^e 
crpwn. Mr. Penn's petition for the grant was prefent- 
ed to the king in i68o, and after coiUiderable delays» 
the charter of rehhrylvanta received the royal iignature 
on the 4th of March, 168 r. 

In 1690, the pn»tietary arrived from England and 
aflumed th^ reins ot eovemment. While he rcmuined 
in Pei)nfylvani;l^ the laft charter ofpriviiegtstor fcame of 
government, ij^htch continued until the revolution, i^ai 
9g^eed upon and eflablillied. This was completed and 
delitered to the people by the piroprietary« O^ober 28» 
1 701 > juft on his embarking for ' England* The inhab- 
itants of the TerriicryrZ} it wa^ thencalled» or the low- 
kr counties, refufed' to accept this charter, and thus fe^ 
arated thetafelves from the province Of Pieniifylvania. 
They afterwards had their owt^ aflemblyt in which the 
governor 6f Peifinfylyaoia ufed to prefide^ 

In September, i 7061 the Siifquenannah Indians grant- 
ed^to Mf. Peiin all their lan4* on bpth fides the rivef. 
T^e i$ufqitehannah, S&aw^nefe ati<^ FatomaV Indians, 
however, entered intb articles of agreement with Mr. 
^enn, by whichf ,on certain conditions c^ peaceable and 
friendly behavionr, tl^ey were pernnitted to fettle about 
tiie head of Patpmak^ ijn the province of Pennfylvania. 
1f^ Conofioga chiefs alfo, in 1 701, ratified the grant 
of the fiufquehannah Indians made the^jpreceding yeiar. 

In 1 708,, Mr. P«nn obtained froni thf; Sachems <^the 

country, a, coii^ripDation of the grants made by forn&er 

Indians, of all. the lands from Puc)c Creek to the moi;in- 

Uifis, and liron^the Delaware to th«: $ufquchan|iah. lH 

■-■' : •■ '.-'-... ■ : ■■'this 


dus deedf the Sachems declared that ** they had fecn, 
and heaid read, divert prior deeds which had been given 
to Mr. Penn by former chiefs." , 

While Mr. Penn was in America, he eredlcd Fl^dek 
phia into a corpitration. The charter was dated O^o^ 
ber25, 1701.- 

By the.^vourahle terms which Mn Penn offered to 
fettlers, and an unlimited toleration of all religious de- 
nominations, the population of the. Pj«ivince was ex- 
tremely rapid. 

At the Revolution* the government was^abolifbed.. 
The proprietaries were abfent, and the people, by their 
reprefentatives, formed, a new confUtuti^n on repuUi- 
can principles.. The.|yroptietaries were excluded ifrom, 
all Aiare in the government }; and the legiflature offered., 
them one hundred and thirty thoiifand pounds, in lieu< 
tifall quit rents, .which vras. fiii4lly accepted. The prp^ 
priietaries, however, ftill poffefs in l^ennfylvfuiia many 
Ivge tm^of ej^cellcnt land. . 

i^ E L A W A R E. 


SjtWAXION. ANl>r£xT&HT> 


Breadth 24 J "^^"^ (Sferi. of Phtt. * o* 4^ A^. io% 
Containing, i^ooof^uare miles, Co;* i,20C3,0QQ^aGr«s» , 

-"Xl "«cr and'Bart and, rJbie Atlantic 
Ocean ; on the fouth and weft, by the State of Mary- 
land J north, by Pennfylvania. 

Gwi/ Dhtjioni,'] This &^te is divided iotp. three 
<;ovuities,wittchiMrefubdivKledi»tQ hundreds* > 





Wa. Iitfub^ 











Chief Towh*. 





Before the Revolution, this dtHriSi of country was de- 
nominated **Tfif three /onuer counties J* 

Hivert and Creeks.'] The caftem fide of Jthc ftate is 
indented with a large number of creeks or fmall rivcr$» 
which generally have a fhort courfey foft banks, numer- 
ous ihoaU, and are fkirted with very extenfive marlhes^, 
and empty into the river and bay of Delaware. In the 
fputhem and weflcrn parts of this (late, Aniag tlie head 
waters of Pocomoke, Wicomico, Nanticoke, Choptank, 
.Cheiler, SafTafras, and Jpohemia river^s all falling into 
Ciiefapeak bay, and fot^e of theitt are navigable 20 or 
30 miles into the country for yctfels of ^p or 60 tons. 

Severgl canals in 4ifferent parts of the (late are con« 
templatedi one of which is down tUewiMcrs of, tht 
Brandywin6. ' \ "" ' 

Face if the Country^ Gotland ^roduilionsJ^ The ftatc of 
l>elaware> the upper parts of the county df Newcaflle 
excepted) is, to f[)eak generally, extremely lov^'and lev- 
el. Laree quantities of ftagnant water,, at particular 
feafons of the year, pvcrfpreading a great proportion of 
the land, render it ec|uaUy unfit for thfc purpofcs of 
agriculture, and, injurious to the health of the inlub- 
itants. ,. •' ' ^ly- ' '.' 

f Delaware is^^hiefly an agricultural (kite. It includes. 
a vcryibtilc ^ra^ of country } and fcarcely any part of 
the ,iinio^'caQhefele<£ied better adapted tt) the different 
pUrpoieSj^f ^r^cfilture, or in v/hich a i^reater variety, of 
the mbft nfelu} |»rt)dt|^1on$ cr.h be i(b conveniently and 
plentiluUy r^ed^ The foil a^licitig the pelaware river, 
and fi-oih flo toln^^i into the interior conintry,, is gcn- 
erall7 a rich clay, producing llug^ timber, ajiul well 
ads^ed to the v^ous purpoies of agriculture; From 
thence to tl^ interior and ^ramps^the foil iVlight,.faVi-' 
iji aad of.viioktiot quality. The general afped of 
; ,\^. . - .-J . "■ . L ..':. * the 

DVL / It ARE. 


the cotintry is very fkvourablc for eultivatTOn. Except* 
ing fomc of tUc upper parts of the county of Ney'catUc» 
the furface of the ftatc is very little broken or irregular. 
Wliea - L» the Ibiple of this Rate. It grows here in fuch 
peifeAion, a»hot only to be particularly fought by the 
manufaflurers of flour throu^^hout the Union, but al^ ' 
to be diftinguiihed atld preferred, for its ftijperior c{^atl- 
ties in foreign markets. 1*1113 wheat poUeiTet an un- 
common foftnefs aad vrhitenefs, very favoiirable to the 
minufafture of fupcrfinc flour, and in other rcfpefU fer 
c^cceeds the hard and flinty grains Yaiied in general on 
the hi^^h lands. Befides wh'dat, this (late generally 
produces plentiful crc^s of Indian corn, barley, rye, oats> 
Hax> buckwheat, iifidi potatoes. It abounds in natural 
and arpficiisil' ' 'meadows, containing a large variety of 
gralTes. Hemp; cotton, and fdk, if properly attended 
td, w^uld doubtlefs flourifli very wtlj. ' 

Chief fovin. . ] ; UoV Ea, in the county of Kent, is the 
feat of govcmmenl. Itftand&on Jones* Greck^a few 
miles from Delaware river, and conftfts of about ico 
hpqiufe^, principally of bri(:k. The town has a lively ap- 
pearance, and drives on a confiderable trade with Phil-' 
udclphia. Wheat is the principal article Of exports 
The landing is Ave or fix miksfromtlw town of Dover. 
" Ndwcaftle is 35 miles below Philadelphia, oathe weft 
bank of Delaware river* It was firft fettled by the 
Swedes, about i 627, and C^led ScocBiolm. It wai 
fffterwards takqh By the Dutch, axld called }<^ew Am- 
ttcrdam. When it fell into the hiinds of the ErigHlh, it ' 
was calls*) h; its pref«nt natne* I^t was fot'merlf the 
feat of |coveramentv lattd contai^ about' 60 houfes; 
which we\r the afpp^ of decay* This is the firft towti 
that iliras fettled On Delaware rivet. 

Wilmington is fituated s^ mile and'a half Weill of DeW 
aware ^ river, en Chrilliana Crcek,^i8 miles fouthwar<il 
from I^hiladelphla. It is much. the farged aiid plea&ut- 
eft town in the flate, containing upwards of ^00 houfci 
which s^-e handfomely biiiltt upon a gentle aicent of ail 
eminence, and (how to great advantage as you faibup the 
Delaware^ It contains about 2400 inhaUtai^its. There 
Was alfo an academy of about 40 or 50 fcholac^ 

'"■■■•■' ■ * ■ >NthO' - 



who were taught tlietlftnguagefy and fome of the feu 
tncet. Thi' icademy waf intended to be eredcd into- 
a college, t . i» now eziinftt Theceis another .acade« 
my at Newark, ia thUxoanty* which was incorforated 
in 1769. Thefe academiei were interrupted during 
the war, and their fundi ruined i>7« the depreciation of 
Continental paper irtonej. The. legi^ture this year 
(1796) pafTed an ad to create afund for the eftabliiki*. 
liient oif fchools throughout the 8uie.. 

Mttford is.ntuated at th^fource of a rmall'rijer, t^ 
miles from Delaware Bay,.aBd i5ofouthwardot Phila- 
dclphia« This. town» which contains about 80 hoofes, 
has been built, eicept one houie, (ince- the revolution. 

Duck Creek Crais Roads is i.mniles northweft from 
Dover, and has 8q of. y^Q houfes, which Hand on one 
Areejt. . It carries on < a conTiderable trade: with Phila- 
delphia, and is one oft the largeft wheat .markets in .the 
Statc» and merits aimore dignified name* 

I#ewes is fituated a few milek above the light-Jioufe^^ 
on Cape HenlopeBk It contains abou^i5o houfes. . 

Trade and MMufaBure$,'l We h^ve already mention^ 
ed wheat as the (kple commodity of this State** ThU. 
is maauiadtured into flouir, aaiiexported in large ^aaii<^ 
titles* . ^Qat exports ff om the port of. Wilmington, . 
where*aiiuiknber of rquHze^rigKSd^eflels are owned, for 
the year 1 786, in thft article offtom',- was 20,783 .batrels- 
foperBae, 4.57 diitp commoQr.25^6dkto middlings, and: 
5^6 ditto in (hipftulf/ The nsaalbiraiSbke of ilbnp is car. 
riedtA^J^bei'degreetOCpeTfe^onin this (late. than in< 
aay^ others iiv the- Unioq* ' Befide^ the . well cdhilru^ed ; 
miUs.Qtt Red 'day aod White Clay Creeks, and othcrr 
(^leams ia dt&reot parts «f ihe^Sitatc,.jthcreare the celc-»- 
brated colledlien, ofvijjiiUs at; ^rajtidy wine.*. Here: are to . 
Ue,.feen,.ii£. one view, la mcrchaot milk (befidesa^faw/ 
iiaill}:wbich iiave^oublt that numb!p^of pairs bf:ftones,, 
aU'of. fuperiprt dimeniiqns and excellent conftru^ion*. 
'Z^eTe mitts are thiree miles iiromthe mouths the jci^k 
tu> which .they ftandY^alf % tBiWfr4()m Wilmtng^iQA, and. 
a7 from FJiUadelphia^^on \^ '^:m2^ irom theeafterfi 
to the/outherii rSutes.. They are tailed the: Brandy* 
Vrine mills, irom:.the ftream on which' they '9re ereAed.: 
^he ^(luauty Qtwheat.maaufadiu-ed in thieTe milU. «<it 

' ' , «iuaHjr> 



i) li L A W A R E. 


noallf I is not accuratcW afcertained. It U eflimatedii 
hnwtVer, by ihd bed inlormed b the AibjeA, th«l thcfc 
mills can grind 400,006 bufliels in a year. But there 
are not commonly more than from about 190 to 300,000 
bu(hels of wheat and corn manofa^ured here annually, 
'fhcfe mills give employment to about 200 perfons. 

The nariga^ion quite to thefe mills is fuch, that ^ Vef- 
fel cairying i,coo buOiels of wheat, may be l^Ki along 
fide of any oi thefe mills. The veiTels are Unloaded 
with ailonifhing expedition. Tliere have been inftiiices 
o( 1,000 bufliiels being cairied to ;hejicight of four fto« . 
lies in fouv hours. 

BefiCes the wheat and floor trade, this Rate exporti 
lumber and various other articles, 'fhe amount of thft 
exports for the year ending Sepumber 36th, 179(1 wai^ 
'99»840 dollar*. . . / 

IJghtHoufe,1 The ti^htrHoiife^ near the t6Wn M 
Lewes, was burnt in t77f. . Sbce.the war, it has bee^^ 
completed and hand(bmely repiMiVti ' It is- 1 fine ftooe^* 
ftruAurci, B jilortes High } the annUalf^j^fofebf iii^hicb^ 
is. eftimatcd at about 6jo/. currency^ . ^ ■ 

keligicn,'\ In this State» there Is a varte|^ of reBgiotti 
denominations. Of the Prel^yterian fe6^ there are 14 
churches-r-of the Ejair^epafy t^-^-of thc.BaptiftS| y- — oC.. 
the Methodifts, a ponAderabli: number, efpeciaUy m the' 
two, lower counties of Kent and Ijui&x. The SwediOi.. 
ciiurch in Wilming^ton is one of ihe oldeA churches to ' 
the United ScHtes. ,j 

Conflitutim.'] The conf^itutlbn of thts State delegatel 
the legiflative- power to a General A<l4fmbly, coni%ii^^ 
of a (enate and ^ lldufe of i epreientati vts ; and the ^t»^ 
fecutiVe, to a goveinbr. All thefe are tIiofc*i>y tht^'^ 
people on the itH Tuefday of (Mober-— .the governed* 
for three years j but he is not eligible for the ntfxt thr^. 

The codftitution wa^ ratified-^ bx) the^litli of June,^!^ 
iy92v ' •' ■ ' " ■' ' ' ' -f 

Ift/fory.2 The reader w0Jn4 a wcjl written Iketch of. 
the hiftory of this State if nj^erAtnerican tditjdn cf the 
Encyclopedia, publiih^d % THdibas t>obfoti| lo^l*hila« 
delphia, under the iford IJELAWARE; 



.■■,•?».' ^- 

aoi TERRITDRY'N. Wv of the GttiOl 


SnVAttGtir An^ ExtiMT* 

j^^-. ^ npfHiS cxtenfiVe trtA of coattt^ U 
''•* X- bounded norths by part of iht 
northern boandaryHne of the United States i ea(^i b) 
the lakes and P^nnfyltanJa i^ fouih, by the Ohio riter ; 
#e(l by tTie Mffllfippiv Mr. Hatchins, the late geog- 
rapher of the United States,- e(liiU)ite< that thii tra^ 
contains a£5^4o;oi}0 acres, of whieh' 4^1040,000 are 
#ater ; this deda^ed, tEere wjtf remattt sa6|doO,Qoo^f 
aere» beloniemff't^ thet federal' govetnment^ to bt fold 

thie difitharge of ^enationafdcbc 1 ete^ a narrow 
Arip of' bpd bordtriilg on thlfci<MM!bof'lbaki Erie, and 
fltetehing. Dc^milcrweft'of ihc we ftem ltni!l<of ' Feon- 
fyW am% vhieb bdoofed- to, bkif Ijuli \ftta Ibkt bf 

But 9 filaatf pTdportton of thefe ]iAdi is«^yet jp&tchiiftd > 
if theuitites^ and to be difpofed of b/ Congrefs. 

OiwlDkifipm,;] j Tliat part of this territory^ in whidi ' 
tlie* Indian title is cstinguiihed, and #hiclris fettlinvnn- 
derdi,rg0>NfHiinent of the United ^tatcs^ is divided int^" 
fburr «<nintaes;^as follows 


wkflrnlgtoif't^ya' Jaly a5ai I St. aairt790 Apiil a7th^ 
RamSfiba* i49Q| | Knox- 1^90 June aoh 

Miveri.'X TEt MuiftngUttf it a genfle ri^eri confinec* 
by bwinks fiy htfffi ai , to present itr overflo^irki^. It is 
^o yards /wide ai fts cotiiaenc^'widi the Ohtd^, and 
nay^igablc C»y ^tr^- batteaur and barges td the'^f^ce 
I»egs I and; |>y In^a ': of^. to the lake at ib^head* 

The Hocfcihotidiij^ rff^i-»blc» :!ie>lutkingiJm, though 
f6ittewhar i^erita->'ia tiset It ^ navigable^ for large 
liOfttt about 70 s.tIes,vatid'fi»iQta&oifte mttcH' farther.; 
^ On 

, 'TERRrroRY N. W. Of THE OHIO. 2oj 

On the banks, of this Toy nfeful Aream are found inez- 
hauftible qaatries of ^-^ee done* large beds of iron ore« 
and ibme rich mines bf lead. CobX toimt* and fult 
fpring!* arf frequent iia the neighbourhood of this itrcain» 
41 th^f are in every part of the weftem territory. 

The Sciotatk a larger tiret than any of the prccedlor, 
and opens a more e^rtendre navigatidn. It is -pafHibM: 
for lar^e bafges for a9Q.niiks> with a portage of only 
four miles to the San<lufky« a good nikvigable dream 
that falls, into JLak^ Kic. fTne dream (^ Scioto it 
sentlei no when* «i^<ilcn !./ fulls. At fome places in 
tne fpring of tlic /es^ry it. overflows its< banks, providing 
/or large rruumi ia^ (plantations. Salt ({rrings, coal 
mines> wh'.t nd blue clay* and^ree ftone» abound lA 
the country^djoinip^ this river. 

The Little Miami i%top fmall for batteaux.navigation. 

The Great Mianii has a ^very ftony channel, and a 
Xwift ftreanf , but noihUsk It is formed of feveral large 
fbranehes, which wre paffable for hoats m great diftance. 
U interlocks ;with the Scioto. 

The AVabsdh isa heautifulriveri^with l^gh and fertile 
bankf. it empties in^.the Ohio»,by a.mouth 270 yards 
wide, 1 ,030 miles, below Fprt ]P\%U in the iprii\g, fun»> 
mer and autumn, .f t is naflable with batt^uz drawing 
fthree feet water»4i^2 mues, to Oiiitanon, a linall French 
fetdement, on the>w!eft ^e,of the river $ and for large 
canoes 197 jntles fuither, to t)ie ^ifisuni carrying plaee» 
.9 miles from Mlam^vill^e. ... ^. s 

The rivers A Vafe.and KauC^^Kias empty into the 
Miflinppt/ron^ ^e'l^Oitliea^) ^e former isjiavigabk 
Jor boats 60, ^ ;pid thie jatter ibout 1 36 'miles. They 
^oth run vhr(ii|gh a rich couairy, which has eztenfive 


B^weqn the fefl^lkjas pud nliiiois rivets, which are 
84 miles ap^tit^^tettMre tn^ of level, rich land* 
.which ternMiates^^ s^ bifli fi^e,, about 15. miles before 
you reac|i ^e jpinois riva^. ^ diis deHmiful vale are 
» number aitr^th viliafei, mhUkit tpge3ier vritb thofe 
of St. Geo^yieve a&4 St. ^Umti, m 4kc v^bm4^ of 



70^ TERRITORY N. W. o» the OHib* 

One hundred and feventy-fix miles above the Ohio, 
and 1 9 miles above the Miftouri, the Illinois empties 
into the Miffifippi from the northeaft by a mouth ^boot 
400 yards V^de. This river is boixlered with fine mead- 
t)"ws, which, in foi^c places, extend as far as the eye can 
reach. This river iarniihes a communication with Lake 
Michigan, by the Chicago river, between which, and 
the llltnois are two.p'^rtsrges, the longeft of which does 
not exc :d foar mil. . It receive^ a number of rivers 
which are from 20 to 100 yards wide, and navigable 
for boats ftom 1 5* to s 80 miles. 

' Papu/atiof^,'] The number of fouls in this larg;e tra£l 
pf country has not "been afcertalned. From the bed 
data the author has received, the population may be 
<cllhnated as follows : * 

Indians (fuppofeV §5,000* 1792. 

Ohio Company purchaiey 2,500 do. 

Col. Symmes' fcttlemcrts, 3,0oo do, 

Calliopolis,( French fettlemcnt)dppofite T 
, the Kaiihaway river, J i,o©o 

Vincennes and its vicinity, OA the Wabafn, 
Kafkaildas ^nd Caholcia, ' ' ' 

At Grand Ruifleau, viUage of St. Philip,"! 




and Pnlirie da Rochers, 

240 do* 

Total 72,820 

f^^e^e/Ue Country, S^il and Produ^iw^s.'] No part of 
t^e £»ierai territory, it is aflerte^, unites fb many ad- 
vantages, y\ point of health, fertility, variety of produc- 
tion, and foreign intercourfe,as that tra<£t which (betches 
frmiv tlie MuiOtingum t9 the Scioto and the Great 
Miami viver8.t 

-.'- -■ ■ ^ .: ■• The 

* ,The ttibes who inhabit this cotimry aec the Piai}t!as,«ti b$th 
fukf the Mifliiippi<^tluc Qtf(|uei*a£9uiju, vta riic lllkioi>—the nmi^ 
)c4Auiwi, and ail^r tri^t lOf the WabAih^^the 8kfwaiier«, oo |he 
Scioto— ihc; i}elaw^esr->cHe, Mi3mif«-^tbe OuUinuu, MaKon^cns, 
Sakle«,Siouk, Mekelpouakis-N-^he Pilanii, Fowtowatnii^ Meflai^uti, 
Ottawas CUipi^vai, and Wiandots. The wht^e.^inottnting td the 
a!>b»c^uinb«ff.-- ■■''•' v' .i ^v:-'^' '-v^^'N. /,. ' 

' t A gentle^aA im^has vlfked this coisntrf, Atppofei,this aa- 
Ublint U a. Uttle ^ lugh|y «|;ib«mibcd. He ad»op|ed|t«lhat it 
i^tvcry fine country, nut thinkt that there are other parts of the 
weftcin unfitcled country, %rhich unite at leaft as many, if sot 
mpre advaatiigei than ^ trad jdx>ve mcotioocd. 

iTEAitltORY N. W. OP ;M OHIO, aof 

llie pf«Yat1'tng |;iowth of timber, and the ivoic nftfal 
trees «re, maple or (ii^g^ar tree> fycamert, black and vhite 
iDulbetrf, black and white widnut, butt^mut, chefirat ; 
white, Usick, dpantih and chefiiiit oaks, hiccotftdierrx, 
bjckwood or horie cheihUc, honey locuft, elm, cuoim* 
ber tree, Ijrnxi tree, glim tree, iron wood, alhy-aTpm, faflii* 
fras, crab ap|>)e ^e, papaw, oroaftard appkYaTariety 
ofpitfm trees, nine bark fpice* and leather wood bttlh« . 
es. General Parfons meaAircd a black walnut tttt 
rear the Muikingurc; whpfe circumference^ at five 
feet from the ground, was 22 feetk A fycamoce, near 
the iame place, ineafured 44 feet in circumference, at ' 
fome diftance from the ground. Whitp and black oak» 
and chefuuti Viith V^oh of the abovementioned tim- 
bers, groM^ large and plenty upon^the high grounds. 
Both the high and low lands produef ii^ft quantities of . 
natural grapes of various kinds, <^ 'liirhicli the fetlleii ^ 
uaiverfally ihake a fufficiency, fo)?.tlieir owncohfumpr 
tion, of^in^. rlriiia^erte^ iki the old fettle- 
ment of St. Vincent, wheit they have hiid' opportunhf 
to uy it, that age will render thi^ Wine'^^f^a«ble to 
hio^of the European winesi Cotton is the natural 
produ^ion of this country^ and grows 10 gttat per- 
fection. ' J ' . 

The fugar maple Is a dioft valuable tree for an i^daifll 
country. Any number of tnliabit^nts may forever be 
fupplied with a iuiKciency of fitgar, by pfc&rving a 
few trees for the ufeofcachi&mUy. Atiee wi^ ytel4 
about ten po;indt of fugar a yest^i and .the labour h 
very trifling. Thf Ap is exiraded in the flmnths ^ 
Febtuau^^nd Mh^, and granulated by the fimplf 
operation of boUing, to a fugar equal in flavour ^iii 
whitenesfs to the beft Mufcovado. 

Springs of exeettentt^ater abound ia^ftery part oi 
this l^erritory i and ikiall and htt^ ftreftms, for n^hi 
and other porpoftf, are adually iiiter(|>et^d, is if bf 
art, that Ihemt^/ b$^o deficiency iaatey ^ tite con^ 
veniences (^illi. ' ' . ... . 

I m\d gtmt ottytrf jkma. |iinumflf4fll^ifiil of d<^ 
tnd wUdcattie art ibeliered ii^ |ie gw^;^d M'h0 

\ S .,«^^: 'Ml- the '^ ";-''. 


'!y'SfcA!«5^^.»-.i:4<>^^J»^*'**«» ' 

Um exteofi^e bottoms thjit cyery where abovndi til 
uiujiu^ftionable proof of die great /ertility of thefc^. 
Torkies, geefe, dticksy (Wams, teal, libeaTants, parfridges^ 
&c. ftr^^ 7/om oiyfetiratioiii beKmd to be iti gtMtei- 
l^emy liere^ thin the tathe poultry are in any part' df 
the old fettfements in Ateerica^ 

The rhrer^ are ttrell ftoted with fifli 6{ yario^ ^vndpi 
and mwiy of them of an exceiletilt qudity . iThe^ lilfe 
generally larre, thougK of different fizefi. The cat fiflii 
wlHch4s thelargefti^ and of a delrciotu ftivonry weighs 
from 6 to 80 pounds. 

jfntiffitkui and CurvfHa,'] The stttbber cf old forts 
fomid in .^e Kentit^y country, afe the admiratiain of 
tlie curious, and a n|f ttcft of mtlch Speculation* lo^y 
are moftly of an obHhi^ form, fitatted on ftr^|^> v^n 
chofeii jground, atid ironttgiious to water, t^en, bj 
wbofii^ and fox ^hat purpofe, thefe were throwti li^, i» 
\Micertaini They are todoubtedly Very ancient 9,% 
there is not die ItkA ttttbll diflereiiee i« dl« H^eWfiiie 
cf the timber growing 0n or within thefe forts, and that 
^hicH ^ws W^dlit ; andv^e'oldeft natiVes^hsiire loft 
all traditioit refpe^ing diem. Dn Cutlet, wlio }ias ac- 
curately examined the trees on thefe forts, ahd which 
he thinks, from apj(>earjmees, are the fecond gfSWt&^is 
ciopisMen, that they mfift h^ve been b^^ilt t^waxdf^of 
i-iooo years ago. "Phey toiuft hav^ been the efib/ts of 
a people ttmch inor^ devoted to Uboter than t^r pref- 
cflit race of Indians, ; and it is difficjilt'tp conceive how 
they could be vonifbu<fted wHhot^t t!^e ^e pf iioA tools. 
At a' coavenient ^iftance from ^efe^ i^wnysi wnds a 
fmali mound tf eaftb, thrown tap in theliiir^ of i pyra- 
itUdi^aad fie«ns in Come meafure prdpotdifi^ t<f the 
fize of its adjacent fortification. On eJtatt^liDn, |hey 
have been foiSEid tdconuin a chalky ^bftubcct fnpi»qf(bd 
urht boneSf «ad^ die. hum^n kind; . n ;; w ^ t *a . 

/Wf/.J llie pofts-^cflablifhed for (iie t<s<H^®^^^ 

, the frontieri, are as follow t £!raiddioi %FretickQr#ck 

—^Hamar, at the mouih of Mafkingum-'HbraUen^ «tthe 

riptdht of idw CHiiQMF'ay«tt^,4iami]it^^^l^ 

£m, St. diiriiilcfvery, KkrittUy tii^ Vkeehncti 

Ui^ t 





^Q^^nffinUt Ciff*.] ' By an or4tn^nce of Congtjttk^ 
ya^d nfk,^^ 1 3th of JiJy» 1 787t this country^ for tHe 
purjwro of temporirv' governiifejjiti #aft ^re^edl ititti 
Ace diftri^ ;; fubjc^ powever, ;o ^dyriCidn^ wh^ ciir- 
cumftances (hail maJ^e it ex^edjicnt. ^ • 

Ih the (»$» prd^juu^e k is provide<l, that Gtrngref^ 
^all a$H>6ine a-^o^kriiiort whofe jcon^miflton fliatl coit- 
tinMP in. fbfce three «eanrsatti>l?rs ibonier'reToked^afc!^- 
retary, io coi^jtin^ m olfic^ fbuir yfars, tt^^^ foonrr 
KRioVed-^ild thtM fudges, who a|*e to- hold their 
ooiQiniifiQnY during good behnviottn. 

The rettlefntem of thi4 coaritiry was checked for fev- 
tnd years by ah unhappy Imdiaii war. P^ace is now 
yeftored;. and an adramageous treaty wis cbhdluded' 
with the< Indians,, by Geoentl Wayne, a^ Qr^envitle, ih 

aegafciegesggagcg 'H I ' I ' 1 1 eBwagaaap 

S on T HE It N ST AT E 5. 

Ithi^HiKti, and much tJHteiarge/tG vlavd B^ 


Teh i^y's ».«»■-: 
Sooth CAabi.iMib^ 

• ' St, 




f^i^iraitia andthe>OhiO i4irer>| Weft,1>y the Mii^- 
ftppi f fomh» l>f £ad «id"W4r^' Florida ;-cAft> by the 
Atlantic Ocean,. andtKi BeJatrittf State. It is inter- 
leAed in a RE. arid S* W. dired^ion> bjT the range of 
'Allcgaify ttioiintain»> v^ich/givo rife to many nofal^ 
jthr^i^whickfaU either into the Atlantic on the'eaft, or 
the |fftli%i|pi joo the waft. From the fea-eojift, 6pr^ 
and, in. {bmii. pasts, loa miles bat k^towar.dswthe:inouiH 
tains, th^. country, generally fpeaking, is nearly a dtod 
k«Bl4.iad a Verx h^gc proportion of it is coTered, in Hi' 

BT :A It Y L>A' If: D. 

Hatainl ftate, wtdi pitch pinef^ pt the i\pg\fh(faffi6od 
offtagDant waters, i(^ch;at>diM in this JfCVf 1 coan- 
.ti7» this inhahitm>is,are (kMy. ^lii tho backr1»iSri9iid 
mavBtaiiKHis tpnhttf, thej 'are ai heakhj as in^sbj 
pare <»f America. '^1 

This diftriA bf the Union contains upwards of one 
milH^xi nine himdted. thoafand mhabitants, af wh^m 
^8,439 are fl^TOs, which* [9 ^kirkmfitiftemi^ of> the 
whoie n\im\ier€>( ikr^ in the Voiced Sutes.: The in- 
iotnce of flarcTf has prodtt^ed a very difiiftgmfhiig 
leature in the genera^ chara^er of the inhabitaiitfa 
iahtch, thongh now dHcernible to thehr difadvantage, 
has hecn foftened and melbrated hy the benigaeifeAa 
of the revc^Utiooy and the progrefs of libierty and hn^ 

The following may he condder^ as the prtQcip;^ 
pffodudions of this d^yifion— iobacco, rice, , indigo, 
wheat,. com, (ottpn, tar» pjttcht turpentines aiidJiM;^ 

In this diAriift it the prefent ieas of tha gwnf gof* 
^men;, on patonah riV^j tlary^juul* 

V- : • i 

U A % Y h A N B, 





1 10 J 

r ■*>■' 

4ap ExTtar^ 

um^ {^It i^.^a?'l4^^'^- 

and 4° 39 W. long^ 

Containing 14,000 fquare miles, one fourth of which is 


' XJ nia; eaft, by Delaware State, and 
tl^ AtlsAtic Ocean ; fouth and weft, by Virginia. 

Chil Divjfiov, atui Pofmlatiofi.] This State is divided 
into 1 9. counties, 1 1 of which are on the Weftemy and 6i 
tpnthe ^^<rA (here of Cliefapcak Bay. 



. *i". 



OMtf*. ' 

J^' Mv* 





^DP^Mmftprcniii^ 131^05 

Ann Armidd 








Prince George 








■1 ' ■■ ; ■ 


^ I iCitnt 

II Qiieear^Afaii' ' 

« * Otyoliiie 

3 l^tterirt' 

I Dorchcflter 


j^wftern' Shbft 

> • 

"fotal ui^h« Stite 
Total iYa,oS9 
Mumbcrof SlaXrv* i* «he Stat« (iiltioded above) K>i;<)J A- ' 

Bays Md Jth&t.X Ch^^pe^M Ba]f diviaes thU 9btr 
iito eatftenl add weft^rn dlfilionsi; This bay it Uie 
latgeft ift the l/nlted Stater. Froiff:th% caftan (hprft 
ih Sliiirytlnd, j*rtion9' o^het ftMl^^^ cmdi,.i^*Teceiv^ Po- 
kbrnoftof, Nantlcolfei cofftankiJ CJitfteriaad EHfc rirers. 
Fl-orii the norths tHe ri{>id SufqueHiiim|fi } and'ffolti 
the weft, Pktkpico. Severn, Pi;ituxentand%ato*«;-ak,hatf ' 
of 'vtrhich IS in Maryland^ and half its Virginia. £k<. 
cept tlie Su^q)lctoulIUlh.and^.l^omak,^thc£ jiie-J^^ 
riversj. -.f-:'^, '^ ■ ..| ' -ji-^^ ''^'"'''\ ' 

Faie of the Cottfihjy C/tmaUyT *ltie gfbund' is unl- 
Sul and Produaiont, 3. for mly level and l6W 
iti ifidft of the qbunties on the>eaftecn Ihorei and con* 
ftq,uently» covered^ itr many places; with ft&giiaat watef,. 
ttccept where it ir interfedted by numeltotls creeks. 
Herb alio a»e large tra^s of niaiAi»»whichi during th^ 
day^ load the atmofplicrewiilivatjour, that falls in dtS^ 
in the clofe of die' filmmer an^ laU fefir^ art 

•flckly. ' The fpringand fummer isct »6ft l^ealthy*. 

Wheat and tobacco are the fta0c cottnrodlt^s. Tt6* 
IJacco is generally cuhi^ted in fett,' by negrtfesi in the- 
following manner: ttfe fee4 if fowh in bed^s of j|i0 
mould, am^irinfplanted the j>egiiming of >t^y:; tI^' 
jjlants' are fjfi at the diftance oF three or fbiir lect frotn 
each oille^, and are liilleU ah^ kept coniiqtij^lly; free oJ 
weeds. 'When ai tnatiy leaves have i]bc>t oot is the ioA 
»iU'|W)Ufiih to advantk^, th« toA of the plaatii brc4&* 




CO' off, which prevcmi its gtowi&g higher. . It ii^tare* 
£ullf kept clear of woimsy aad die Aickert, which put 
out between the leavti, are taken off at proper times, 
till the plant arrivct at periedioii, which is in AngulK 
When the leaves tfum of a brownifli colour, and begin 
to be footted, the plant is cut down and hnog up to 
dry, aticr havinr fweated in heaps one night. Vvhen 
i( cafi be handled without crumluing, which i^ always 
in moift weather, the leaves are ftripped from the 
(Ulk, and tied in bundles, and packed for exportation 
in hogiheads, containing 800 or 900 pounds. Mo fiKk. 
crs nor round leaves are allowed to be merdiantable. 
An induftriou^ perfcn may manage 6,cqo plants of to- 
bacco,^ (which, yields i^opoib.) and four acres of Indian 

corn. . 

In the interior country, on the uplands, confiderahV 
quantities of hemp and flai; are rftifed. 

Cbaraaer.'] The h)habiunts, 'except in the populous 
towns, live on their plantations, often feveral miles dif- 
lant from each pthtr. *to an inhabitant of the middle, 
and efpeciaUy of the eaftem States, which are thickly 
peopled, they appear to live very retired and unfocial 
lives. The negroes perform all the manual labour. The 
inhabitants of tl^e populous towns, and thoff from the 
coums-y, who have intercourfe with them, are, in theit 
manners and curl'^'ms, genteel and agree^Me. 

l*hat pride whTch grows on flavery, and is Kabitual 
to thofe, who, from dheir tn£mcy, are taught to believe 
and to feel th^ir fuperiority, is a'vifible charaderiftic 
of the inhabitants of ^arylandv l^x. with this charac- 
teriftic we muft not fail to conned that ol hofpitality 
to Grangers, which is equally univer&l and obvious. 
Many of the woi^en po^fs all the amiable, and many 
cif the elegant acaom^s^iihrn^ts of their fex. 
' The inhabitants art made up of various nations, of 
many di^rent religious fentimenls ; few general obfer* 
vations, therefore, pf ft charade liftical kind^ wiH ap- 
)>ly. It may be ^id, however. With great truth, that 
they are in getkeral very ifederaU and friends to good 
govenimetit*^ Hiey owe Uttle money » aSute, and are 
WifiiDs smdviblt to WhMfff' thcir^^hfii. Their credit ii 

M A & t L it K 0. 


^rxgpod; and aJthoogh thef lioTe Yogrcat apropor- 
tioa 3 flaves, yet a nambcr of iaflucntnU gentlemen 
bavc efinced tbeir hiMnanky aad their dilfofkion ta 
aboUfli Co dirreputablii.traffici by ibtming themfelvef 
kito a fociety for the abolition of negro ilavery. 

CMTowHu] Annapolis, (tity) is the capital of 
Maryland, and the weaithiedtovn of iu fize in Amer-. 
ica. It is fituated at thii: inouth- of Severn river, on a 
hciilchy fpot, 3€imilesfaath of Baltunore^ It is a place 
of little note m the commercial world., tlie houfes,. 
about t6o m niunber, are generally larg« and ^i^anty, 
indicative of great wodtlu l!*he number oC inhabitants^ 
does not ei.cee4 3,QG0. 

Baltimore has had ^moft rapid gl!owtK of afiy 
town on the continent, and is the Gomik in 5ze and the 
^^fth i() trade ia the United States..^ It lies in']at«. 
^^90 :tt'yton the north fide of Patapfco river, around 
what is called the bafon.. iThe fituatioo of the town is 
low, and was formerly unheaithy> baft the increafe ^ 
houfes, and ofcoui^e of fmoke,^ the te^idency of which ' 
u to dei^roy or to difpel dampandUnwholefome v^ipoufs,, 
and the imjptDvements that have been.^mule, partku-^ 
larly that orpa^ving the ftreets^ have rendered it tolera^ 
bly healthy.. 1^ number of houicsin. ^i^t^ was ab(Hi% 
Zt$OQ. The number o£ inhabitants in. the town and 
precinAs^ according to the cenfus of tj^t was 13,505,^. 
Both have fuice greatly iacteafed. 

Georgetown itandson the banl^bf the river ^atcmaki, 
about i^ miles fiiom^ its. entrance in|Q Clie/apeak Bay., 
pr. Martin coiichides an account of the cUaiate iHui 
difeafes of this to%in, io this foUowihg Virotds^^«< Upon 
the whole, Georgetown; and its vicinity may be- confidi. 
ered as 3, healthy part of America,i andiaany difputes 
about the propriety of the feat pf ibe general govsrit* 
ment being fixed litre, noobjcAicm can be urged .agaia£b 
it on account of its difeafes." 

Frederlcktown is a .fine^tkrifiung inland t^f^dF 
upwards of 3(K) houfes, huilt principajily of. brick, aaii 
ftone,. stod mpftiy on one. broad Ucciet. 

* Ibi point 6t foe,' tlie towns lii ^ ttnM &fttet may tie raftleeS' 
^ ^h^ or4ei^«iiUdelphia, t)ev Y<»l^ BoOm. jSlHinimir 





k 'W 

Hiigtrftbwn it buliictb inlerlor to FredetlcltMHU. 
snd ii fitoated ia thrb«aniUfiiland #ell cuhitaMd tsSkf 
of Conegocbeagtte, Mid c*rrie«tpi ft conflderabk thidtf 
With the wefttra ■ ctmnxtf, 

Elkion ii fiuiattd ittar the1ie«d of iSkc^pttk Baft - 
on a fmall river i^hiclrb«iri the tnine of: the towiw 
It enjoyb great adiraiitaM«ftt>llit]fe carrying tr«de»/ 
between BaJttmore and i%l!4detph!a. 

Die city of Was HuroTONi in the tetritory of ColiflM* 
^a, vrta ceded, by the States of Virginia and Maryland, 
totbe United, aiatetf and by them eftahltihed at die 
iitat of their government. This city ftands at the jnnc 
tion of the rivers Batomak and the Eaflem Btiincb, ]kt 
^^S'S' N; eactendif^ nearly fonrmilds up each, and> 
including a traft of territory, exceeded, in point ot 
eoBvenience,« fakrbritf^ and^beamy^t by none jn^ 
.America.- • 

ne fitmtion of' this met^optsl^ is ^fsp&a tbe steat ^ 
pofk roadi e4*ai>dilUnt fyqm the northern and fonuiera^ 
es^cmities of the Unioir, and nearly fo ^m the A%^ 
laAtie ai|[id*Fiet(b«rg,<apon the bbft nftTigation^ and in" 
die>imdii^of'' a commercial'UerHeoryi ■ prdbiiibly the* 
;^hieft, and'comsBmndlng tlse mofl; eitehfite internal^ 
xefources of any' in America; 'vFfief public o£lces \^ere * 
removed to thli ^ity-in the 'Jbomner^of .itSocv anjdhere' 
in fiiWfevCongrelif wmiiddtheir iyaS^ 7 ^ '"! W* 

Tradt. 3j 'mt tradcvidf Miry land ^ U < pri ncipaRy caf- 
ti^d'on from Bahimofe,.:with thtetnhier'Stditei with this - 
Weft Xhdiesj andj|ivithfpnieparC8,:of Europe; /(^ thefe 
|]^ces thcf fend aniiualty abimt 3i3r,Q60 iK^diead^ of < 
tbbaec^,' beftdcs- lalgjib ^^amities of ^ wheat,^ flouVi pt^g> 
iron, lumber, and coxn-^bearn; pork*; andMxfeed iii^ 
fmaller c)9antities^ ; * iind leceite in return, - cloathing tot 
themfeWcsr ajlYd > he^.oe6,- and 'othlrt" dry goods^ "Winw, , 
Ipirits, fagars, andother Weft 'Xh<Ha commodities. The^ 
palance is generatty in<their favoun'' ^^ 

The tota^ambiint of Ktxporti'ffbni'v '^ 

^ahtmore, ^omO^ober l| ly^(;^td 
September 3^^^^ y9<V was -' - 

,Y«ltfi' of iiihports forthefame time^ 
, Exports' from Odobet : i,; 1 7^9, , lo* 


ftTA* Tli AN D. 


Vimmgi ibe taft •memidoed peft'lod, ihr qvintitf of 
wjieacv exported was 195,5^1 bttflirit— Indian corn. 
tosM$ do-wbuck-whcsit 4»aSd do— peas 10,^19 do. 
befides I5i>445 bkrvelt of vheait floar-^4v5«c do. lO'^ 
dmninetix-^?^! do. bff««d» iuid «<104 kfgt of crackers*. 

/^f(Np.] Tlie Honun CathdUc' . who were tbe firft 
Cettlors in Mafyjand, are the Inoil numeroos IrdigioOf 
feA. Befides thefe, there arfe Proteftant EpifcopalianSi^ 
EngHlh, Scotch and Iriih QreftfttriaQs^ Gennan CaU 
viniAs, German Luthecaast >Friend6, Ekiptifts, Method- 
ills, Meimoniftsy Nicolites or new Quakers ;, mh(\ alt 
^njoy lihfcrtjr of coofcicnce. ^ . 

Smmariet ^Zt^armng*'} Theif. are WaOiingtoii Acad< 
emy^, in Somerfe.t cog>;it7, which vas inftitiucd by la^ 
in 1779. . ' - 

. Wal^ington College, inftknted at Gheftestown, in, 
Kient countyn >o 1 78^. By a law ena^ed in 1787, «, 
pc/mam^ £ttPd wa^ gruntqd 1^ ^U inftttiitioiik o^ 
usql. a yeaf, currency* ^ . ^ ► \ v - > * 

St. John*f CoUcgc was iij^itured ill »784. A p^ 
maneot fund is a(fign«d this eolUgei «f ,1.750/* a yoUDk 
This college is to be at Annapolis, where a baildingil, 
I4QW pi^pared Cor it< Very liberal £fiibibrip|ioni wftMi 
obtained, iiowardfi founding and^ cairying on thel»; 
Ceminarics, ^ The tvtio colleges conftitnte one nnivisibt 
^^%Tt.^J tliA uameoC ^Tk«1yrJvcTfity ef Maryland,f.'' 
wherecf; the ^oy^npt oC.^e ^Ht% for the time beings^ 
is chancellor, and the ^rincipaJL ,<^ ^m of theoi TifliC^ 
chancellor.'^. • , . . - .n^\V*l'''i^:' ,, ■ .^^ ■• 

The Ro^an. CadioUcs ^a,ve aUb ^«^ed a college ^ 
GeQTgetoidn, on Pa^mak fiver, fof the promotion oij' 
gene»l: life!p:at;?rei^ 

In 17^5 the Afethodiila mftitoted a coUege a^ Al)% 
ington^ in Harford county^ by the name of Coke^bttiri^: 
college^ wjirich was lively conf^med b^ fire. X 

Con/fituiioH.'i The legi^att^re is composed oi twdv 
diftindi Branches,^ a feqate and houfe of dclegates,^_^<i 
ftylcd «THe GencKd AffiimbJy of Maryland.'* The 
houfe fSfdl^^t^s is composed of fcm member for 
each county^ chofeo, annually the Qrft Monday inOCt 
V>ber. The city of Annapolis^ smd town of Baltimorci^ 

fcn4^a«bilV9WegaJt«V . . , 




On the ftcond Monday in Koremb«r» annmlly, %. 
goTcraor ii appointed b)r the joJkit ballot of both 
houTci. Thf governor cannot continae in office longer 
dian three yean i)Kceffi¥Bl]^ 

iigflorjr.] Maryland was- granted by king Charles I. 
to Geoi^ Cahpert^. banM oi Baltimore* in Ireland, 

June 3p^ 1639* The government of the psovinot wae 
y charter veiled in the proprietary.. - 
' In the year t:68^, the go^KrnmentVtos taken om of 
die handi of lord Baltimiore, by the grand convention 
of England ;, and,, in rdga, Mr* Copely was 'appointed 
governor, by coinmiflion froni William and Ii<try. 

In i6ae,'the Proteiknt religion wm^ eftabUAed by 

Tn 1 7 16, the government of this province was refto^ 
ed to the proprietary, and continued iir hit hands till 
the late revolution, when, though a mincr^ his property 
in the lands was confiibcted, and the government 
•flamed 6y the freemen of the province, who, in 1776, 
ibritned the conditution now exiiHnf. At the dofe of 
the war, Henry ^iaiford, Efq^ the natnriil fon and 
heir of lord Baltimore, petitjoned the kgiilature of Ma- 
ryland for his eftate |: tmt hit petition wae not gianl'sd. 
Mr. Harford, eftimated his. loft Of quit-reatk>: \:^tted 
iit twenty years purehaTey a^d ineloding. ||rreaf»,[ai 
jfa 59,488 :' 5% dojlart at 7/6^and the vaiue 0^ p\i 
manors and referved- lands,. atj£|j7^44i of the fainft 
ihoncy. ■ ; '■ \^ ' ' ■[ 

' J^ regulsSiiiftort pit^ifUt^Katb^^ 




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Y 1 H G I K t JW «*! 

\ 1 R e 1 » I A. 

SlTUAtiOii Al^ ElTKNY. 

iength 4467 w.*^--- jf o* and «• W. long. 1 ^ ^ 

nomairm.j ^ ^ Pennfjrlvi^n» and Ohio rlVcr i 
Weft, bjr Kentucky i folith, hj North Catolinaj ca(H 
by the Atlantic Octix^k 

Chfii Dhjfiont Md PtfkMM,^ this State U divided 
Into 8i counties, (and by another diTidon into parifket) 
whxhy with the number of inhabiunts. according to the 
ccLftts^^l 1 790, arie mentioned ito the foUoWiiig 

* f 

T A B L i. 

\ ' 







' 7K'49 










f B<idrds<i 

Prince B<iin)*il 
Amelta > 





r — T 


V t II G t K I A. 

( Orccflfyillc 
Print* OfWfC 

ffleoTWighl ' 
rriiiccA AAA 

Clutkt City 
Uints City 


^Elisabeth City 




7 '793 





1J fCvolinc 
«* King WUIiam 
IN I K>Qf»ndOtleen 
sl ' EiTcx 
H MMdlcfek 
I $ GlovctOcr 






9.1 1» 


Prince WitUaAi 
King George 

^< CAccommtc 
w| 1 Mortlia^iaptoii 






The foHowjbg are hew Counties 






ttuireu. ' 

95^ I 

Amount of Free lahabitanti 
Ditto of Slavei 





The Whole number Of Inhabitant! 747,6x0 

tilmiti,'] ii It rtmiaks^\it Alt, (iroceeding on tlie 
htnt parallel oC Utiuide weftwatdly, the climates- 
comes colder, in like mannjef as Vfheh you proceed 
Aorthwardly. This (:oa:iaacs to be the cafe till you 
attaiA the IfiMi^ijt of the AUegaiir, which is the highell 
19114 b«tweeA. the oeean aad tn^ Mi^^ppi* From 
ihtttce, dii^iidii^li; in the fame latitude of thf Miffifippi, 
^changi rdirerresVand if we may believe travellers, 
it btteomes waziner .'^ere thab it is in the fame iatitiid^ 
OH die Tea 44«* 
.■•:..■• '. - • ■.'■- ■■ - ■• ■■■.!• 



^ 947? 







7.7 a* 



.: 7.336 


, 392,627 

I ^47i6io 

ig on the 
Innate ]ie- 
I proceed 
! till you 
le liigheil 

e latitiidtf 


Rivtrj nMf CmrnttJ] The namei of the rifm are m 
fblbw, viz. Rotnoke. Jainct» limKtemtm4% Ammit* 
toz, a branch of Jaaacs rhrcr 1 Rivanna, aaother brasck 
cf Jamei river | York nver» Riq)pahaaoock, um 

The dlfUnce from the Capei of Viiginbi to the teiy 
minatioQ of the tide water in the bft we nt i w i cd river, |i( 
above |po milef ( ^d navigable for fluDi of the greateijf 
burthen^ Ikearly diat diftance. Froni Uieiice this river^ 
obilruaed by four confiderable faUft eitcndi« diroug]^ 
a va(l tradt of inhabited country towardi it? fource,, 
Thcfc falU are, id, The Little Falls, three miles abofe 
tide water, in which diftance there is a fall of 36 feet 1 
2d, The Great Falls {k% miles higher, where is a fall 0^ 
76 feet in one mile and a quarter : 5d, The Senecm 
Falls, fix mile^ ahove the fuimef, which form ihort, ir- 
regular rapids, with a fall of aboyt 10 feet: and4th^ 
Tfie Shenandoah F41<f 60 miles from the Seneca* 
V(here is a fall of about 3P feet, in 3 miles : from which 
laft,Fort Cumberland is about 1 20 miles diftant. The 
obftriidtions, which are oppofed to the navigation above 
and between tbefe falls, are of Ihtle confequence s and 
thofe occafioned by the falls, are now nearly removed* 
by means of locks and canals. 

Beyond the mountains are the Shenandoah r!ver# 
which empties into the Patomak jttfl .oove the Blue 
Mountain) — the Great Kjmhawa, and the Little Kan* 
hawa»' ~ ■ *V'" :'^.' ■. ' - 

Mcuntains.'} The mountains commence at about lyo 
mile& from the fea-conft, and are diJjpofeciJn jidges, one ; 
behind another, running nearly |nuid]ei with the fea- 
coaft, though rather approaching it, as they advance 
northeaftwardly. T6 the f6uthw^d, as the 4raft 6i 
country between the fea-coafl and the Mi0i(lppii^- - 
comes narrower^ the mlQuntains converge ij^tiyi.fingtf1 
ridge, whichy as it approaches th^ Gulfof Mej|p>, ful^ 
Tides into plain countfy, and gives rife to fonie of th«. 
waters of that gulf, and particularly to a river called 
Apalachkola. The paflagc of the Patomak. through 
the Blue Ridge, is peihaps one <^ tlie mod ftupendou^ 
fccnes in nature. You- ftand on a very high point of 

T land. 


I — W t'f "'^rw •* 



V I R G I Ij I A. 

!k*nJ. On your r<ght comes up the Shenandoak^havin* 
ranged along the foot of the mountain, an hundred 
miles, to feek a vent. On your left approaches the 
Patomak, in queft of a paflage alfo. In the moment of 
their jundion they rufh together againft the mountain, 
^end it afunder, and pafs otf to the iea. The firft glance 
0f this fcene hurries our fenies into the opinion, that this 
f^arth has beeir created in time, that the mountains were 
^rmed firft, that the rivers t^esan to flaw afterwards, 
tl>at m this pliice particularly uey have betn dammej 
up by the blue ridge of niountains, and have formed an 
* ocean which filled the whole valley ; that continuing tp 
rife, they have at length broken oyer at thi? fpot, and 
have torn the mountain down from it$ fummit to its 
hafe. The piles of rock on each hand, but particularly 
on the Shenanddah, the evident marks of their difrup- 
tion and avulfion fr,oiii their heels by the moil powerful 
alffents of nature, corrol^orate the impreflion. 'But the 
diftant finifhing which nature has gjven to the pifture, 
is of a veff differen|t charadier. It is a true contrail to 
t!ie foreground. |t is as placid and delightful, as tliat 
is wild and tremexjdovjs. For the mountain being clo- 
ven afundef) prefents tp the eye, through the cTeft,- a 
fiziall catch of fmooth blue horizon, at an infinite dif- 
tsmce, in the plain country, inviting you, as it vi^ere, from 
tht riqt and. tumult roaring around,' to pafs tjircwgli 
the breach and participate of the calm beloyv'. Here 
the eye ultimately compofes itfelf ; and jthaf way too, 
the road a<5lually leads. You crofs the Patomak ab^vs 
the jun<5tion, pafs along its fide through the bafe of 
the mountain for three piileS|» its terrible, precipices 
lianging in fraginents over yoij,' and within about 20 
miles reach Frederiektown and th6 fine country round 
It This fcene is worth a voyage acrpfs the Atlantic. 
Yet hereiias in the neighbourhood of the J^Iatural Bridge, 
arc people wLo have pafled their lives within halt a 
^Qzen miles, and ha^\ ^eyc^ been tp furvey thefe mon- 
uqients of a war betv.jen rivers and niountains, whicl^ 
mufthave fhaken the earth itfelf to its centre. 

Face of tht Cmntry^ Soil, Produiiiom, tfc.} The whole 
e^umry below th6 mountaiRs, which are about 150^ 




{i,mt fajr aco inlles from the fca, is level, andfecms, 
from various appearances, to have been once wtiQicd by 
the Tea. ^ 

The foil beloW the mountains fecms to have acquir- 
ed a character for goodnefs which it by no means de- 
ferves. Though not rich, it is well fuited to the growth 
of tobacco and Indian corn, and fomc parts of it for 
wheat. Good crops of cotton, fla*, and hemp, are alfo 
raifcd ; and in fonne counties they have plenty of cidcf, 
and eiquifite brandy, djRilled from peaches, Whicli 
grow in great abundance on the numerous rivers of the 

The planters, before the war, pail their principal at- 
tention to the culture of tobacco, of which there ufed 
to be exported, generally, 5>,cco hogiheads a year* 
Since the revolution, they are turning their attention 
more to the cultivation of wheats Indian corn, barley, 
flax and hemp. It is expected that this ftate will add 
the article of rice to the lift of her exports, as it is 
fuppofed a large body of fwamp, in tfie d^llernmoli 
counties, is capable of producing nt. 

Cnriofity,'] The Natural Bridge is the ftiof^ fublimfe 
of Nature's works. It is on the afcent of a hill, which 
feems to have been cloven through its length by fome 
ereat convulfions. The fiffure, jull at the bridge, is by 
jome fneafiirements, 270 feet deep, by others only 205. 
It is aboot 45 feet wide at the bottom, and 90 feet at 
the top ; this of coorfe determines the length of the 
bridge, an(f itȣoeight from the water. Itis breadth in 
the middle is about (^ feet, but more a^ the epds, and 
the thieknefs of the i^afs nt the fummit of the arch', 
about 40 feet. A part of this thicknefs is condituted 
by a coat of eartl^, which efves growth to rnahy larg^ 
trees. The refldue, with the hilf on both fides, isfblid 
rock of limeftone. Thou^i the fides of this^bridge^<t 
provided, in fome parts, witk a parapet of fixed Fotks^ 
yet few men bave refolution to walk to them and look 
over into the abyfs. You involuntarily fa^ ax> y^t% 
hands and feet, creep to the parapet, and peep ov^fra, 
If the view from the top be painful and intolerable, that 
from below it deliglitful in an equul extreme. li% 




impoflUble for the emotions arifing from the Aibiime) to 
he felt beyon4 what they are here : fo beautiful an 
arch, Co elevated* fo light, and fpringing as it were up 
to heaven, tlie rapture of the fpe^ator is really indc- 
fcribable. * 

Midicinai Springs,"] There are feveral medicinal fpringfj, 
Come of which are indubitably efficacious, while others 
ftcm to owe their reputation as much to fancy, and 
change of air and regimen, as to their real virtues. 

The moft efficacious of thefe, are two fprings in Au- 
guila, near the fources of James river, where it is call* 
cd Jackfon's river. They rife near the foot of the ridge 
ti* mountains, generally called the Warm Spring mcun« 
t^in, bat in the maps, Jackfon's mountains. The one 
is diftinguilhed by the name of the Warm Spring, and 
the other of the Hot Spring. The waters relieve rheu- 
matifms. Other complaints alio* of very different 
nature$9 have been removed or leffened by them. It 
rains here/our or five days in every week. 

The Sweet Springs are in the county of Botetourt, 
at tjhe eaftern foot of the AUeganyy about 42 miles 
from the Warm Springs. 

In the low grounds of the Great Kanhaway, 7 milei 
above the meuth of Elk river, is a hole in the earth, of 
the capacity of 30 or 40 gallons, from which iffues 
C(^ftantly a bituminous vapour, in fo ftrong a current, 
as to give to the fand about its orifice the motion which 
it has in a boiling fpring. On prefenting a lighted can- 
dle or torch within 18 mches of the hole, k fiames up 
in a column of 18 ittches dian^ltcr, and four or five 
feet in height, which fometimes bums out in 20 min« 
9tes, and at other times has been knoi^^n to continue 
|hree days, s(nd then has been left burning. The fl^meis 
uttfteady, of the dehfity of that of burning fpirits, and 
6nell& like bun;iing pit coal. A^ter fometimes collets 
in the bafon, which is remarkably cold, and is kept in 
tbuIUtion by the vapour iffuing through it. If the v^ 
pQur be ^<t|d in that ftate, the water foon becomes fo 
warm that the hand cannot bear it, and evaporates 
trholly in & ihort time. This, with the circuir\|acent 
Ikndst is the property of the late Prefident Wafhington*9 
^irt and of General Lewis. 


VI ft G I N 1 il. 


Mirttia,'] £very able-bodied freeman, between th& 
Hges of 1 6 and 50, is enrolled in the militia. If the mili- 
tia bear the fame proportion to the number of inlubili' 
ants now, as in 1782, they amount to about 681600. • 

Chit/ Tovjus.'] They have no townlhips in this Sute, 
nor any towns of confisqoience, owing probably to the 
interfeftion of the country by navigable rivers, which 
brings the trade to the doors of the inhabitants, an4 
prevents the necei£ty of thchr going m <meil of it to » 
diftance. , 

Norfolk will probably become the emporium for all 
the trade of the Chefapeak bay and its waters j and 4 
canal of 8 or 10 miles, which is now cutting, and will 
probal^ly ibon be completed, will bring to it all that 0^ 
Albemarle Sound and its waters. Secondly to this 
place, are the towns at the heads of the tide waters ; viz, 
Peterlburg on Appamattox, Richmond on James riv- 
er, Newcaftle on York river, Frederick (burg on Rappft- 
hannock, and Alexandria on Patomak. From thefe 
the diftrijbution will be to fubordiaate HtuatioBS of the- 

Alexandria ftands on i;he fotuh bank ofFatomakriv* 
er, in Fairfax county. Its fituation is dl(;vated and pleair 
ant# It contains about 400 hou«fes, many of whicb 
are handfonoely buUc ; and nearly 3,00a inhabitants. . 

Mount Vefnon, the celebrated IVat of the late Prefident 
Waihington, is pleafantly fituated on the Virginia bank 
of the river Patomak, where it is nearly two miles wide^ 
and is. about 280 miles from the fea, and 127 from 
Point Look Out, at the mouth of the river. It is nin^ 
miles below Alexandria. The area of the mount is 2<» 
feet above the furface of the river. ' On either wii'ig, is 
a thick grove of different flowering foreft trees* Paii 
allel with them, on th^ fend fide, are two fpaciocs gait 
dens, into which one is led by two terpentine gcavd 
walks, planted with weeping willows and fhady ^rubsr 
The manfion boure itfelf appears venerable and conve^ 
nient. A lofty portico,'^ feet in length, fupported bf 
eight pillars, has a pleating effeft when viewed froi^ 
the wai^r ; the whole aifemblage of the green houife^ > 
School boii^e, officers and fervants halls/ when feen from 

T 2 the 



the land fide, bean a refemblance to xnind Tillage ) 
cfpeciahy as the lands on that fide are laid out fomt. 
what io the form of Esiglifli gardens, in meadows and 
grafs grounds, omamented with litde popfes, circular 
slumps, and Tingle trees. A fmall park on the margin 
of the river, where the Englifh fallow deer and the 
American wild deer arc feen^ through the thickets, al. 
ternately with the YefTels as they are failing along, add 
a romantic and pi&urefque appearance to the whole 

Fredcrickilbttrg i8«on the fouth fide of Rappahannock 
river, no ihjles from its mouth. 

Richmonjl is the prefent feat tiC government, and 
ftands on t|)e north Adc of James river, jud at the foot 
of the falls» and contains between 400 arid 500 houfes, 
and nearly 4,000 inhabitants* A bridge betweeii 300 
and 4PP yards in length has lately been thrown acrois 
Jaroes river, at the foot of the faU. 

The falls above the bridge are feven miles in length* 
A noble canal is cutting and nearly completed on the 
north fide of the river, which is to terminate in a bafoa 
of about two actes, in the town of Richmond. From 
this bafon to thtf wharves in the river, will be a land 
carriage 6f about a mile. This canal is cutting under 
the dire^ion of a cempahy» who have calculated the 
•«xpen(e at 5Q,OQo/. Virginia money. This they have 
divided into 500 ihares of 6Qf. each. The opening oi 
this canal promifes the addition of much wealth to 

Peteribure, 25 miles ibuth ward of Richmond, ^ands 
(Ml the foutn fide ">( Appamattox river, and contains 
upwards of 3CP houfes, m two divifions, and 5,000 in* 
habitants. It is very unfaealthf , being Aut from the 
accefs of the w^nds by high hills i^ every fide. About 
9,2QQ hogihead^ pf tobacco''are fnfpefted here annually. 
The celebrated Indian qiieen, Pocahontas, from whom 
defcended the Randolph and Bowling families, fo^lIk^ 

}j refidcd at this plsic^ 





Willianiburg is 60 miles eaftward of Riehmond, fit* 
^ateci between James and York men. It c<ffifift8 of 

about 200 hottfes» gotng faft to decay, and )uis about 
1,400 inhabitants. At tlie eed of the main ftreet are 
two public buildings, the college and ea|utoL Bdides 
thefe, there is an Epifcopal chut eh, a prifon, a hofpital 
for lunaiicSft and the palace ; all of tik;m extremely tOf^ 

Yorktowfii 13 miles eaftvard from WilliamffaHrgj ^nd 
14 from Monday*s Point, at the mouth ef the river, Is a 
placp of about too houfes, fttuated on the fouth fide of 
York river, and coxKatns about 700 inhabitants. It 
was rendered famous by the capture of Lord CoinwaV 
lis and his army, on the 19th of 06^eber„ 178 it by the 
ynited forces of America and France. 

Colkget, Ata^€mitf<t Cs?^?.} The college of WilUanr 
aid Mary was founded in the time of |ciflg William and 
queen Mary. The profeilbrfhips Asind thvs-^A pro- 
^(fbrfhip for law and poUce — anatomy and medicine-— 
natural philoibphy and mathematics— moral philofophyi» 
the law of natwe and nattsns, the fine arts, aadmpderai 
languages. ■ 

The college edifice is a huge rnisfhapen pile, " whichv^ 
but that it has a roof, wduld be taken for a brick-kiln.''' 
1^ 1787 there were about 30 young gentlemet^^member^ 
of this college, a large proportion of which were law 

The- acadbmy m Prmce;; Edward cotmty has beeits 
cre^d into fli college^ hy the name of Hanipdtn Syd«- 
ney coll^gck It has been a flottttihing il'minary, but is. 
now ^id to he Qii the decline. 

There arc fevtral >icademies in Virginia— ^ope at A|i- 
exandrta — <Me at Nor^lk-^one at Hanover, ^dother^^ 
in o<i;her placesv jf 

Religion* J The p^eftntdenominatibns ©£ Chriftiari«i 
in Virgiiala am, Preibyterians, who are moft numeroustt 
and inhabit the wei^ein pacts of the State ; Epifcopalf> 
ans^ who«are the moft ancient fettkrs,. and, occupy the 
fi^iXcvti aad fidt iettled pvts of tht State. lotcrmin^ 




V I R G I N I A» 

fled with tbdTc are great numbers of BaptiAs aud 
lethodiAs. * « 

Charaitert Manners and Cuflemu"] Virginia, ftyUd 
Sometimes the '* Ancient Dominion,*' has produired 
feme of the moft didinguiftied and iivfltiential men tl\at 
have been aAive in e£Feding the two late grand and im> 
portant revolutions in America. Her^p^olitical and 
military charatfter will rank among the fitft inthepag^ 

The Virgfniiani who are rich, are, in general, fcnfibler 
|>olite and hofpitable, and of an independent fpirit. 
The poor are ignorant and abjedt ; and all are of an 
inquilitive tum^ 

Cofijlttuthn.'} ' The executive powers are lodged in 
the hands of a governor, chofen annually, and incapable 
c£ a<5Hng more than three years in feven. He is affifted 
by a council o^eight members. Legiilation is exercifed 
by two houfes of Affembly, the one called the houfe ot 
delegates^ compofed of two members from each county, 
ch.jfe}i annually by the citizens ; the other called the 
fenate, confiding of .24 members, chofen quadrennially 
by the fame tledors, who for this purpofe are diftribut- 
ed into 24 diftri^s. The concurrence of both houfes hi- 
neceffary to the pafling of a^law. 

This conftitution was thcfiril that was formed in aiifr 
©f the United States. 

Manujh6iuret and Cornmercs,!^ Before the war, the *| 
inhabitants of this State paid but little attention to the 
manufacture of their own clotliing. It has been thought: 
they ufed to import as much as feven-eighths of their 
clothing,, and that they now manufadture three-quarterft> 
Of it. . 

The amount of exports from thfs Stare, in the year* 
fbcceeding Odlober i, 1 790, conifting chiefly of tpbac- 
eo, wheat, Indian coni, tar,, pitch, turpentine, pork, Sect- 
was 5,131,227 dolla^» About 401,000 hogdieMs o£ 
tobacco were exported that year;. 

In flie year 1 75^, this ftate Ctportetf 70,000 Hogf- 
heads of tobacco* whicK was the greateft quantity eror 
produced in this State in one year. 

Nij2ery.2 The firft fettlement of Virginia may be 
vlated at the arrival of Lord Delaware ia i6io. Hit* 


— '■ 



arrival with a frcih fup^ly of fettlers and prorifiont^ 
revived the drooping fpirits of the former company^ 
and gave permanency and refpcAability to the fcttk- 

In ApriU 16159 Mr. John Rolft a worthy jourxg 
gontlemani was married to Ptahontast the daughter of 
Pywhifan, the fanK)U$ Indian chief. This ccnrexion^ 
which was very agreeable both to the Englifh and 
Indians, was the foundation of a friendly and advanta- 
geous commerce between ibem. 

In 1616, Mr, Rolf, with his wife, Pocahontas, vifited 
England, where fhe was tie^ted with that attention and 
rcfptft which (he had merited by her important fcrvicef 
to the colony of Virginia. She died the year following 
at Grave'.end> in the ^2^ year of her age, juft as (he 
vas about to embark for America. She had embraced 
»he ChriiUan religion ; and in her life and death eviden- 
ced the liacerity of her profefljon. She left a little foir, 
who, having received his education in England^ came 
over to Virginia^ where he lived and died in affluence 
and honour, leaving behind hint an only daughter^ 
Her defcendants are among the moft refpe^able fam^ 
ilies in Virginia. 

Tcmocomc, a ieniible Indiaii, brother-ln-la^ to 
Pocahontas, accompanied her to England ; and was 
dire^ed by Powhatan to bring him an exad' account of 
|ithe numbers and ftrength of the Eng^LIHi. For uhis 
purpofe, whe^he arrived at Plymouth, hetcoJcalong 
ilick, intendixig to cut a notch in it for every perfon he 
fnould fee. This he foon {o^mA impradicabk, and 
threw away his fticJc. On his return, being aiked by 
Powhatan, how many people there were, hfi isfaidto 
have replied} ** Count the Aars in the iky, the leaves on 
the trees* and the ^dl| on ihe fea flioie; for fueh A 
the auniher of'the people of England." 





Situation and Extent. 


Length 25#1 
Breadth 2003 

Containing 50,000 fquare miles. 


{8« and 15' W. long. 
36° 30' and 39* 30' RlaL 

"D OUNDED northweft,by theOhio; 

Boundanes.\ X> weft, by Cumberland river j fouth, 
by Tenneffec State ; eaft, by Sandy river, and ' a line 
drawn due fouth from its fource, till it ftrikes the 
northern boundary of North Carolina. 

C/V/ 2)/f //?(?»/.] Kentuck;* was originally divided, 
into two counties, Lincoln and Je£Peribn. It has fince { 
been fubdivided into nine* which follow 

Fayette, * 
Bourbon» . 
, Mereeir* 

j! rWafhingtott 

I J eiaite;, 

^ 1 Scott, 

I lLogati» 

Mo. lAhab. 






Chief Tovmi. 

Me. iBhah. 




' 834 


- 153 




Total, 731677 of whom 12,430 arc flav*| 

Rivers,'] The liver Ohio vrafhes the northweftera 
!fide of Kentucky, in its whole extent. Its principal] 
branches which water this fertile tra^ of country, arc I 
Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, and Cumber'! 
land rivers. Thefe again branch in various direAions,| 
into rivulets of different naagnitudes, fsrtilizing the 
coontr y in- all its various parts* 




TKe banks of the rivers are generally hieh> and 
compofcd of lime ftone. After heavy rains, tne water 
in the rivers rifes from lo to 30 feet. 

Spnngs%'\ There are five noted fait fpringi?, or licks, 
;n this country, viz. the higher and lower Bliir 'wrings, 
pn Licking riVer— the Big Bone Hck, Dr«nnCTi's licks ; 
juid Bullet's lick, 7X Saltiburg. 

Face of the Country ^ Seii and ProducfJ^ This whole 
country, as far as has yet been difcovered, lies upon a 
bed of lime ftone, which in general is about fix feet 
below the fufface, except in die vallies, where tTie foil 
is much thinner. A trafl of about 20 miles wide, along 
.the banks of the Ohio, is hilly, broken land, interfperf- 
eJ witli many fertile fpots. The reft of the country is 
agreeably uneven, gently afcending and defcending at 
no great diilances. 

Kentucky in general is well timbered. Of the nat- 
.ural growth which is peculiar to this country, we may 
reckon the fugar, the coffee, the papaw, the hackberry, 
and the cucumber tree. The two Jail are foft wood, 
and bear a fruit of the (hape and fize of a cucumber. 
The coffee, tree i^efembks the black oak, and bears a 
pod, which enclofes a feed, of which a drink is made 
^ot unlike coipFee. Befi<les thefe there is the honey lo- 
cuft, black mulberry, wild cherry, of a large fize. The 
buck-eye, ani exceedingly foft wood, is the horfe chef- 
nut of Europe. The magnoHa bears a beautiful bloft 
fom of a rich and exquifite fragrance* Such is the va- 
L riety and beauty of the flowering fhrubs and ■ plants 
which grow fpontaneoufly in this country, thiUt m the 
proper feafon tjie wildemefs appears in blofTom, 

The accounts of the fertility of the foil in this country, 
have in fon^e inftances exceeded iKlief ; and probably 
have been exaggerated. That fomc parts of Ken- 
tucky, particularly tlie high groiind''s, are remarkably 
good, all accounts agree. Tne lands of the firft rate 
are too i>i&h for uriieat, and will produce 50 and 60^ 
and in f<^6 inftances, it is affirmed, 100 bufhels of 
good corn^ an acre. In common, the land vnll prodhoe 
^o bufhels of lirheat or rye, an acre. 'basAef^pz.t^f flax, 
pemp, and vegetables of aU kinds common la i|tis cii- 



Kl NT U CK Y. 

mate, yield abundantly. The old Virginia flaaten ft^, 
that if the climate does not prove too moilt, few foiU 
known will yield more or better tobacco. Experience 
has proved, that the' climate is not too moift. Great 
quantities of this article have been exported to Frunce 
and 9paia through New-Orleans. 

Climate.'] Healthy and delightful* fome few places in 
theacizhhourhood of ponds i»nd low grounds excepted. 
The inhabitants do not experience the extremes of heat 
and cold. Snow feldom falls deep, or lies long. The 
vrinteTf which begins about Chriftmas, is never longer 
than three months, and is commonly but two, and iy To 
mild as that cattle can Aibfift without fodder. 

Chief Tonvttt»2 Lexington, which (lands on the 
head waters of Elkhom river, is the largeft -town in 
Kentucky. , Here the courts are held and bufmefs ree- 
ularly conducted. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 
2,000. Frankfort is the capital ; Wafiioigton and Lou- 
ifville are the other chief towns. 

Charailer.'] The petiole of Kentucky, colleAed from 
different States, of different manners, cuftoms, religions, 
and political feutiments, have not been Ibng enough 
together to form a uniform national character. Among 
the fettlers there are many gentlemen of abilities, and 
many genteel families, from feveral of the States, who 
give dignity and refpe<5labiljty to the fettlement. 

Religion*!^ The religious denominations here, arePre^ 
byterians, Baptills, Methodifts and Epifcopalians. 

Con/iituthtt''] By the cbnftitiAion Qf tnis State, formed 
and adopted in 1702, the powers of government are 
divided into three dilUn^ departments ; legiflative, ex- 
ecutive aud judiciary. The legiflative power is vefted 
in a general affemblyi confiiling of a fenate and houfe 
of reprefentatives } the fupretne executive, in a gover- 
nor ; the judiciary ^.in. the fapreme cpurt of appeals, and 
fuch inferior courts, as the legiflature may el^ablifh. The 
reprefentatives aii^xhoren annually, by the people ; the 
j;overnor and if^tors are chofen for four years^^ by 
eledors appoiiited for that purpi^e ; the judges are ap- 
pointe4 cbirimi good behavio\ir> by the govemort with 
adiiicilflhe fenate. ' ^ 




liurshtrt md Imfrovmuutt,'] Tfie legiditiiM of Vir« 
ginia, while Kentucky belonged to thst State»jnade pi»» 
v'Uum for a college in it, and endowed it with rtrj con* 
fijerable landed £vu\d%. The Ker. John Todd ptM* 
red 6-om various gentlemen in England andoiberpkc^ 
a verjr handfome library £or iu u(c. Another eoU^ 
in this Suce js in CAntainpIation» and iunds coUeAing 
for its e(bbUih)fnent. Schools axe eAabliflied in ^ 
fereral towos^and, in general, regplaily andlurndfoBfie- 
Jy Supported. , They have a printing oCce, «iidNF>^i^ 
z vrcekly gazette. They have eieded a paper HXif an 
oil mil), fiuling mill, faw mills, and a^great number of 
valuable ^r«(l mills. Their fait worhs are more than 
fuiHcienito fupply all their inhabitanCf, at a low price. 
They make confiderdble -quantities <Kr iugar from the 
fijgar trees. Labourers, parCicjlarly tradefionen, are 
exceedingly vanted hema 

Curtsies J} The bdok$, or rather precipice, of Keft- 
tvitky and Dick's river, are to h|Te«koqed amonff tlie 
natural curiofuiies of this countr^ Here the aftoniflied 
eye beholds 300 or 409 feet ( f foHd, perpendicular rocfc 
in feme patts of the lime- Hone kind, and in Qihera.i»f 
fine white marble, corioufly chequered with ftrata of 
aftonifliing regnlajity. Thefe rivers have the appeal^ 
ance of deep ^artificml canals. Thtlr high recliy b-4!jjU 
arc covered with red cedar groves^ - 5 ^ 

^if^'i S^^ American Univetfal 6eoi{^|^y. 


'V I" 


-.i, ■., 

u-^'ut ,• - 

Nib R f IS C A R O L li* A. 


A#iON AND Wttminre. i"^. 

Length ,^6bl|^^_,ri«&6* 3c/ W. long. 1 
Breadth uoH"*" 13 jV'&3<>>'HiS. ja^^ 

Sdttih Cardina and Georgia ; weft^hy a^iadfli££ama» 

M ■ '■ ' ^ talis 








taint a few miles to the weaward of the great AppalaeH. 

mtk mouniaifi. This chain of mountainf* uking the 

wh(^e for a part, hat occaHonally been called the great 

Itm mounuin. All that vaft country which lies on the 

,.welt of the Iron mountain, wat furrendered to the Unit. 

'ed Sutet, bf the Sute of North Carolina, in the year 

1780. It hat fince been ereded into a feparate State, 

|>y the name of TennefTefi. * 

CnfU DiMm.1 Thit State U divided into ei^ht dif. 
tridt, which are fubditi^edintd 54 coonttes, at foUowi : 


T. A 


IB v* ** 


S-l S3 





DUlria$. _ etmtkt* 
i^r od fHalifaz, 

1 5 I iN-itai^wer, 
5*1 4 J I.BruiiAffick, 

3 I J « I Bladen, 
C 5 S S .4 I Onfloir. 



.•Z?f J rOrange, 
Sllf^ CliatKam. 
3«3dl Caf%i€U, 


' Beaufort, 

^ *^n cH Cahcret, 

^"^ Mleeklenbui|» I 


^.« J*! fBurke, 
o a S i ' Rinherford, 






Ki/tfi.') Tbcfc are, the Chowan, formed by the con- 
Ruence of the Meherrin, Notuway and Black RiTeri i 
all of which rile in Virginia. Roanoke, Cofbai, Pamli* 
CO or TarriTcr, Ncut, Trent, Paftinotank, PerquimoM,- 
Little rirer, and Alligator. Cape Fear, more proper* 
ly Clarendon river, opens into the fea at Cape Fear. 

This State would be much more Taluable, were it 
not that the rif ers are barred at the mouths,- and ihr 
eoail furnifhcs no good hirbours* 

SouaJf, Capet, JMtts, isicj Pamlico Sound ti|^ kind 
of lake, or inland fea, from i.o to 20 miles broad, and' 
neaily 100 miles in length. Core Sound lies foaiii of 
Pamlico, and communicates with it.- 

Cape Hatteras k in latitude 35^ 15^ Cap^ Look* 
out is ibuth of Cape Hatteras, opponte Core St)und.' 
Cape Fear is- remarkable for adangerous (boal, called, • 
frpm.^ts form, the Frying Pan. iTits (hoal lies at the 
cotrance of Cape Fear river, in latitude 33^ $2\ 

S'wamfis,^ lliere are two fwamps that have been^ 
called D'tfmal, Great Difmal it on the dividing line be- 
tween Vireinia-and North Carolina^ The ouier Dtf* 
mal is in'Currituek'COttiityj.on the^ooth fide of Albe- 
marle Sound*' 

Principal Twcmw.]' Newtem, Edenton, Wnmington,.* 
Halifai^, HtlUborotieh, Saliibury, and Fayetteville^/ 
each in their turns have been the feat of the General 
AiTemblyi At prefent they fit at Hmkigb, According 
to the conftituciou of this State, tht General AfTemblies 
are to meet at any. place they iImiIl fit, on their own- 
adjournments. • ^ 

Ktwbern is the largpft toptm in thie ftate; tit ftands 
tn a flat fandy- point of land, formed by the coiiHu- 
ence of the fivers Ncua on tlie< north, 4nd Trent oa 
the fouth. 

Edenton is fituated dn Che north fide of Albemarle 
Sound, and has about I50 indifferent \itood houses, and 
a lew handfbme buildings. 

Wilmington is a town of about 20a houfes^ (ituated 
M the eaft fide of the eaftern branch of Cape ^tSiX, or 
Clarendon ri7er> ^^ miles from the fta|%^ 





Hill/boroogh it an inland town, fitnated m a high^ 
liealdiy and fertile eouotry, i8o miles north of the well 
ftom Newbern. It is fettled by about 60 or47o fam- 

' SaliAmty is agreeably Ataated, abont five' miles from 
Yadkin river* and contains about 90 dwelling houfes. 

Halifai is a pretty town, and (lands on the weftem 
bank of the Roanoke, about Hx miles below the- falls, 
and has about 50 or 40 dwelling honfesi 

Fay^ville ilands on the weft fide of Clarendon, 
eommoiuy railed Cape Fear river, and about a- mile 
fttm its banks. 

Waihington is fituated in the cotintjr of Beanfort^ on 
the north Sde of Tar river, in latitu^re 35* 30' ; diftaat 
from Ocrecock Inlet, ^ miles. 

Greenville, fo called, s^er Major General Nathaniel 
Greene, is fituaud in Pitt eoonty, on the fontb bank of 
Tar river, in latitude 35^3^.') diftant from Ocrecock 
tnlet, 1 10 miles. 

Tarborougfa is fttnated in the bounty of Bdgecomb, 
fin the fouUi bank of Tar river, in latitude 35** 45' f 
diftant from Ocrecdck Inlet, 14O miles. 

Face of the Cmmtijt Soil mui ProduSkiuA North Car* 
4)lina, in its whole width, for 60 miles from the fca, is 
a dead level. A great proportion of this tra£l lies in 
Ibreft, and is barren. On the banks of fome of the 
fivers, particularly of the Roanoke, the land is fertile 
and good. Interfjperfed through the other parts, are- 
glades of rich fwamp, and ridges of oak land, of a 
black, fertile foil. Sixty or eighty miles from the fea, 
the country lifts into hills and mountsuns, as defcribed 
IMi^er this head in South Carolina and Georgia. 

V^eat, Ty«, barley, oats and, flar, grow well in the' 
back hilly country. Indian corffand pulfe of all kinds,' 
in all parts. Cottbn and hemp are 4fo confiderably cul- 
tivated here, and might be taifed in much greater plenty- 
The cotton is planted yearly; the ftalk dies with tile 
froft. The labour of one man vnll produce i,^a 
pounds in the feeds, or 250 fit for manu^jidhiring. 

Tmde*^ A great proportion of the produce of £e btck. 
tointfyy coQuiftiog of tobacco, w^eati Indian com, Atc«^ 


11 carried to market in South Carolina and Virginia. 
The fouthem interior coanties carry their produce to 
Charlefton ; and the northern* to Peter(burg and Nor- 
folk. The exporu /rom the lovrcr parts of the State, 
<re tar, piteh» turpentine, rofm, Indian corn, boards* 
fcantlingt ftavds, ihingles, furs, tobacco, pork, lard, tal- 
low, bees wax, myrtle wax, and a -few other articlcity. 
amounting in the year ending September 50, 1791* 
to 524,548 dollars. Their trade is chiefly with the 
Weft Indies and the northern Statet. . 1^ 

Ciimate, Difeafu^ ^^0.: ^^ ^^ ^^^ country^ near the 
fea-coaft, the inhabitants, during.the fummer and au> 
tumn, are fubje^ to internoitting fevers, which often 
prove fatal, as bilious or nervous fyraptoms prevail* 
The countenances of the inhabitants, during tliefe fca< 
fons, have generally a paloy yellowifii caft, occafioned- 
by the prevalence of bilious fyniptoms. They have 
very little (^ theJ>ioom and fieihnefs of ihe people in< 
the northern States.-. 

The weftern hilly parts of this Slate arc as healthy as 
any part of America.' That country is fertile, full of 
fprings and rivulets of pure water. Autumn is very- 
pleafant, both in regard to the temperature and ferenity 
of the weather, and the . rtchneis and vapi(;ty of the 
vegetable produdions, which the feafoii affords. The 
winters are fo mild in feme years, that autumn may be 
faid to continue till fpring. Wheat haryeit is in the be- 
ginning of June, and that of Indian com early in Sep- 
icmber.. ■ ' [ >. ^ ' 

Natural ffifioryl Mi^faSuresil^ci]; The lirg^ nat- 
ural growth of die plains, in the low country, is ahnoft 
unlverCilly pitch p;oe, which is a tall, handrome tree, 
far fuperlor- ^ the pitdhpine of tiie noithern StRten^. 
This tree.may be cal^pptie flaple commodny of Noi'th 
Ciitolina. It afford^ pttch, tar, turpentine, and various 
kinds of lumber, which, together, con'titme at Ie:i(l one 
half of the exports of -this State, No country produces 
finer whitt and red oak fbr (laves. The fwamps abaund 
witii cypius and buy trees. The latter is an evergreen, 
and is food £or the c<ittlt in the winter. 

TheMiaflkioe is common in the back country. Thia 
is a (hnib, which differs in kind, perhaps, from ail others. 
It never |;rows oiit of t&e earthy but qo Ute tops of trces« 
Ua- Tlie- 







Tli€ roots (if they may be To called) run under the barV 
of the tree, and incorporate with the wood. It is ao 
cverg -een» rerenibling the garden boi.wood. 

The late wai, by which North Quroiroa was greatly 
conv«l(edt put a ftop to federal iron works. There 
are four or five furnaces in the State, that are in btaft^ 
and a proportionable number of forges. 

Re&gum.'\ The weftern parts of this State, which 
have Wen fettled within the lad 50 years, are chiefly 
inhabited by PreHiyterians from pcnnfylvania, the ^s. 
fcendants of people from Uie ^forth of Ireland, and are 
exceedingly attached to the doctrines, dif^ipline and 
ufages of die church of Scotland. They aie a regu> 
lar, induftrious people. 

The Moravians have feveral floutiihing fettlemeati 
in the upper part of tH,is State. 

The Friends or Quakers hate a fettlcment in Nsw 
Garden, in Guilford eounty^ and feveral congregations 
«t Perqaimons and Pafquotank. The Methodifts and 
Baptifts are numerous and increaiing^ 

The inhabitants of Wilmington, Newberik/^denton 
and Halifax diftriAs, making abbttt three'^ftfas of the 
State, formerly profefled themfelves of the ^pifcopal 
church. One or two only of the original clergy re- 
maiiii^ and at prefent tl^ey hav? no particular pafloral 
Charge. The Baptifts and Methodifts have fent a num- 
ber of Miflionary preachers into thefe diftri^s ; and 
fomt of them'havepretty 1^^ congregations. It is not 
improbable that One or the other of thefe denomiha> 
tions, and perhjips both, may acquire co^liftency^nd 
cftabliOi permanent churches* • "'■^^^ . 

Colbfge and jfsddetiiies.J The di^ralA^embly of 
Korth Carohti^ in I>(^embfla|il^^pi^ psifled a law in- 
Corporating iq giintlemcn/5 SmiBkCh diftrid, as truf- 
ttes of the Univerfity of Norm Caroliaa* The State 
lias given handfoitid donations for tlie endowment of 
thii femifiary. The General Afemblyt^ in December, 
l7$t, loaned jf^oco/. to the t«uAeeft„ to enable them to 
]>roceed immediately with their buildings. 

There is a very good acade/ny at WarrMton, anotli- 
tr at WiHiiimiboroufib, in Gxaoville, and three or four 

oth^la tte Suit^i Of coatidtfiible note. 

NORTH CAROMj/a. zj; 

PopntaHoni CheuraSert M'uunrs atui CuJIoms.^ From- 
the Marihal's r<!>turn, it fippears that the number of in* 
habitants in the year 1791, wa^ 393^75»» of whom 
293»i 79 were Citizens.- 

The North Caroiinians are moftly plantersj and live 
from half a mile to g and 4.01 lies from each otlier, on 
tlieir plantations. They have a plentiful country— nt>- 
ready market for their produce — ^little intcrcoarfe with . 
grangers, and a natural fondnefs for focietyt which in« 
duce them. to be hofpitablc to travellers.. They* appeal 
to have little tafte for the fdences. . 

Nof th Caroltna has had a rapid growth. In the yeafr 
1710} ivcoo^ined but about 1,200 fencible men. It is 
now, in point of numberSf.the fourth State in the Union* 
During this amazing progrefsyin population, which has 
been greatly aided by immigfations, from Pennfylvania» . 
Virginia, and other States,^ while each has been, endeav- 
Gfuring to increa& his fcrtuaey thehiiman mindyiiJie tn 
tnweeded garden, hsLr t > fufferedto (hoot up in wild ■ 
diforderi But'whcn ' nfider, that, during the late 
ircvolution, this 8«atc produced many diftinguiih^d pat*- 
riots and'polkicians, that ihe fent her thousands to the 
defence of Geotgia and South Cauolina, and . gave oc^^ 
cafional fuccours to Vi>:ginia--»whcn we confider too 
the difBculttej (bt has had to encounter, from a mix- 
ture of /inhabitants,. 'Solle(5led from different parts, 
Hrangers to each other, and inteint upon gain, we ihali 
find many things worthy:' of' praiuK. ia hsX\ geiieral 
charadiet. ^ 

JQanfikMiom] By tbe-conftrtatron of this S'ate, ifrbich' 
%arlatiHed in December,. 17 76, all legiilative authorityr 
is veftedjin two diftin^ branches, both dependent otit. 
the people^ iriz. la ^e&^te and Houfe of Cdmmons». 
which, whed eo«k^^|tip|p>r bu%iefs).are ftyliid the G«n«- 
*ral AJVmbl^t. < v/ 

Theftijitc is compofocl o^ reprefefitatJvesi one fronl 
tacli county, chofen anmiaUy bf ballot. . 

The Ifoufe of commons confiils of repreiVntatlves 
ehofen in the fame way, Iwo fofeach county, and on€ 
for each of tlie tbwfia of • Edenton, Kiewbern, Wilming*- 
to&i fiali^rxi Hi^ibwoti^b^Hiilifai|.atui Fayetteyille.. 


f. t 





ajflpry'} TbebiftonrofNoitkCaroltiL^islefirkiiovft 
than that of any other of the Staist. Fcoxn the beti. 
accouDts that hifkory affbrdsithe £»ft peraoaneiit fettle- 
meat in North Carolina was made aboot the year t^io^ 
bf a nsinber of Palatines • from Germanfy who had 
been reduced to cifcnmftaiicc^ of grent mdigencei by a. 
calamitout war. /; jXa v 

The infant colony rexQaiaed under .the general' gov«. 
crnmeiit of South Carolina, ti^ about the year 1729^, 
when feren of the proprictorti Utr^ a valuable conild- 
eration» v«fted theirv property, and jsffifduftion in the 
crown ; and the colony- was ere^ed into a^feparate prov. 
iace* by the name of , >fort^ CacoUnay and its prefent 
limits eftabli&ed by an order of George IL From tliis. 
period, to tfa<e revolution in 1776, the hiftory of North 
Carolinaisunpablifiicd, and of. courfe unknown. • 

Pr. Hugh Williamibn is about pttbUihing a hiftory^ 
o|,this State... 

1 •■ 



SiTtUTION isn ExTBIO'i . 

Ijcftgth 4JP0 r K.^..^ r«<* 20' and 16? 30' W. long.: 
jBrcauth ib4j^ *^*^***" 1 35* and 36* 3& N. lat., 


'^'JL^- P^i^t of Vik^ginta ; eaft, by North 
Carolina « foutlw by Sou^ CaeoTiiia or Georgia 1 Jttft» , 
Uythell^a>fippi«. * W 

Civil Dlmf^ emd PisfnilatmJJi This State» ereaed' 
and organized in 1796^ is divyed lAta^three diArias, 
and 1 1 eoutities,* whofe names p|(i(^puktion, accord- 
ing to acenfn«vtalsfiftat;%e.clofetW.tfhe x«ar » 

«jl f<^l0W|. viz*-.. ."- , -"'^^^'W-:-!'^; *•;.{'■ 




S-a (f'^vidiitm, 
gS •^•Sumner, 
^* (TcOBeiTee, 







*f|i« fohal^umtt of tim 4iAriA emigrated t\Mtf 
from Peiitirylvkiiiift* aad thit pjnt of Vlrgiiiki^that *mV 
weft of th^ Bftie Hidgt. / » 

(7/Mii*'.3 TerBgeniie afict^littldi^. - Uifotnilly. 
ing between- die Q^eat4(land,.as it is called, and tn4^ 
Kiinliaw^ tHietttiOtii^ are reKiarliablyeoo!, and the. 
air rath^ flUeift. Sookhfreft lofithis, as ^ as thfe In- 
dian to#os, thrcUmite is likudi wamiefi» itsd tbft foil 
hetr^r adapiedstcvt^e prodaflioos ofthe foirthem States, . 

Ao inli^bitaiii of tMs diftril^ writes^ «* Our phyfi* 
cisi'S f^re, a Hue, climate-; healthyv robafl mothers pnd^ 
fathers }. plain at. 4 'pleattlBl diet» afid en(^^«of eieer- 
cffe. There is n'>i a regular br^d-'f^yfidiia redding m 
the i^hole^iftria/*^ I%);&iaas, ]iiNtfe¥et| . hav«. &ac#* 
ftttledhe*. : '^ 

ghi*lamiMiiiiuiiaktiJ}< 1:*fie l^t^eei csdl^ a(jR$^ 
the Cherokee, srthe laf|[<ft braach of theOIUe# It 

rifts in ^ mottiitaini'Gl^^ \^rginia, latitude j^<V$od^ 
parfaes Acomih of about i^oo mites fmith^ jind i^tlv* , 
weft, nearly to' liUikn^ 34?, reeeiiring-^nirboth'/idel^ 
s number of koge trtbtitary ftreams. It then wheelt^ 
about to the^ north in a circiutous eoixrire» and-^ningles 
with the Ohio, tuniiif 66 miles frdi^it^^outh. Ftom 
ib entraacemto tite ^@ftiO| t» the Mil^de- Shoals^ 25O:' 
to'iles, ihe-ctlnaiit is i^er^^rsntler and tlie river decfj^ 
enough,.at all fea&ns^ for tfielargeft trow bdats. 1%ei 
Mufcle ShoftI» are about Unities in length* . MMii 
)>]ace the river ipreads to the width of j. miles, jo^df 
fbrmsa number of iimdi, and is of ^ diffitralt paiTage^ 
eicej^ when there k- aOiilHii the riVcn FfOfitthefe 
fiioals' to the Whirl or ftiOki the plaee viSl^m0tiiy^ 
breaks through thei^ri^ ridge, or Cnroberiandmocm^ 
tain; is 350^0111^, tl^jlM^uiidfsva^ 
for boats of 4J!><5r j'e^spl - 

The Chmberifiid nabniif^^ M its vholo-estent, fbm < 
tiie Great Kanhaifyata^^ the Teuneffi^e, confifts of the 
moft ftupendoas pBes of cra^gf roohs,^ of any mocmtaiai 
I la the weflcrrli coontrf i T&ough this liapendelus pile,'^: 
according, to modern hypotheiis, had iht vaters of ^^ 
the upper branchcsiif the Tenne^^ t^ force theirway* 
The attetcpviwonld hare been ImpraQicable at any oth^ 
ttylaca than the onextieotioni^Mor more than too miiei^ 




eaftwardlf. H«i]i dmi Hbttnt 10 bare been the dttflii,. 
left by tbe Creator* to eoiiTey off tbolc waten, which 
nuft otbjerwUe bave overflowed, aoiA rendered afekft a 
▼ail traA of valuable country, Micompaflbd wHhm dw 

The U^M, ai it is calted, h kt about latitttde if. 
It it reckoned A-^f^t cnriolity. The rirer* which a 
few mtlei above, i^ ilft mile wide, if here cOkilip^tded 
to the width of abc *t lOO'^ardi. Juft ai' it enters the 
mountain, a lar^ff ?ock ^uroje^ from the nonhern ihore, 
in an oblique fdi»eiftien,'wi>ich renders tbe bed of the 
river ftitl narrower, and caaie» a fiidden bend ; the wa. 
ter of tbe rivd*^ h of souxie ibrowfi jNrith great rapidity 
againA^tbe fouchem Ihore, Wh<ence It tebotmds around 
die point of tbe rock, . and |to4oc6i the WW, which 
is about 80 yards iii ^r ;iilbference« €ainoea have often 
b^en earried into.^ls Whhrl^^d «ibapcd, by the dexter- 
ity' of 1^ rowers, , W7tboot'.dama|^. Ip kf» than a mile 
b^lowmWhirl^ the rivet ijweadfifitd its common 4idth, 
and» exctpt Mnfclf $hball, ab^ady iiliebii^ped* flowi 
beauti^l and placid, .till it ming^ wi|3i the. Qtdo, 

The mi,9cipal tribu^iT:^^<i^^ ^^^ "^ 
die HoilloniPdefon^ Of Clinch and'lb^ck-riviers. 
, The Shawanee, n6w ^raQed'Cambcrland' river, of the 
^l^tli^n b^anc'hes 6f^^^&^^^ in .:xe to the 

r^€an4fla<hi#d .extsnd$ ea0watd neaity as far, bot mas 
itiiill|#6ire dicdfl ^usie^: ICis navijtable f(^ imal^ 
Pm^Sas NiSiville. 

Tkd-e avefivjet^vf^ablt rivers in this territory^ which > 
^dtohme tbeijimelves munediately into the Mii9i%pi, 
vfz. \^^^HaecbiBC, Forked Deer, Obrian and ICeeU 

> It wot^d takb a (Volfoe tqjd^lhii pautMlarlyt the 
niOttBtaini of <;tbis territor]^ flAi^j^rhadf ^ cov- 

ered wi^^ |b6& wbick,ave !iuiiinb4)|iitable. Some o£ 
thde moaataias, particiiaily4he CitoibMtand, or Great 
Xamel • Ridge, are the moii ftnjpendout pites i^ the 
United States. They abound wttb ginfeng^ and ftone 
>^bdtt Ctincb mountain is fouth of thefe 1 in wbicb< 
iBrl^s (^cn lui^ Marrit^ Nob^ might b» ddci^>ed as^ 
«at4o&i3cs^' v 

■A ■ 


r » H N E 5 8 E E. 


kO A few ytuf finee, tliif cmmtfy abomded 
vitb lam herdt of irad cattle, imttoperlf called Bitf. 
•faloet s ont the improvident or iU-di(poied among dke 
M fettlfrsy Itave deftroyed multitudes of them» oat tf 
•mere wantomieft. They are ftiU to be fonnd on (oae 
of the fonth branchet of Camberlmd riTcr. Elk or 
moofe are ieen iq many jplaces* chiefly among the 
moontainf . The deer are become comparatiYel;^ fearpe^ 
fo that np jieiibn makes a bafinefs of honting them for 
thetr (kins, only. Enough of bears and wolVbs yn re- 
main. Beavers and otters are can^t ip plenty m Uie 
opper branches i/f Cumberland and^entucky rivers. 

The mammoth,^ the huif d[ the land amnnilsi was 
fonnerly an inhabitant of this country. 

Cmmen$.^ Hkis country iumiflies many v^aabie 
articles of exp(yrt» foch as fine waggon and faddle hor- 
ieji» beef^ cattle, ginfengt deer (kins and furs, cotton, 
hemp and 'flax, whidh Qiay be tranTported'^'by land 4 
alfo, iron, luno^xtr^' pork and fibor, which will' 
exported in great qtiantities, now the navigiition df the 
'Mlffifippi is opened.'^ 

•^<i^<^3 '^^ Prefbyterians are the prevailing de- 
nomination of Chiiftians in Uiis diftri^ They hare a 
tVeftytery eftabliflied l»y ad of Synod, which, in ti^ty, 
cocnAed of 93 large congregations, who were tbeniup- 
plied by only fix mifiifters^ There are;^|lb ibsne of 
the Baptlft and Iljethodift denominations. ,\^ 

" LUirati^e;^, Three college^ are <^(I^Unie^1>y 
in this Sqite, via. OreenviUe college in Orei^ c^i 
Blottiu; college at^notville, and #a(liiii|»tpn<om^ 
WaHiin^toQ coi||ity. Congderable todOi|||^^Mf coU 
1e6ted for the former^ asid one or two tho«||||^^ 
of books lor its Hbrary. A fpjcicty has been enabl^ed, 
who ftyle ^em^lte^f A-SoQtety for proiimHsng tlft* 
ftil Knowkdge." ■ o ;^ " 

(^arad^.«ii^v4^Mi^.^^^^ is nOthiii|; in Jhe 

cha%aer of this people, that; dUiin^mntes ^etnirom 
the fettle^ 0^ neW co^qtties in, gentraL ^ittoi^the 
bnlk of the inhabitants, a ^reait rimpli9%#i»ll^ 
prevails. Wr^ogiiumping^^uiming (oot^Taces^^^^ 
playing at foalL a^e the oommili $vcrii(mi$4; ' I^^ 

, ■■ ■ ' ' • •■ '• ^■"'- \ .- ■■' ;• ' ■' ■ i^ 

S'j « 


^vE H •N lES « IE €• 

iseomtogjiit^^ioa* Card ybying u a r^re Mmib. 
ment. lie lKl|v|Bg ihin ii W bftlie mUitiji 

. «n dut7» and l>f Meters in purlmt of gamt . 

PrinM T9wiu»'] Kdoit ; i.vj» 4eaii|ifunir. (Ituftttd 
on the Rplf^oiH is tbe.lbat of govisiiinifDt in dUs Sute ; 
N. lat, 3^' 4*; 

H4tHr4U«» N«lat,^^. ,TI» conns for the diftrid 
of Morq are femi-annnaUf ^ci^ here ; j^pdnt list tvc 
hot^s ior public 'wocCbtp) n'^z^dCoa^ endowdl 
j^adeiny,'f(Ub)i|hed in 17^56. 

JON'BUPiaouoii Is ^e ieat dC the courts Iield in Wafli. 
uigtbh di^rulft There a|« 4>gbt oiber 40wnt of left 
' j)C^e 1r|,;^e-'|M''!|te* 

4 .^i|S^^ 1^88, the wiHtia of ttiis (''(kia.aioount. 
ed tOi6et1i^ef6 7 and 8,coo 60t^ve p)e&» who iireie prin. 
cipalfy #ne^'^itb rifles, 11ttir^itr«.Mtrd4e^thls imm* 

, /i»<%if,j *rh« Indiap ^hips ivlithlii and »» the vie hu. 

ty of tm diftrid, are the Cberolbeii. and Ghi<^]^araws. 

'The Cherokees have been a warlike arid nuinerouft na< 

"■ tion;.butbf continual war$, in yhtch it has been their 

delUny to be.eng'^gtd, with the nort^rn IndiftB tribes, 

tfecf '^'ere redticed, at the cQn:nieiM^cni«nt of th^ laft 

WariK to #boat 2C00 fighting tnen ; fince winch they 

'^have been reduced more than , o^e J>alf» and .haye be> 

The Cht^l^ifa^Ji, of^I the Indian tribes wit))n^jBe 
il^tt of ibe United St;|tes, -inerit the moil . from the 
^tncrioam, liati|i|f |ii all timet malniiatined a Wotherly 
luti^l^eiii ^<> J^em^ They glory in faying, 1^at they 
nearer diecW^|l<H>d of an Ang^o ^jper^an^ There is 
^ '^^9i^M^m^^^ th<Cbick?mw:and Choaav 

lanMi;^^S?«li ifcft common people f »n conterfe to- 
^j^ir,j»ch ife^^^ a 

perfdllable peof |e» anof hare an opennefs, in tfecircoun- 
0iMKes Und be^f iouti uccommon an^mg favages. 
flifj%iiil^on% fayd^ the r^oanant of a greft na- 

tion that once Ifvedfer to the weftf which was de^tof' 
:4si hffik^ifi^^ ^hom they ftiH r^ts^n an he- 

rwJi|iir]f;iyiti|f4".vV'~> ■•-' ■ -:':^-S::''-:.j<-; - 

Cv^Hntim mt '^P^- ] See Aaitilcan tlniyerfal 



SrruATioM AN0 Extent. 




Breadth 115 J L^^ l32*and35<»N.Mt.3 '^*°*^ 

« . V, . , •, tJ^^UNDED north, by North Guv- 
Bmndartiui^ JB lina ; e^ift, by the Atfeotic Oe€«D ; 

foutb and fomhw'*.^, by Saviinnah river, and a branch 

of its head w^ter^ catlad Tugulo river, vrhich dtridet 

this vSu'te from Geof^a. 
Cvvii .D'wijms and Pofufat'mi.'] The State is divided 

itA^ nine dfftri^s, whi^h «tre Aibdividcd eicher into 

paiirnes t>r €OUotie»,4|i follatws : 

Di/lriih. paries, 

"Mi A St. Helena • 

III I ' 

4^2 'PHnccWUlbm 


St. Peter's 

St. Nfichacrt 
St. Bfitt!ibl«ineir 
St. Tgliik'g, Berkley, " 
St. Oeo^gc^, D(|rdi«(ler 
$t Stcpbcn*t 
|uS<fi iSt.Iairoe»\Saiitee . 
g-Ij^ qftrffPiCh^H 
*• " " '^ St. J amci', 6o<>fe Cr^ck 
JSLAndtrwj' ii,; 







.(. i*' 









I fl X f M ^ ^inc« George's 
||h«| fPrloceFrcderkk 

•3 • *• m 

' u 


Thetptal number of inhabluoct, in if9i).ira§ M9i073; of| 
whom X07/>94 wtrc Havei^ 

i{ii»r/.3 This State is watered by ^oar large n^vii 
gable rivers, viz. The Sa.vannaha £difto» Pedee, aodi 
Sahtee, the latter of Vhich is the largjeft andloogeHl 
river in 4his Aate; it. empties into the oce&a by twQi 
ih(^aths, a little fouth di Georgetowt^. "\ 

The riveirs of a fecpQdgxy fiw, as you pafs froth nc.Hhl 
to f6n^, ^e Wakkam^W, BUc)c riveri Cooper, AihepooJ 
and C!>iii|>iihee. . , ' _ . - 

If, tiie third clafs. ;jirfe cft^prehenijcd khofe riveri j 
whicji exteoi^ jbtit a ihort dii|ah<^e fVom the oce^f^, and 
fervei by brtn^mg into ntinibf rle& cree)csi as drains toj 
take, c^' the .quantity ol^ rain Water, which comes down! 
from the large inland fwamps V or art r^ierelv^airms oil 
likiin,. Thcr tide, in no par( p(jcl^^ ^ttt n^ws morel 
th2Va^»5 miles frpm the fca. ^ ' '^ '■ '■•. I 

; IpMa^j 'A company bias btea ^ticorporated for^thd 
piQp^ of iCfmie^ing Cooper and Santee rivers^ by il 
^Mp of li #ilet in kbgth^Coi^f^ated at 85i00oi| 
<:uttency« It ii nearly c9mpleto£'' 


ffOVfR Carolina. 


MtmMUAu.^ Etfept tht bigh hiUt oi the &in(qi»the 
Ridget and romc few mhcr hilh, ttti toimtTf if iik« 
one esttnfife plain, till yea reach tlieTryoii and Hog« 
back nKKintaiM, aao milet northweft of t^arieftoi»^ 
The mouBUhis wc(l and northweft riff much hif>her 
than tbeftr, and form a ridge, which divides the watcra 
of TennefTce and Santcc rivers. 

fMoar^''i The only hatbourt of '^hote are tliofis of 
Charleftofi, FmI koytA, anfl Oeorgtl0wa, ^ 

,lflait<hy The fca-ccairil bordewd %ltb ft claai of 
Hne fea iifaiidt, arotwd which the Asa flowf, 6pcjmig ait 
cxccHettl tniand navigiitiott, for the convcyjaiice of prod^ 
vce to market; The |»»lncipfttpf thtfc are Boil's, De^ 
tree's, and Sail iT»n'tiilaiids whlch^rmtba north part 
of Charkfton harbour.. Jawes% Johtf^v WadmeUw^. 
Port Royal, St ifkleita, Ladies, Piris and the Hunting 
Ifknds, five dr fijc iir^vftiber, liilton Heiid» Bscl^aeyS, 
£«21'i, Dawfu(kie^«, and^fome fmaller ifhuidt. .v 

Tkefotl of thefe Ifl^ndft is generally bdtti^ aaapted 
to the culture of indigo than the main, and leftiigiited 
t6 rice. Cotton grows very well npon *tm. *Ttt nat^^ 
eral growth is the Hve oak, which is esicelknt for fm^vt ■ 
timber 5 and the palmetto or cabbage tree, thej^tility 
ef which, m the conllriuS^ion of fprts, was expeiicQced 
during the hte war. ^ 

Chief Tetsatm.'] Chartefton is the only conridtrabTe 
town in South Carolina. It is fituated on the tong n ; 
pf land which is formed by the confluence of PiJ\ * / 
and Cooper rivers. Thefe rivers mingle th<;ir Waters ; 
immediately below the fibwn, and foi^ a/j^ious r.nd? 
convenient harbour, whicb communicates wit ji the ocram 
I juR below 8uilivarV*s ifl^nd, flitch it ^av^s on^enortl^ 
fc^ren miles foutbea,ft of thi town^ The coattltiUed agi-: 
tatioB which this e(fc»fi|(^ Bi' the waters which aimc^ 
fuTfoiind CHa:ilefton*^th* refrelhing fea breezes Which 
are reguljiriy feit, a^^t^ fmoke riimg from fo many* 
chimnies, render CharlcSbn more healthy than any f^t 
(if th,fe !?»■«• ccHimry, in the fomhern States, Oil this ac- 
i fount it is the reforl of great rumbers of gentlil||len, 
invalids fr^)T|i the AVeH India iilands, and of the rich 
I J iinters from tlie- c|gintry,* who come . here to fpend Ae 
kMy wpaths, a^H^ arei;alk4» iitqueft of health, ai«i 

■"^ " ■/ ' ,^ •• of . .. 





of Um (bcial takifmenci wbtch tkb eitf tffhrdi. And 
icino put of AaiiilcA arc Ui« fi>cial bMSngt enjo^cj 
ai6c» ndonaUf ■nd liberallj* than io CharlAan. Un. 
•fta«d lw«l^kalicf» aiabilitft mT* in BMimm mmI ad. 
4fiftt Mui « dHpoinion to maki their gueftt wnHttvntt 
ta£y and pleaftd «idi thtrnfchnM, arc diaradmiUct ^ 
the rtfptAable ptople in CharleAoOk ' 

Tht public IntilaiDgf ar«, an eiclian|^, ftatc htvfe, 
tatcJ? rebuilt, armonrf » ooor honfe, two large c|iincbei 
for EpifcopaltaMy two lor Coogtegationalmt ot Inde. 
ptndants, <oacforSontchPreiytcrian«9 oocibrBaptiHs, 
OM fiur German Lutheraot, two for the Methodttts, (a 
larga hoofe for woHMp being Isttelf finifhod by then) 
«De fpr Frcodi Prouftanu », bcAdei a meeting boufe 
lor Qualcerii a Romiin Catholic dia|Ml, and a Jewiib 

But littler attention it paid to the poblic roarketi. A. 
great iN^portion of the mod wealthy iohabitantt hare, 
fdantationi, from which they receive fiippUcf of aimoft 
every attide of living. The country abooodt with pool* 
Cry and Wild dvdu. Their bcefi mutton and ve J are 
■01 of the beft kind! Few fiOt are brought to market. 

In 1^91, there were 16,559 inhabitants, df whom 
7*684 ivere ^avei. 

Beaufort, on Port Royal Ifland, \t a plealant little 
fown of about 50 or 60 houfiss, aind aoo inhabitants, 
who are diftioguiihed for theiil' hofpitality and polite- 


Georgetown, 6t milei K. £« of Charlefton, the feat 
of juftice in Georgetown diftrid, ftindt on a fpot of 
land Aear the junSion of a number of Viverx, which, 
iKhen united ih one broad ftream, by the naniie of Win* 
yapr, fall into the ocean 12 miles below th^ town. 

Colombia, which has lately/llMtii made the feat of 
gOfernment, by the legiflaturi^ ftaods Juii below the 
JmiAirai Of Saluda and Broad rivers, on the Congaree, 
a hranfehoftheSahtee. 

Ga^fwtFutf of tie Couniry.'} The #hole Stale, to 
the dil^ce of 80 miles from the fea, i» level, and al- 
moft without a ftonC. In this dtftaii^c, by a gradual 
sfeent from the fea*coaft, the land rij^ about r^ feet. 
HerCy ifyouproceedinaW. N.W. coUrrefromCharlef* 




{90, cnmme«ces4 eutioiiflf noeven ^oontf y. THe tt)iv« 
dkr it coflftantly afcending or dcfoiodinf: Utile f;in J« 
hiili, which nature (eemi co have dlfunited in a ftolic. 
If I pretty high Tea were Aiddenly arrefled and tninf* 
formed into land htlUi in the very fdim the waves exift* 
(J at the jnpnieot oC trantformation, it would prefent 
the eye with juA ftich a view m h here to b« leen. 
Some littW herbage, sml a few fmall pines> growtvte ^ 
on this fuil. The inhabitants are few, and hate bttt a 
Iranty fubfiftencc on com and IWect ifotatoef, whi -'i 
grow here tolerably well, Thn curious country coii* 
t'mu«s lor about 60 milei, till yoo arrive at a ptuce call- 
ed Tht Jiid^r 140 miiet from C^arlefton.' Thtt Ridge 
is a remarkable tra^ of hi^ groatid> at you appro^dbt 
i'. frrm the fea;, bui level as yoa advance nonhwe^. tVotw- 
i:sfumm>t. It is a fine, high, heakhy belt of lutklf 
nil waterei, and of a good foil, and cxiends from 
iii Savannah to .Broad R.iv3r. Beyond 'thtt*: Ridge 
commencefs a eonntry uaAly. refi»n>bling U)* neither a 
Statc^i. Here hills and dales, with hU theif verdure 
and variep:ated boauty, prefcit thcmfelves to «}feey«s^'' 
Wheat tieljfi, which are rare in the low country, be^n 
to grow common, Heirc Hoaven hii beftowjd ifiBbkr* 
fings with a moil bouuteous h;ind«- llie air u. mush* 
more tcrnpei^ate ard healthful than nearer ta tlie iea." 
The hills are covered virh valoublc v^oods, the v allies 
are watered' with beautiful rivers, and tl»e ftlitiUty «f 
the foil fs equal to every veg^lnble produ^Ttion. Thi*^^ 
by Way of diftip^ion, is called the Upper Country^ 
whiJre «re different modes andil»lfcrent anicles of cuU 
tivation ; wlwtc thritianneis of the peopie, and cvea»^ 
their ilangtiage have a diftereht toTie The kivd^Hifi 
rifes by a gradual afcent; each^acceedIng,l;iHoveflo(^k9^ 
iMc which immediate^ precfedes it, ' ml', hiving ad^i 
Vanned a 20 nules, in a n^rthwefl dirc^ion from Chai lti4f 
ton, the elevation of^the ktid,' above the fea^ba^ it. 
found t^ menfttration to W Sob feet. Here etbiiYpefieeai 
ftfmocuitjttAeas co«ititry, '--which continues ti^^i%o .t!»e 
wedettt'^tmaoati^iif .pomt^oC this -Siaite*-, . ^<}iid'-e: v 'i n ■; 5 

fp#r4i|cMis-;r^^i|l|^^hi*2pi4fetbarnm, < w^M^f^dmii^i 





■'"u ■ 



' ¥, 

«re tra^siyf landlrtf «f limbeTtand every kind of gronth 
but that ofgnA, JTheie tradf arc called Savannas, coq. 
ftitutiiig si/ruttd kind of foil, good for grazing. The 
UMkmd is libat of the fwanips ^nd low grounds on Uie 
rivers, whicMjI^a mixture of blaclc loam and fat clay, 
producin^iilin^a!)/ caues in great plenty, cyprefs, bays, 
loblottj piii|li«c. In thefe fwamps rice is cultivated, 
4l#ch cooiHtutes the (laple coromciity o/ the Sute. 
iSH high lands, commonly known by tlie name of oak 
and biccory lands, conftitute the fourilf kind of foil 
, The natural growth is oak, hiccory, walnut, pine, and 
loctift. pe^lhefe lands, in the low cruotry, are culiivji. 
ted Ind^jpTt-orp principally ; and in tlie back country, 
bffides J^bele, they raife tobacco in large quantities, 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, flax, cotton and filk. 

There is little fruit in this State, efpecially in the lower 
parts of it* They have oranges, which are chiefly four ; 
and figs, in plenty ; a ftw lime and lemon trees, pome- 
nanatest PMir^ and peaches ; apples are fcarce, and are 
impc^td froii|(the aorthcrn States* Melons (ef|)eciaUy 
the U'atcr-melon) are raifed here in great per[iedion. 
: ,: M ^ice.'ii Rice ground is prepared 

diilyby oFec^ually iecuring it from the water, except 
ibme higher patts of it, which are fomettmes dug up with 
a boei or inellQwed by a plough or hjxrrow. When the 
rice it young, the overflowing of the water does nipt pre< 
fCBf its gromh. Thofe whoha ve water in refer ve, com. 
nckpnlf l«Bt it id Qpoi\ their rice after firfl goini; through 
with tfatiioe, while it is yet young, thougli it i6 deemed 
h«ft to lt«rp^t the grafs without this aid, by ^e hoe 
wAfi, Tb^l^ter is commonly kept en the rice erght or 
tcil^^ytil^ hoeing. When the ear is formed, the 
watfr it f|io«itinued on till it is ripe* It i& hoed three or 
'§mtt tiinef. When the gra&,is very thick, a negio caiM 
niit boc ma.t than one flxteetich of an acre in a day.' 
Broils three pecks tu a bushel is Ibwn on aa ?cf«. It 
ptedne^ ftoin 50 id 80 biifliela of rough^ riee an acre. 
•^t so hoflbels «f rough rice have been prodticedViii onr 
acre I «9 buiheli of which loake about 500 fiooaiisy or 
dihjtaiJil a quarter bnlhets e)eao rice^ inai^leMbv Aiffer 
ilil tfanikadiit it wnino«red# tad d«bi|g«Qa|d la a^nUl,: 
<9MinilU4<^ tiM A4aciM»ii4a^un|iI« ia#up*N-»thm> 



wnnowed hj a fan conf^roAtd for that parpofr— then 
bsat in a (nor tar h^ hand, or now generally by hoHe or 
ii^t«r mHchiftes-^^ihen fttted* to ieparate the whole. tice 
from that which is broken, and the iiour. The whole 
rice is then bat relied in cades of aboat 500 pounds, or 
eight and a buQiels. The finaU rice ferres for 
prcviiions, and the Qour for provender ; the chaff for 
manurcf and the ^.Iraw for fodder. Tlie blade is grf|% 
and freUi while the ear is ripe. The price is Jrom ^ 
to icy6 a bundred'--dollars 4/8, r ' , * »: , 

Cenftitmifjrt.'^ The iegidacire authority is veAed in a 
grnervtl ailembiy, conAiting of a fenate aad hnufe c^rep-/ 
reftjiuatives. There are 1 34 reprefentari ve^, and 35 fcn- 
aiors appointed among the fcveral dHfcritSls. The ^ajep- 
eral aiTembly is chofen on the fecond Monday of Ot^o- §; 
ber, and meets on the fomtli Monday in November an« 
nuaily. Each houie choofe$> its own officers, judges f.f 
t^e quri'iacations of its members* and has a negative on 
the other. The executive authority is irefted in a gvi^v- 
trnor, ch ofen for two years, by both hoiifes of affembt]^ 
joimly ; bat he cannot be re^ek&ed lili after fo\i%, yearr. 
A lieutenant governor is chofen in the fame manntr, for 
the fame tim^, and holds the office of governor incaj^ 

of vacancy..- V''-,,*v-..i--v '-.'....■■;'.:. ;. ■.r.;^^. , ^ , ^'-JfT.. 

This conftitoticin' was ratified Ju^ 3, 1790* vff 

Siatff tf Utetafure.'} Gentlemen ci fortune, hetort 
the kte war, Xent tiusir fons jto Europe for echication» 
Buring the war and (idcc, they haVe genendlf fetti 
t^iem t(M the middle and rnorthern States. There tre 
feveral rfefpeiSahle academies in Charleilon, one at 
Beaufort, on Poit Hoyal iiland, and ieveral othets in' 
differem parts of the l^tate. Three coUeges have laii^ ^ 
been incorporated by law ; Ofte at Charlenon, one !*t 
Winn^boimigh, in liie dtflivii^ of Cainden, the other «# 
6ambrM^e| m the ^t»6k t^f Ninety Six; The fM^ 
and private donaciont forl^eliipport d£ thtfe th«ei^e9l#; 
Hges, were originally inenadeH tdbiH^ht<M^a|iM«^^ 
iBdiaih%«> for tlieei^^iiig M^'i^^lMnto^M^ 

tuftrated dm defigtt. ^.FlMlMfliH^^ 







fiouridies, and bids fair for ufefutnert^ The college n 

Cambridge U no tnog^ than a grammar {^hool. 

Qharitabie and other Soeieih-^ Thefe sire the South 
Caiolina, Mount Sion; Library, and St. Cecilia focieticft 
—a focicty for ilffe relief of ihc widows and orphans of 
clergymen— a Medical fociety lately ittftituied in Charlef. 
lpu» and aMufical fociety. At Beaufort and on S&t. HeU 
^4% are fcveral chatiublefocteaes, incorporated with 
futtds to a confiderable amount, dffigned principally 
for the education of poor childtes,. ^nd which promife, 
a.c a fotttfe day, to be of great public utility. 

IttJiaiu.Ji Ihe Catabaws are the «nly nation of In- 
dians la this ftate. They have but one town^ called 
Catabaw, fitudted on C^tabaw river, in latitude 34** 49V 

^ on the boundary line between North and South Car- 
olina^ and CQntains about 45a inhabitants, of which 
dibout 1 50 are fighting men, 

HtkgiM.'^ Since the revqlutiony by which all denom- 
inations were put on an equal footing, there h^e been 
, BO difptites between di^erent re^gious itdii* "^^J ^ 
agree i». differ, / 

The upper parts of thk State are fettled chiefly by 
l*re(bytcriant, Baptifts and M^thodrttsr From thcifnqft 
probable calculations, it is fuppofed that xht ireligioms 
denomiivatiens of tUs State, as to numbers,, may be 

. ranged as fi^lows r riefbyterians, Including the Con- 
-rregaticmal and Independent churches, ^pifcopaltaQs^ 
»4it>ti4^a^ Mclhodifts, &c, r :. '. . ' 

^ VkirftSttr.'j There h no pfcuKarity itt the manrers* 
, 6f the fnhabttanis of thb States e^tcept what arifes from 
the mifehtevous iiifiuenee cf ^very ^ and in this, in- 
deed* they do not differ from the inhabitant^ of the oth- 
er fouthern States* Skvefy, by exenxpttng great iitrn- 
Ws f f om the nece^ies of lahouxv leads to lexuiy, dif- 
fipatioii^ and eitravagan^e; The abfohst^ authority 
V^hiehis eiejrcifed oirer their Haves,, tpb mtich lavocrs t 
bf ttftb^y, fuperdlfQiis beha vioiMr. A difp^fs tiott to obey 
..the ChpftHMi piccep^ ''Do toothers as you would that 
<^(hn^» ihmtid dQ( ttilto yo%^'t*jEiDtu^ber^d hry »)dail]f 

T)Kit CafdUman* m^ ge«en^ ^i^^ 
' |>«a«^Ws^» «i4^4>a)ittt aad atlejd^e^ati^l^gcaM 
lidioiiliwa&t the bloOm of the north> hbt have 


tn cng9f^ngMxne(i and delicacf in their appwrance 
and manners, and man/ cf them poR^Ct' the polict and 
elegant accotiifdifhments. 

MiSta/y Stre^gtLJ The militia of thit State, in 1791*9 
inoBnted to 24,435^ of which 750 were in the ci^ of 

Comrnarci,'} The amount of exports from the port of 
Cliarlcfton,in the year ending November, 1 787, was then- 
eitimated,fpomauthcntic documents^atjf 505,279 : 19 : 5- 
fterlins^ money. The number of veflels cleared from the 
cnllom houfe the fame year, was 947, meafiiting 62,1 iS 
tons, 735 of thefe, meafiiring 4T»53i tons, were Amer- 
ican ( the others bdoniged to Great Britain, Spain» 
France, the United Netherlands, and Ireland. 

The principal- articles espori?d from this- State,are 
rice, indigo, tobacco, ikins of vailibuskii^ds, beef, pork, 
cotton, pitch, tar, rofrn, turpentine, myrtle wdi, lumtier,. 
naval ftores, cork, leather, pink rooV» £nake root, giofengr^ 
&c* lathe fnoft iii^cefsful feaHnis, ^tve have b^fenat 
many as 140,000 barvds of rice, 1,500^060 pottsdf o^ 
iadigo, ezpni^id ina year. From the i5th December^ 
i79'»,to Septenal)^iV.P79af, 10^,567 tierces of riceya^- • 
eragtng 5501b. Oct weight each, were exported l^om 
Charlefton. In>i^e year et>ding September 50, 1 79 1 » ex* 
clufiVe of tvpo quarters for which iHiretutiis were made^ 
the amount of exports i^-om this Sftate, was i,8^6);02l 
dollars. In the year ending September ^t), I795rthe 
value of exports from this State was 5,999',492^ dollar^ 
4^ cents'. ■ ;,;;"' • . , ^ - ' 

Hiftw-y^ Duri^dii vigorous conteft for ii^depend- 
ence, this State was!.a great iijiierer. for three years 
it wai |he i<M Y>f War. It feels and lamer ts the lofs of 
many^Mpedable citizens. Since the peace, it has been' . 
emer^g from that melaiiichoiy corrfbrfton and poverty, 
in which it was generaljy inVWlyed by the devaftati'ons 
of a releiitlefs enemy. The inhabitants art luft mtilti* 
plying by immigrations front the other States-^the agii-'-^ 
cultural intersils of the State are reviving — commerce 
is fioufifhingw-^conomy is becoming more faiHionabls 
--and (trence begins to fpread her falutary influencejt^ 
among the citiaens. And under the operation of the 
prefent government, this Slate, from hci* natural, com- 
mercial, and agricultural advantages, and the abilities of 





her kftding^ c^araAtit» ]iTomlies to be^on^oiiff tf the 
ticheft in 3m UtUm, ' 

dee, Ramfa/t Hift. Rerol; in S. Carblttia, Hift. of 
6siroUiM.and G^rpg^ s^nasfxatmif fuppofed to be by 
Hevctt/aatI the Amor. Univlkcig,. f 


*^w^i-w>< ' ^ ■ ■*%■ I " - ^%aHH«av 

Q r. & R G 1 A. 



.^amaanu.^j-^ Ocean j fomfc, |y lift md Weft 
Flotidaif weft, br Hid tidier Mtfll%|^} tiorlli tod noYth* 
eaftybf South CjitdKiWt imci th< TciuLiypt 8t»tt,o» 
|»| lands c^dcd to the ITnlted $t«tei by jlittth Carolina, 

- CJvi/ Dt^Ufmt and i^MfinMii.] Thftt' ptlt Of the 
$):d(te %|ikh' M% beefi la^d out ki CMEBties, b divided 
liaic^ twa diftriat, lf»/rr^ ^iiii l^mtti^ i^ 
vided into ao eountii^, ^hirh «r^ t> CoUovi v 


Cb. tntm.. 

rCsn«4ea St Paui;^*i 

4 ScriTcii 

£. I IJbtfrty Stinbunr 

.5.,. ' ... 




rtSSn^ CanjclVilfc 
^Uicrt . - Scterlhi 

'^ Total liunobelr of inhabitants in- ihf &tat9> l»,540| 

6£l>ft Cl A. 


Tjn ofW (>mirf.1 See South Carblttia. 

Rhen.l tktmagk^ rhrer divides tlits Stale tidih 
^outh CaratiQa. Iu^<irie ii neailTr fro^ northweft 
to rottthciUI* ItltMnit^ ^loicifsSij ^ two brtncbav 
by the oameilif Tug^oand Keowee, whicK fyttaa^ 
from the moiuitaiiif. It is oatigable for kfge ir^fl^ 
up to Savanaal^ and for bDii.ts S 106 feet keel| as ^ 
as Augufta^ 

Ogcchee riirer, aboiit 18 ibiles iodth of thi Savant 
nah, is a ftiutU^'vi!rf r, und nearly paraHel vHtk it in itft 


Alatamaha, a^iHmt ^ iiiHes ibHth of Sa^vannah liter^ 
has its foUrce in |he .Chtrokc« motinuinst near the head 
of Tugaks l|itfice it de£:ends through ih« hilly .cotiB>» 
VTf with aU itf icdUalcral hr^nc^s^^id winds rapidly 
oindogft the hiUty 250 aorles* and then enttfa the^/iat 
^n coiiftrf, by ttie naa^ df ithd^akm>|]ge) i^benci 
meandert^ilfo ni*^|»^1s}e{ae4^ th^^eaft fidah*' 
the Oeonti ijH^^^klw3& heads in the liNMr ri(%e^j(^ 
the mountains, i^t^^^^i «onfhienc«,. having n^^ 
gained a vail ac^ni^itm oC Waters, it aCuaies the nam^ 
of Alatamaha, wl^ ^.j^cciaes a l*rgl.mi^eftic tiverji 
iflowhig linth geiitle ^ irindings th^i^ a vaft ^aia 
fbttfty near .i^sob an^eii; sii:d cn^ts Jlie A'dantia hyii^ 

BeTides thefe, there is t^ftitH HVei^ Bit^e Sitilla o» 
Sc. Ille« Gi^ fiitida^ (i^ro^ked rivek, an^- St^vhlary>sy 
which fofmsrflt part ^ the fbilthem hopMary of th« 
United Statesa 'St. Hury's riretr iias its ibslrce froin a 
vaft lahe, 01? rather ^arih, eaUed OnaqittaphenogaWt 
and flowa^iQisgh iit^indtpl^in a^ ^ot^ ahou| 

I jo miies^to the> beean* wirk, tddch it mi&dnscatet 
between the {Mtnts aC. Amdia A#d I'albeHf s iilaildi| 
lat. ^of" 44'r aod ?» nawijahlc for vefiVb of c<i|i(l4en^ 
burthen for 96 ^ trnte^v- Its, banlis aff^id MSin)|i|i(f|< 
quantities of fi^te- tiniber» . i^ited |6 the #e(l tt^ 
market. •'■"., 

f The riverain^^^ mid^e and wct^is p(it^^^> thia 
State, are Apa|achicbla« wHii^h'H jf^nned l^f ^ CMl» 
hoiH#e^^€)iiu^ riiiers* llobil^jPaTisag^^ isd^lPtoil 
mevr^ ABi^eli rttMiagfoa^ardtft^ikyitteliii 
G«|f«i|Mcako. : . 

t$t G E O R G I A. 

Oii*quapbenogaw« 'ties between Flint ^d OtJamil^t 
■rifeftf and it neavly 300 mUeff in '^ircunifereQce. In 
wet feaibm it appeau like #n inland Tea, and has (ev. 
era! larji^e iflands of rich land ; one of which* the preferi 
geiieration of Cteek Ii^diuiis teprcfent m the moft H\(sUl 
lp{it :<m earth. They fay it ia inhahitel} by a pecuUai 
racc*of Indians, wbrtTc women ^re inceraj'artWir beaup 
tiful. They tdl you silfo that this terreih j .^l p;iradii€ 
hat been fees by i^nie enterpiriKing hunters, when in 
purfnit of their game, who, being -Inft in inextiica' b 
iWtfo^ «nd bops, and on the ptointof penfhing,:wcre 
tineapeiiledir rciif:Ted bya company dfbcantrfuJ w oirien, 
■whom they call 'k?i^^s of iht Juiu^ who kindly gave 
thrm fttdi provinon^ as ihcy Wi with them, conAiVng 
f»f fruit, and com en -it v., and Lbon cnjoihed them to fty 
foriilfcly to tfieir «m'i couni^y» becarv^fe their hnibandi 
were fierce men and cfuel to, ftrangors.^ They iltrthci! 
(ay, ihat thde .hunters luui a view xif thdf fettlemerus, 
^tiiated«on Uie ei^ated banks, of an ifland; in a> beau< 
trfnl'lake ; but that in 4ieir tndea:vou]f& to appioftch it, 
tibey were ifi^oMred in perpetual labyrin&St and, like 
enchanted 'i<i!u}s» i|i|l as they imagiikcci thj^ hadjuft 
gaim'd it. It feeme^ to % Iwfore, them* rThey deter« 
mined '^t length to quit the deluHve purfoit, and m^th 
tmich diSculty efe^ed a retreat. When they reported 
tb%tr adventures to their countrymen r the, youog war* 
tiors were inflamed 'widi an irreftftible deiire to invade 
and conquer fochkrming a country,' bat aU their at- 
tempts hf d Jiitheito proved IVnitlefs \ they never being 
able a^atb to find the fpot. They tell anodier ftory con- 
eernin^ this icqneftercd country, whick feems not im- 
prdbabie, %i^luch is, that theinttabfiantsare the poftet4tT 
«f a fugitive mmdaiit of the ancient Yamaies^ who, e£> 
^?P*"^ inai&cre, after a bl<fedy and d«ci|liye batUe be<» 
iwfecn them and^^e Creeks, (jvhci, itisontain, coi^uer. 
ed, and nearly exterminated that once powerful people )^^ 
llaic found an afyium, remote and ftcure from the fury 
oi! their f^oudt conquerors^ 

^'pfHtft^i%m.\ TheJate feat ctf" governnbent In thit 
^*^ ivts Aoguibu. It is lUtuated oil Chi ibuthwdk 



b^tik (ifSi^fmoah nrer» which ii here abootiJfooTvdt 
vTidt, aboot 14^ miles from the fea^ and 127 northwed 
rfS>(?a]iiiah. - 

S:i>/anr«ah» the former capital of Georsta, ftandtbni^ 
|^^1\ lat ij bloC on the fouth fide of the river of the 
fame nai:K . and 17 miles from its tiouch. The town it 
r4'g;it ^i[ly b'^^io'the fortn of>f ptrallelogram. 

Sanhaif m a fittall fea-port town, 40 mileli forthward 
of Savannah»aQd has 4 fafe and ^ery con vcrJent harbour. 

Bruofwick, in Glynn c6iiiity> lat. 31^ 10' is fitaate4. 
at the nioavli of Turtle riycr, at which ^lace this river, 
empti':^ itfelfinto St. $imon*s Soand. Brunfwick has 
i ;Vfe and capaciaiis. harbour ^ and tlie bar at the en- 
trance inia It, has water deep enough for the largest 
vefTel that fwims. '^ * . 

Frederica, on the iHapd of St. Stnion, is neariy in 
lit. 3 1 • I /. It is the fir li to^n ^^t wtis huljt in Geor- 
gia, and ^'^s founded by General Pglisthorpe. The 
town contains but a few houfe^^, W^iich i|^suidonaneilsi*« 
nencf) if Qonfidered with regar(| to the niirijbes befoxii 
it, upon ^ branch of AlataAiaha river, which walbei^ 
the weft fidie of this ^g|«e^Ie ifl^nd, and forme ; a htf 
before the tqwn^ a^Qr(}io||; U fafe and fecure harbour for 
veiiels 1^ the largieft'^burthen^ whi<ji may lie aldiig the 
wharf.' .' 

Waf hington, ^the ^hief town in die county of Wi)]G6f« 
is fituated in lat. 33^ ±z*, about 50 miles northweft<^ 
Augufta. It had, in 1 798^ s^'court-houie^'gaQl, 34 dwdl« 
ing houfes, and an acadenny, whofe iundS amounted to 
about 800/. ftfrling, lUid the number <^ ftudesits to Itjet 
tween 60 and 70. 

The to^iVof LouifviR^, which is the prefeiBt feat p^ 
goji^emmebt in this ftaie^ has been laid put and boHt 
on the bank of Ogeecheetivert' about 70 niiles froxii il» 
mouth. . ' "'^ ^ ,V '. '"'■■' ' '*_ . 1"' '' " ■ . ■' ' " ' 

Ssil, PmhtShifi, tsfcj The M ^tld its Utrpi^ trt 
various, accorc^ng to fituadon ahd dllTerienl ^pr6^ 
merit* liie iflands on the fea board. In their i^i^tir^ 
date, are covered with a plentiful gttiwtktffj^ie,^^^ 
hiccory, live oak, (atk un<fo]hm^y hai^ I^v4'>ery 
nliud>leWcx>d) and fome ltd eeckir. lyMisiai itttie*' 

X ',-tttr^"' 


G s o n^o t K. 

vmi 6thod mi %Mi loinild, tnsiliog mti$i}i oomoiai^ 

wax, Waflaw* O^l^air, $L CatSurine's. 3ii|k)ot FVed. 
fftjca, Jekyl, Cumberland aiud Aisie|ia« 

The fon of tU ma!t» land, adjoining ^t marfltef aii4 
creebf is nearlf of ibe ^cfit iiuality witl^ tMt Of the 
iilandtt ^cept diat wl^ bdrdert ontiidftnlFetvand 
c^ks utrhich ftretch faic^cki^ti6tbe cdm Qq 

thefe, imnMBdiatelf after rem Uvrt tbt 6ltf»\1^rii the 

pfelent priocipal Itaple of coihnlercc. 

'iThe foii between 4ie rivers, after tool^Te the fea 
board and the ed|^ of ti^e fwampai» t^ the dt^ance of 20 
or $6 inileij cfaatoges/roM a grey to a red cok^t* on 
wl^ieh grow {deiity of oajc and hiccory, with a confider. 
Ii^leintennrsi^ure of mne* To thi« land of land fuc- 
fe^f, Upturns, a vA near]^ blaeki and very r^h, on 
whicitik grow very large qiuptitiet of black watnnti fiul- 
^^ry, 8ic. 'in ibit^tate n^c prodn^ed, l|^ ciiUiift, ^ice, 
indigo, cot|$>Q, $Uc, jt}u)ugbndtin4ar^e^uan|ffles) In. 

ftn com» potftoei, oraogest Sjgs,. pomegriMka^ &c. 
ce, at prefeni;, ^ is thie naple commodity 1 arid as a 
^ pr^iporcion oniydpf therfce ground is under cul. 
4va^n,'thLe|iuantity 4:a^e4Vin /iieu^^ »»& >£ inuch 
^j^reatjcr j^an at pjr;erenL 

fViiikoi the tropical teu wbnld fbufrih m thii 
Sfeate with i>X!0per jittcntion. The tic e plant his been 
ti'fuiAi^nMdi -fl^id alfo the tea pl^nt/ of ^'hich fuch im« 
A)e|:^ ^itaiU^i&s .are confuin^ in tlie United ^tate^ 
#118 Jn^od^ced into Oeofgia, hy Mr. Samu^ Bowen, 
fjbdn.t 4^c year j 7 70; from India* Tiie feed was dif- 

,_._,, , . , . the plant now jj^ows^ withou| cy ^tivatfoni 
In inoft' t>f thfc fenced lou in Savannah. ' ^^ "^ . 

f^rcwa mf ny jConQdeisition^, we may jp^i^^^ v^ture 
Wf !|^«^r tlia^i<iie fp«i^ of the State,, apd 

l8|^j;^.0f mi iind Wt^ l^n\^ whicli lie J^join- 
^1^^^% ^ lbil{^ Ki|te toney b«c0«$€ the '^/in^rdof 

i;:<;^Mflrm^;,^ ,^,4fivii^ '*3rt»,..chicf 



tf at WiUpi 9Plf* eiportc4 in the year r^88». nhont 
•lOPO M^uiciidtJ tttdiffo, fiuQ» Inmhtf of vanous iriddH 
iuv4ft<)t^* kanier, aeerflcint, fiiake roott my tde and 
beef wtf , cdm and live (Uclr. tlic plantcit and hnsk- 
fnraiff jar^ ftbckspfcfattlc^ ffom loooto i50ohea«{» 
and fbm^ fnore# 

Tfie sfiAbiQit of cxfK^ in tfie ytar 9»AHig l^eptem- 
hef |odi, ,1794, was 49,3)472 doIlaM. In retarnlor tlie 
covmcfatied pipottt, fjf^ imt>bfced,. Weft Tadia goodi, 
teas, yrismt Ti^tts artielM j^f cloiking, ailfl dry gboda 
ofalllcitfdi^lbm tl)i)^nVcbeY99iate»^ .>cfe, nl|i*po. 
tatnes, ap^jfs^ cider|.ind ftoei^ The ..(amncr ^^ Whiolir 
At mdigo n <ittl^vaEt)j and niaii^i^^uried ib as follows : 
The grouhcf WEith inaft be a ftronc, <tch foiV tybrown 
^toMf 01 7^ 8 feibtwide* aiftf r Hving b^m made 
?er]r mellow, knd is t|)e& raked till it is Ibl^cmherited* 
the feed b diejn ibwn, in Aprif, in rows ai tncb a d|f» 
lance irs^oni^eni%n|ll^ to admit of toeing ffiiVt^tcn them.- 
Iti lalYi t&e firft^erpjlli ik to cut,;befng commonly tw^ 
aiuftao«lf fieet>^ & is^ then tfirown into Vatfrcon- 
l^ifted for tiie ^ur^A^, and fteepcd abou|( ^ ^mt s | 
aj!br whtcli,, w ^^Wot is drawn ofl^ inip (^Acr vat V 
Inhere ijt is 6eaff^ a|^A(ey, call it, by wluck maaM it iil 
t^roifn(i into i|Rud»itich i^te of ^tatifl^, as cream t$ 
t^y chiirnmi^w Aifter thfS jiroci^s, ^ms ^er 19 pnx ioM^: 

tlje liquor,^ whiph^caiiieiiiiefiarticletof MiSp ^pffV^ 
at the bottom.: Tlie Kqiior i» tieo d)^#n ot» and tii# 
fedimentr wluch t^ ^ ihdtgo, nr taken, oijif «»4 ^P!^ 
on cloths^ and partly djHed *» it is i&on jpi^ ipp^ jM>||fr 
and prcftd,^ and Vjhile it is feiBfoft, jcut im^^i^'^'^ 
us which are thrown into the fun to 4tft 9/i4 
putup in caflcs for the market, tliey h^ve «M)I 
three cottin^' xCtsUmw^ A^iplddlii^ crop for 34a^lf% 
» tjopponnd*. 

ipply to the iplialHt^b at laj|e^ C^lc^de^ iWtti. ' 
feirent pam of ^^W» at iSeiji^fti iie<e|utyr^ I 
iftatiofl Hd^bem* ' l!i»tr chai^^ef ai^d M 
eourfe, pattake oia^ the Yaxieties 'iiibifiadij(Unp|p^l|J^ 
ftvcral Slates :|^ klE^onM lM>iKt whd(^,^i <i0)e. 
"mi^k G»)kmmmi^i^ iMi Uif di|k# tA trtc« 


<S E 6 lit 15 i ii. 

labour it too pitdoasunaiit^ o^ng in jpitit to iHeivlai 
Inft heal of Oie climate, and panly t6 the want of n«. 
cefiit/ CO escht inc^ftry, 'An l>peti and frieiftdSy hod 
piufity, ttutltftihu^ly to ftrsfti|^eis^;il ai: <$i«aias<!atal 
charaacnftic of a great' past dFtliit people. 

JUligioiiiJ 1%e aiK)lrt>itane«^of th^ Suite, whoprq. 
fdft fUt^brjUMan t^oii, M cif tite I^%ten^;%ir. 
C4>]jafia(i» B^ptMl i(fdSitfiei)ioai& ^d«tibib^i^at^4^ They 
baVe hvt a feinr tegola^ soiiifteyi W(^ntt thVsn. ^ 

Gyibtfloiiu} The pitKetu' ccm£^ituti%( of tKlir Stait^ 
l^ai formed and e^ltablfnied in %tee y«iur Y7fi|$, 4n<^ >u 
tMarlr^poo tbe pf«D of thcf coomititid^ of the Vmu4 

^taUtflkerihm:^ T|ie Ikerftureof (his States Wkic^ 
llyet ittHf infancy, is commencing on a plan which 
hronds th# dioft fl^t^ring profpe^^ The charter con- 
taining their prefent iyftem of education, Wait piD(f«i4 la 
tHe year I79|. A coUege, Krithiunple and Ubersd en. 
dowmedti, it kOHttst^d hi JUttifvme, % pgt anl 
^althy Mft of l^e «buimi. nekr t^e ^etitrl of the 
States : Theti i» alTc : pf ov0on inade ibr th^ Infttcu* 
lion ol* in arad^ ^.f »\ in each' <^mtf 'm. th^lState^ 
k^ b« fn^orted from the fan)* fund^, kiid confider* 
iijijt ports and memh^Yi of ^ lame in^ttttion/un* 
m i^ ji^eral fiiperintendrace a^ dii«^fbn of a jftref. 
Id^tiHiid hoarid of &ttft«es» appotnte4 (br thdk liteibty 
'jIl^^^Miaienii, j^ the different j^arti of the dtiate, 

V^fttdHK^ql the ^Qftotbary p6iii«rs of corpodiitioiis. 

Ut fimie^ft Ifatit «<^po&d> li dimdmSnattd ^Hu 

% ^Ito ffiii bodt # to ilirhdM iii ehtt^A^d the 

ii2r«i^i6& 6f ^ %M(SJr^;fit($raJtkrft of th« S^te, ft^a^ not 
Mjb (to^ and Ind^pende^^^ aa tm tb jj^/f^il)- the 
5<ifi4*flce^tli^ SK«e J and in ordSc fo fecure liie at. 
iefitio^ fiA4 ^Itrbiia^ of tht prhfoipal ,oMcfi^ of go^- 
^muiiMtlil.;tfio'g^erf^ snd eodiicil^'pe Qteaiier^Qfthe 
ho^tdf a^ the chief Idfticd of the State, 

a^iiNiit^1ri#|he hoard (^ttm^ft fo fbmt of thg 
greit and tbs^it Imtgak' dntiei of i&m o^e ;. fikh ai 

Mii$i| like mm^^^s^^^^^i^^^ii^^ 

P^l^ir^> a&4%^ttttiiig acadeaaks. llius afibdatedi 


m^ hold J a«tMl 4a&iipl OM^tu^ i| wl^ tte 
tit to ii cwf thcSi' lAftniAioiis iuiMm- wttf turn o***^*^***- 

tf o£cert^ ar dlffi swmiiil mMiiog of th< ic«p^,, I9 4«^ 
I|()eiate 00 the genemi intere^ of ]iKi»4iir*i( «p4i^ <l^ 
tbrmlne on tbe coiuj^ of. in(bniaton ibr lli« y W^ 
tbroagKout the^Miireriity. The pre(ld<ot bu t^mnt 
traldtorgraf^^OTerfiglitQf the wholf^. »|ip It tfom 
ftme mtm^ tay'£t t^Qi, t9 exMrn^e^iiHi^ timf ^r^ft^ 
»)d p«^orn»fices.. 

1^ iiiii4i for tlittfappon of tbit ifMlUatibir«ic;|ini^ 
eipally^a lajMs^^niptaotin^Jii t|ie wlwl^ to a||ogi^ ifor 
tkouMiid«CfCfr ag^e^ piirt of wiu^ is ol^thf J|«ft'qi|fl{L< 

Aoufend paiwflf. ft«UngJi^ |>Wia^ lufofiE/i 9)4, toiPI«^ 
wUfin the. tovra or Augufta. Qauir puUf^- flPpcr^ 
to thi^^a^^ of: i^c?. in^ each cottnijry, ^f.jJ^iS. 
sqj^fcw themirpofef of kfmm^^^Pmm 

^•m^ BMt of tb^d^te,^d .411^1^6 a^ i^PI^ 
opijnt, is 2^- or j^<5^foj3s^oC siji^^ l^fp#' 


<IB'0R G'lA.: 

temptiblci opialo» of tite whit* meii'i Mth in mci4 
•hai^iherf pcbple, ytt thev pitce gritt confiaeace \^ 
the Uoittd Static mi4 wifli to atfrce #k1i them upot 
A perttaieiit ^otodwj, o?er whfch the foothem ftatet 
iiitt not trefpA*. Th#]r are fetded In a hilly, but not 
BioimtriiDOttt ^coanti^r. The iba is fruitftil i<i a higft 
degree^ and well watered, aboandifw in creeki and* 
fif ii1ete» Iftmi whence they are called the Onek Indkmt. 

The.CJhbAawi, or flat-.heads, idhabit a very ike and 
extenit^ traft of hilly, country) with hrge and fertile 
plains intertcninjl, between the Alabama and MlflEifipi^ 
rivers, in the welern part of this ftate. This> nation 
had^ not matiy years ago, 45 toWns and villages, in 
Ihree divifionif conoliniog i a, i a^fools^ of which 4^041 
«aere fighting knen. 

The ChicKafaws are fettled at the head branches o( 
ihrTonibecMi>ee, Mobile and YazOo riVers,, in the north- 
weft corner- of the ^ftate. . Their country is an eztenfive 
plain, tolerably well. watered ftom iiKrings, and a pretty 
gtiod' foils lliey have mkn towns, the central one of 
w^^cb is in litHude p^ 15', and longitude 14* $0* "weft, 
from FhihkblphiA,, Thf n^imbert of fouls in this oa. 
lion luiTe bectt fcnrm^ly. reoltoqed at 1725, of: which 
5^5. Ii^^^i^gwto. 

Jl^^*i^^'f^^ of' a colony betweM tBc 
ItKer^QavaniuiK and Alatansiiha, was ln<£dicated in Cng- 
ftnd in t73;ji^ for the acconnn^odation of poor people m 
•12k(>i»at Britain and Inland^ and ff r tbe further fecnxity 
"^i^^QliijfaB^ Mr^ate tampion ^d piliblic fpirit, con.. 
^flhred tb t^dn^#tl^ It^iiievolent de%tt. Huinaae and 
Opulent ini^ fil||^eda\ plan for tr^nfporti^g anna- 
lier.of:indf^eintlMiN!if».lo this part of Affiteriea,f^ee of 
^4(«p^«* Ii6r.i3iis |!KD^|iMff ^y ipplitd 10 King Otoige 
fl; and ^ob^ed J^ram hftin ktterf p^ 
1^ 9!fehk if^kyfyr letallf ^arryflig into ealtetion 
What 1^. faadjfcv^n^ projc(fted^ l^ey ca}fed t)ie 
J|(»W province '^^Ot^^i b l«n)ioilfVcClbCv|^iEig,^'^ 

Iliiriiig tllQ^^ Sit tan 6^^ 


Mwi ^ftpBlHHwwt SB 

dictfi WMl»iM'4l|i^ vtftltbi. i» Ji Mr <i^M Ratine 
Since tlit^p«ie«^tht |>r»gr^ of 1^ fopiilMitMMlC,tli|| 
BtaU hu bM« nlH^ ^ gn)wth is niproTti^Ent aad: 
poptflatkm l|«i Nm; di^cked by.llle lK>at1e irni|Xiqii 
6f tht Oeek Mimh ^kk hmt9 bcoih freqtient «im1 
ferf diftfefiinff «> tlle'/rontkr ioliabiumti.. Ttoi^ 
liafe beiB hdiS, iukI »tdlai|pti of holl&hfa Agreed i| 
between the parties t and itiia ex pe^ ilptr permit 
fient peace wUl Anmi^e COiidaded, Mkif'jI^iliqvilUtf 
reftorad to tbe Stftte. See HcuMt'i Hift.> ftJmoliiM. 
and Georgia, and^Amer.vUnm.Gcpg. ^ ' 



Spanifii Dominions inRAmericaw 

i V 


jbcftgth 660T u..--^^ f25^and3i»N:Jatitade* 
BreadA tjoj «»«^'^ ^ 5*^i7* W,loii.from»Mfc 

n^i^r, ^ l>^2ttJNDED north} !»y Giortfia reaft,. 

^T^^*'^ :E>:%yv the Atlantic ocean; finth. byr 
Ihe Giiir of lyfesico^ ivea, >; tbe MiOiftplri j lyif^ in: 
tbeforfti of^an /i^ ^» 

: .A^tn, iii^irxi/fiu^'^irJi^f.T' Among tlitt-Htrer^ 46(t' 
•JMl Into the Atlantie, Sts J[onnV and Indian rifers are- 
^e pf inci|»I. ' ^ ^ U 

bfem^jA^palMhicf^ Chata^ht^ Efc^^ 

Witi JPMb^idsb ^ B^l riirerfrfiU rift in t G^ngia* . 
^andrutt lottiiifFly iniatbeGtdf of MH^^ 

-(2fei^}^ iVlttiy. littleciiibreitt lh>tfl that of G<|09|jii 
M>iM^ i?lr««4^NMii.} The>«' ar«» in thie eoiimrf , a 
fliM «4!^.^tosr IMtiiaeni palt^ it; neir^d: 

ilfuflf-^h»^&3m^'^ ^' ^ ^MAcinvMiAia i; fit: 


tm w^mvj^mfmm^^ 

bere, fW9.ero{ti<^i)»<liap^o^si>jrear are j^pduced^ 
TIm banU of Ui« riiNtn wim^ water the Boridat» an4 
Aie parts conttgiioWr«r« o^ftibpciior^oallnh and well 
gdbipud ft) liie fviltoceof rioeaoa cpriv wfa^e the moit 
int^toc cosMRrj^ ^h|c)|(9hMEbaiui.l4eafanty ahoiu^ 
m}^ v<K)df,o£4pipft«ver>ikw4- |;,pfUtMnilar]gr whitea&4 
M.da^Uee mI|( jauf fl m»gim^% pjde, l^^ccomcf prtfs| 
f)e4 a|i4 wliiiie eedan Thf Uve oaltt, tfa»ium nor ull|, 
iPB^^ififl^jpTpUigipai qualify, qf tln^ci*^ l!artnipk is 
geQctu^tfom 1^ to 29^£t9i ia cHxi^nfcrence^ aiid nfes 
to or 1^ feeillom t|;f eaitli an4;tl>en bmncbeji iatp 
4* or 5: great liinbt» whicb grow in nearl^ a horizontal 
jtrcdion^ formthg a gentle curve.. ** t have ftepped,'^ 
fkyt Barbam,^ ** above co paces on, ft' ftraighl Itnei 
lirom the trunk of one of thefe trees to the extremity of 
the limbs."' They are evergreen^ and thevroodalmoli 
iocorruptibk.- They besu^. a> great qitantity> of fmall 
dfpfMf; y^'^eh Ti^alce an agreeable fpod^. when rpaft^d^, 
and from which the Indians extras a. fweet.oily.wbkbi 
they nie in cooking honrimin]^:^4riee«- 

The laurel magnolia is the mpft-beatitifld'among'tlie' 
trees of thcforci^, a^d t»n^aUy loofee^high $,thoagb> 
ibme ar<» much htghen. The trunk is perfe6^ eredt^, 
ftdng in the form uf a beautiful CQlunm,nand Aipporting; 
a he^ Jiillle an obtu«*e cone. The fiowersr aroLcm the ex*- 
trsmiti^s of. tbebranche»»<^ax:e large* whit^ ai](d expand- 
ed iike.a* rofe, and the largeft and moft ciMnplete of any 
yet,know<».i; wlien fully expanded^ thef are ft'pm 6 to g) 
inches, in diameter, and havftamoft dcfieiousflragrance*. 
The cypr^ i* tl^e laijgcltpf the ^meriean trees. ** I: 
have feeii trunks of thefe trees," iay^ Bartram» *^ th»t 
■uouldnitafure &« to, and il^feei in d#ameter» for 4a) 
s^ 50; ft<t ftra^ht fiiaft.'^ The trunkii make excelleiitc 
ibinglcsi boardsr.aod otherttimhefs$.an(d;whtn holloa 
•dt make dutablfMWid conveoitot caaoefi. ^ Wheu' thr 
|Ja«ier$ fi^U thf^ avghtfttrcesj tijief rai£|^0agi».rpuiid 
tnem» as high ts,t<> teach aheve this b«Ht|i«0i|'rPfXthM' 
fiiage ^ or iQ inegrof* afcefiii wit]». ^H^^jsiu^midr fal^ 
to w<u^J$ voi3ikd its twak." , r- ^^^ v ??><• 

Trlie imerfak^ween thfi hiUy pm o( thiii ^<ittat# 

^-' ' . ^ 

SPAyi^WDdMIl^ndNS in l^. AMEIIICA. Si 

Chief h^o^l St. AuausTiMs/ ^ capiul of Ea^ 
Florida, is iHuated on the fca-coaft, latitude 29^ 45*^^ 
ii of an oblong fi^urei and intericded by four i]breets 
wliich cut each oth^r j^^^^y pg^^** l^c town i» 

The pnnfci^ town in Weft IFlori^ts Pkksacola^ 
latitude 50^ 22'; U Hes aldbg^ the beatcKv, afi4»,fike Su 
i^ugulline, is of an oblong form. The JmT|^i|^W^ich 
the town tands, fbribs a vtry colnmoai9t^B|j[9Ur^ 
and veffpls may ride hfcre iecure from ^crf;: 

/fi^try.J Thi Florldas ha?re experienced the vtci& 
fitudes of war».and frequentl]^ clianged mafters, belong* 
ing akei^nfttely to the French' and Spaniards. Weft 
f1orida> a$ &r eaft as Berdid(^ nVer, was owned and oo» 
cupied by the ^ench ; the remainder^ and all Bad 
Florida» by the Spaniards) previous to their being ce-^ 
Qcd to the Ehglifli, at'the peace of if^^' '^^ ^M^^ 
divided this country into Eaftan^ "Weft Blpriiaa^Tbef 
were c^ded by Spain to the Englifh at^'the peace c« 
»76|. Bttxittg the lail^ar,. they were reduced: by th^- 
iirms of his Cathq}ic Majefty, aiki guaranteed to tht; 
erown of Spain> by the 4eBA>tive treaty of 17 $3* 

. t Q 1P^ I J I A N A. 

ISimdarhi 1 tioUNBED by tfee Kiffifippi^^aft %. 
*^ JOihy the Gulf of Mexico, foulh ; by 
Hew Mexico, weft ^ and runs inde6nitely north. Vti» 
der the l^rench, gdVen^tnent, Louifiana included both 
fides of the Mi9i^ppi» fi^m its mouth to the lUinoiir 
and back from t;he rlvet>. eaft and weft indefinitely.. 

Riiiers.^ It is intcrfed^ed by a number of fine riv* 
ers, among. Vriiich are St. Fxancisi navigable about 25p» 
or 500 miles $ the liatchkoches, the Adayes or Mexican 
ho riT;er, and the river P^ouge, oa wUch, it is well 
known» are as rich filver mines as any in Mexlcd. 
This is fuppoioi to be one, principal reafon, why the 
exclu(l?e navigation of the MlHUfippi has been fo mucli 
ioiifted on by Spiixu 






( €(tfiik^J} NiwOAi4AMt» It ftands on the ctft 
idc of the Mi0i(ippi, 105 mUc» frofn its mnmh, in lai. 
kbde 30** }' north. Its advant:^es for trade are Ter| 

Jtelij^imf Oovmnmnt, tfc."] The grester part of the 
vhite iphttbitant* are Roman C^hoUcs. Thtj are 
governed ^ a.Vtcero)r frooi S|>aun» and the number of 
mhahili^ti is unknown. 

SoHy and ProJm^J JLomruna is agreeably 
litttipiPbttwecn ^e ex^reniea of iMat.and ccnd* lu 
climate vliries as it extent towards the nortiu The 
fouthern partly Ijring #miin the reach pf the r«frefliin| 
b^eetes from^th^^ay^ arf^not feorched HVe tHc»(e under 
the fame latitude^ %n ^^sfinca;. and itsnorthiern regions 
are colder tliantheie of Europe; uxider the fame paral. 
leU^tvith 9^ Avhoteftune ferene air. *'To -^^jge of tfaui 
,|>roduce to be^ e»pe^«d from the foil of Ijouidansi let 
tts ttnm our eyes t^: £g]fpt, ./l^abia^eru, Fferila, tttdii^ 
Chlna» and J^paiH ^ IrnjS ^ iforrefponding latitudes^ 

l^ the nottLeri^ part or J^jmifianat 4|> roHes bdof 
the month of the Ohio rhrefr- on die we& bank of the 
MiffiiippV-r a (ettiement is commenbing^. condu<fte4 bf 
Col. Morgan, of New Jerfey, Under the pannage or 
thiP .SpaQi& king. TbP fppjt pij whic^ the city is pro- 
pofedi to be built, i« called New Madrid, after the cap* 
ital of Spain, and is^ m north latitude 36^30'^ 

The country in the vicinky of this intendod city, k 
reprefented as excellent, in nMtny part? beyond; defcrip- 
lion. The natural growth connfti o^mirlberry, locutt, 
faflaft^s,. walnut, hiccory, oak, a(h, dog wood, 5ec. witb^ 
one or more gra^e vines running up almcft tvtty tree ; 
i^c grapes yield, from experiment, good red wihe in 
plenty,, and with little labour. In fame of the low 
grounds gro^ lafge cjrprefs treds. 'The cour.trf is in- 
terfperfed wift priaries, and new and then a cane patch 
«f a himdred,. and- feme of a thoufand acrcsv Thefc 
priaries have no trees on them, but are fertile in* grafs,. 
flpurering pkmts, ftrawberries, and> when cultivated, 
ivoduce good ctops of wheat, barley, Indian corn, iiax,- 
Itia)^^ and tabaccOi, and ace eaHIj tifled. The climate 



\iC%td to be Bnronrable for healtliy aott the cvltsre c| 
fruits of various iinds^and particalarly for garden >eg> 

It is well known, thtt ttttpUtt 1ms been trarelUng 
from tad to weft. Probably her laft and broadeft feat 
will be America. Here, the fctences, and the arts of 
ciyiiized life ar6 to receive their btgheft improTements. 
He?e, civil and retigiotts liberty are to f}oiir«lh, whack- 
ed by the cruel hand of civil or eccleilafticsd ^llinf* 
Here, gemus aided by all the improvement of former »- 
ges, is to be exerted m humanizing mankind, in expand- 
ing and enriching their ininds with religsous and f^ilo- 
Ibphical knowledge, and in planning and ezcfcuting a 
fonn of government, which (haft involve all the excel* 
lencies of former governments, with as few of their de- 
feds as if confi((ent with the imperfeAion of human )tf- 
fairs$ and which (hall be calculated to proted and unite, 
in a manner conAftent with the natural rirhts of man- 
kind, the larged empire that ever exifteX Elevated 
with thefe proi^As, whtisli are not merely the viiions of 
fancy, we cadnot but anticipate the periodt as not far- 
diftant, when the jimerican Emj^te will comprehend 
millions of fouls weft of the Mimfippi« Judging upon 
probable grounds, ^e MiiHApipii was never defigned as 
the weftetn boundary of the American empire. The. 
Ood of nature never intended, that fome of the bc^ 
parts of his earili (hould be inhabited by the fubjedts of a 
monarch 4000 miles from them* Andjnay we not ven- 
ture to predi^, t|iat, when the rights of men fliall bt 
more fully known, (and the knowledge of them is fad 
increafiBg both in Europe and America) the power of 
European potentates win be confined to Europe, and 
their prefent Ainorican dominions become, Uke tlie 
United States, free, fovereign and. independent empires. 

HiJioiy^2 '^^^ B4lSnppi, on which the fine country 
of Louiliana is fituated, was firft difcovered by Ferdk 
nand de ^oto, in 1541. Monfienr d* h Satle was the 
firft who traversed It. He^ in the year 1682, having 
pafled do^wn the mout3i of the Miffifippi, and furveyea 
the a^ja/cent country, retiumed to Canada,^lrom whenca 
he toA paiTage to France. 





^lE'rom the flattering aceouius which he gave of the 
eountrj, and the coiuequential advantages that would 
accrue fromiettlifig a, colony in thofe parts, Louis XIV, 
yflW induQf d to eftablilh a company for tlie purpufe. 
Accordingly, a fquadron of four ireflfeU, aniiply provj. 
4ed with men an^ provifions, under the command of 
MonHeur de la Salle, embarked witli an intention to 
f'ZtU v^RT the mouth of the Miffilippi. But he unin- 
tenuqippy iailed a hundred leagues to the weftward 
of .1, micre he attempted to et>abUih a colony ; but 
through the unfavourabienefs of t'le climate, moft of 
his 1/ en miferably perifhed, and he himfetf was villain, 
oufly murdered, not long after, by two of his own men. 
Mon^jeur Ibberv-ille fuccceded him In his laudable at- 
tempts. He, after two fuccefsful voyages, died while 
preparing for a third. Crozat fucceeded him ; and in 
i'Jjmt the king gave him Louifiaiia. This grant con. 
tinucd but a ihort time after the death of Louis XIV. 
In. 1763, Louifiana was ceded to the king of Spain, to 
whqm it now belongs* ;. 


Situation and Extent. 


Length 2too\ i^..^^^ J 9° and ^c'^ N. latitude. 
Breadth 1600 J ^^^^«^" ^ 18' and 50° V^. longitude, 

to :> ' "O OUNDED north, by unknown re« 
Houndanef.] J^ ^y^^^ . ^^^^ ^^ Louifiana and the 

Gulf of Mexico ; fouth, by the Ifthmus of Darien, which 
feparates it from Terra Firma in Soutii America ; weft, 
by the Pacific Ocean. 

Gram! Di'ojfwns.'] This vaft country ii divided as 




vc of the 
at would 
mis XIV, 
>ly provj. 
nmand of 
mention to 
: he unin. 
ony ; but 
e, moft of 
as villain- 
own men. 
ndable Ht- 
iied while 
n ; and in 
)ran't con* 
oiiis XIV. 
■ Spain, to 


. longitude* 

nknown re- 
ma and the 
arienp which 
;rica J weft, 

ditidcd as 

Or:uid XKTifi«M. Aiidic>ne«g. ftatiBcct. Chief T<mM. 

(Galtcta rrOiMcli^xiii, 
Old Mexico. ^ Mexico 9 < Meicico* N.Jaft. t^* til 

(.Oaatimah 6(^OmtiaaS»^* 
New M^ico ( Apachein Ca. *_ ^^ 1^ \^ «. 

Caiirornia, pti the weft* « tieoiafula. St Jiisui. 

Fa%' of tie Cdwitty, Rivert, Lakt, ami Fwmilii^.j-- ■ '.The 
l.ind i'; m great pan abrupt and motintainoas^ ea(«ei«|L 
with thick woods, and watered with large riveri. Some 
of ihels run into' the Galf of Mexico, and others into 
the Pacific Ocean. Among the firft, arc AWanido, 
Cnat/acuako, andTitbarco. Among ithe latter, is the 
river Guadalaxara, or Great R^ver. 

There are I'cveral lakes, which do not lefs enil 

the country than give convenience to the commei 

the people. The lakes of Nicaragua, Chi»patt9n> US' 

1 Paaquaro, are among tl^ largeft . The h|kes t*et%ac<» 

and Chalco w^ccupy a gre%fepart of the vale of Mexico^ 

which is the fir^eft tradt of^ltintry in New Spain. The 

[waters of Chalco are fweet, thofc of Tetzuco AT^hrgtik' 

|i:h. A canal unites theiti. The lower lake (Tetzuco| 

|w?.s formerly as much as 20 tniles long and 17 broad* 

pd lying at the bottoip of the vale, is tlie refertoir of 

|a!l the watfeis from the furrounding moantains. The 

city of Mexico ftands on an ifland in this lake. 

In this country are interfperfed many fountains of 
lifFerent qualities. There are an infuiity g£ nitrous, 
fulphureous, vitriolic, and alluminous mineral tsratcrs, 
jfome of which fpring out fo hot, that in a fliort time 
fny kind of fruit or animal food is boiled in them. 
["here are alfc petrifying Waters, with which they tnake 
|tt!e white fmooth ftonis, not difpleafmc to the taifte 1 
papings from which, taken iirbroth, or tn gry;el, made 
|f Indian coi^'n, are moft powerful diaj^oretics, and 
Ire nkd with remarkable fuccefs in various kinds of. 

It CfJmfe.J 

'A J I * ^^ * ci^^B^** f^ alloVv'td u|> by At* eerthqaake, June 7 th^ 1773 
^i) inhabited 




CRmaH.'] The climate «f this extenfivt country ti 
irarioas. The maritime parts are hot, and for the inoft 
part moift and anhealthy. Cands, which are vex j high, 
or very near to high mountains, which are perpetu^ly 
covered with fnow, are cold ; there have been white 
ffotii and icef in the dog days. AU the other inland 
|>arti which are the mou populous, enjoy a climate fo 
inild ajld benign, that tbej neither feel the rigours of 
;w^tei:> nor the heats of funimer. No other are than 
"the iuii's rjiys is neceflary to give warmth in winter 4 
no other relief is wanted in the feafoos of heat, than 
the iliade ; the fame .clothing which covers a man in/ 
the dog d^ys, dd(iends ^m in January ; and the anim»ls 
^K^P sui the^ear uiider the open fky. But the agreea- 
1i^^ ,q{ the climate is counterbalanced by tender 
fio^m^f which are frequent in fummer, and b]f earih^ 
cf^pM, which at all feafonsitre felt, although with 1«£; 
,4a^ger than terror. 

MinertJs,'] The mountaiins^ .Me]^ico,at)Ound in ores 
.of' every kind of meul, anJv? great variety of foffils. 
The Mexican^'foundeold in various parts of their coun. 
try. They gathered mis precious metal chiefly in grains 
among theiand of the xiver. Silver wss dug out of the 
minei^ of Ilachcp, and others } but it was not fo much 
prized by them as it it by other nations. Since the coD' 
<^ueft, fo m?ny filver mines have been diicovcred in that 
icountry, efpeciaUy in the provinc/;s which ace to the 
northweft of the capital, that it is quite impoflSble to enu- 
merate them. There are entire mountains of loadftone, 
^nd among others, vne very confiderable, between 
T9oiltylan Jind Chllapan, in ^ country of the Co* 
.httixcaai. '^ 

Produ^imt.'^ However -plentiftil and rich the mineral 
kingdom of Mexico may be, the vegetable kingdom is 
j^ill more vWious and abundant. The celebrated Dr. 
Hernandez defcribes, in his natural hiftory, .about uoo 
plants, natives of that country { but ^s his defcription 
Is con^ned to medicinal plants, he has hardly compri- 
jfed one half of what provident nature has produced 
there for the benefit oi mankind. With re^€t to the 
0^fsf yegetahles, fome are eHeemied for thdr*^ lowers, | 




fome £oT their fruits, fome for their leaves^ ibxne for tlieir 
roots, foine for their trunk or their wood, and oJicrs 
for their gmn, refln, oil, or juice. 

The fruits, which ate original in Meiieo, are, pfrje^ 
apples, plum$,datei,and a greai variety of others. There 
are alfo many othenth«t are not original in the coun- 
try, viz. ti'ater-melonsr apples,, peaches, qui(\ees, apri'r 
cots, pears, pomegranates, Bgs> black cherries, walnutSr 
almonds, olives, chefnuts, and grr.pes. 

The cocoa nut,, vanilla, chia, great pepper, toixtsiti, 
the pepper of Tobafco, and cottour are very common^ 
with the Mexicaiis: WheaC, barley, peas, beans ;l^d 
rice have been fuccefsfuUy cultivated in this country. 

Wiih refpcA to plants which yieM profitable refin?,, 
^ums, oils orjiiices, tlie country of Mexico is Angular >^ 
ly fertile;. \A:- . 

AnimaLJ Of the q"}adrQpedes> fbme are anirien^and' 
feme are modem. Thofe are called modem, which 
wert transported from the Canaries and Europe into that 
country in the fixteenth%entury. Such are, horfeSj affe 
Bulls, (iieep, goats, ho^s, dogs and cats,- which have ali 
multiplied. Of the ancient quadrupedes, by which is 
meant thofe that frbm time immemoMal h»vc been in 
that country, fome are comtnon to both the contiuei^is 
of Europe and America, forrie. peculiar to thcne\v'w<iiid, 
others-nativ^ only of the l?ingdom of Mexico.. Thran* 
GJent quadrupedes common to I*lexko at^d ihe did con- 
tinents are, tigers, wild c;ijg,.. bears, wolves, foxes, the 
common (lags and white ftags, bucks, wild goal;, 
badgers, pole-cats, weafek,. marufiS, iqiiirreU». rabbi?:-, 
hares, otters- and rats.. 

BinUof Mtxico."] Their prodigious number, their v.i- 
riety,.and many valuable qualities, have occafioried dintf. 
authors to obfcrve, that, as Africa is the coimtry of 
beaftj, fo Mexico is the countiv of birds, k 'v. faid ti ere 
are two hundred fpecies peculiar to that kingdoii ; 
fome of which a rie valuable o^i account of their flefh, 
fome for their plumage, and fome for their for.g i wliih*, 
others engage car attention by their extraordinary in- 
ftind or fome other remarkable quality. Of birds which 
afford a wbol«fonic and agrecabls food, there are more 

. than 


tftaa 70 fptcict. There are 35 fpedes of Mexict^ 
birds that are fuperlativelf beautiful. The talLini; 
birds, or thofe which imitate the humac ircicc, are tob: 
Ibond in equal abundance in this coantry *. of thefe, tls 
jarrot holds the firft place. 

Cowrnmeni and Rehpou.'] The civil gorerbment of 
Mexico u adminiftered by tribunals called ^Audiences. 
In theft courts, the Viceroy of the king of Spain prefidcs. 
His employment is the greateft truft and power his 
Catholic majzily has at his difpofal, and is perhaps the 
richcfl government entrufted to any Cubje^ in the 
world. The Viceroy continues in ftf?ice three years. 

The clergy are extremely numerous in Mexico, 
The priefts, monks and nuns of all orders, make a fifth 
of the white inhabitants, both here and in oiher parts 01 
Spaitiih America. 

Chief Tff'wm and Commerce.'] Mexico is the oldeft city 
in America of wlisch we have any accoiint ; its foun< 
dati6:it being dated as far backas 1 32^. It is fituated 
id tne charming vale of MexicWo^ feveral fmall iilands, 
iolake Tetzttco, in N. lat, 19° 26' and 103** 35' W. 
long, from Perto* This Tale is furrounded with lofty 
and verdant mountains, and formerly contained no lets 
^an 40 eminent cities, befides villages and hamlets. 

Concerning the ancient population ^i this city, there 
are various opinions. The hiftorians ihoft to be relied 
on fay, that it was nearly nine miles in circumference, 
and contained upwards of 6o;ooo houfes, having 
each fiom 4 to 10 inhabitants. By a late accurate 
enumeration, made by the magiftrates and priefls, it ap« 
pears tliat the prefent number of inhabitants exceeds 


The greateft' curiofity In the city of Mexico, is their 
floating gardens. When tbe Mexicans, about the year 
13 25, were fubdued by the Colhuaft and Tepanecan 
iiations, ^nd coD^ined 10 the fmall iftnds in the lake, 
having no land to cultivate, they ilKre taught by iie. 
ceffity to form moveable gardens, which floated on the 
lake. Tbf ir conftruftion is very fmiple. They take 
willows and the roots of marfh plants, and other mate- 
rials whkh are Hght, and twiii t^em together, and fo 



firmly uoite them as to form a fort of platform, which 
is capable of fupporting the earth oi the garden. Upon 
this foundation they lay the h'ght hu(he« which float oa 
the lake, and over them fpread the mud and dirt which 
they draw up from the bottom of the lake. Their r^« - 
ular figure is quadrangular } their length and breadth 
various, but generally about B rodt long and 3 wide ; 
and their elevation from the furface of the water is lefii 
than a foot.. Thcfe were the firi'l lields tliat lite Mexi- 
cans owned, after the foundation of Mexico ; there they 
firft cultivated the maize, great pepper, and other plants 
necclTary for their fupport.. From the induftry of ths 
people, thefe fields foon became numerous. At prefent 
they cultivate flowers and every fort of garden herbs 
upon them* Every day of the year, at funrifc innume-- 
rable veffels or boats, loaded with various kiiids of flow 
ers and herbs, which are cultivated in thefe i^ardens, are 
feen aniving by the canal, al^ the great market place of 
Mexico. All plants thrive, in. them furprifingly j the 
mud of the lake makej 2 very rich foil, \s liich re<Juires 
BO water from the clouds.- In the largeft gardens there 
is commonly a lit'.le tree and a little hat, to ilielter the 
ciiUivator, and defend him. from the rain or the fun. 
When the owner of a garden, or the Chinampa, as hifHs 
called, wiihc* to change his fituation, to get out of a bad 
neighbourhood, or to come nearer to his family, he gets 
into, his little boat, and by his own llrength alon^,if 
the garden is fmall, or with the afliftance of others, if 
it be large, conduits it wherever he pleaies, with the 
Utile tree and hut upon it. That part of the ifland 
where thefe Seating gardens are, is a place of delightful 
recreation, where the fenfis. receive, the: higheft peffibie; 

The building? which are of ftone, are convenient, 
. and the public edifices, eP^ecially the churclies, a»e magn 
niiicent ;.and the ciiy has^.th3 appearance of immcnle 
wealth. i • 

The trade of Meiicaconfifls r,f three great branches,. 
wHidi extend over the whole world. It carries on a* 
tmffic wrJi Europe, by La V^ra Cruz, fituated on the 
4truX of Mexico, or Njrth S^a ; witli the £aft Indien,, 

y 2- H 


8 0UTH Alf«nrA. 

by Acapulcoy ov the South Sea* t\o miles S. W. o# 
Mexico ; and with So. h America, hj the Tame port; 
Tbefe two fe«^poru» Vera Craz and Acapulco, are sc 
mirably well fituated for the commerciiU purpolet i;> 
which they are appKed. 

hj/lciy.^ The empire of Mexico was fubdaed b7 
Cortez, in the year xsti* See Kobertfon's Hi(io(y o£ 



WJ? now ent.*?" wpon the defcriptvon of that part of 
the gk>Kr, vvl;vere the human mind will be fuc- 
ccflively furprir 1 ¥ . th the fublime and ailonllhing 
woiks of Latnti^ i where rivers of amazing bread ch flow 
^Oi^h beautiful ; Jid widely extended pJlains, and 
where lofty mounts^ns, whofe fummits ai« covered with 
eternal fnov, intercept the courfe of the clouds, and hide 
iheir beads from the view of mortals. In fome parts of 
this estcnfive regioh, nature hath bonntifully beftowed 
her treafuresy and given every thing ncceffary for the 
conveoieftce and happincis of ^.r-n. We liave only to> 
regtety ijiat a fet of auaricious men haye fucceinvely 
drenched with innocent blood thele plains, which are 
To beautifully formed^ and enriched by the hand of na- 
ture ; and that '^s wd of Spanilh defpotiTm has pre- 
vented the popul4t)fnf of a country^ which might have 
fvpported mil^Qi^^^|»etiigs, in ajfiluence.. 

hi'ijfiotU''^ ^ S^St America* like Africa, is an extsn< 
livepehinfulg^'CQitiie^ed with Horth America by th^ 
KHimu$ of il^rien, and divided between Spain, Portii< 
^ai, fraoce|.|iQl|aad;^ alid the Aborigines, as follows ^. 


g. /. fTcrra Firma, 
8pan>fli J p,,„^ 

nions. (^p^r;»gtta, 

gucfe ^ 
French. I Ca]rcRse» 

Dutch, i S.irnn3m> 

facama and Canhai;ena» 
St. Jrtgo. 
Bueaos Afret* 

St Salvador* 



Aborig- J Amazonia, 
incs. (^ Patagonia. 

0: thefc countries we (kail U'cat in thtir'order> 

t : 

* Fortfk: befl Kiftory of SoutJi Aincricaand Mexico, the rcad^ 
«f !5 referred tqi^SobtrtfonV Hiftory of Amczica ; the Abbe Chi* 
vi^T'o's Hifi-ory of Mtxico, and tlic Abbe Raynal'* Hifloxf of WlC 
kulicis tianflated b^ jufUmoad. 

Spanifh' Domi-nions in S. American 

an cxtsn- 

Situation Aim. IShlteux^ 


length 1 4QO 7 . ^ f The jBi|iTator, & 1 2^ N. lar. 

Breadth 700I *^*'^^*^ 1 60* lit j||W., longitude. 

D J . TlnjiaUNDED nortlflb'f tiie Atlantic 
Boundantu^ JQ Ocean, here palled llic North Sea ; 
taft, by tlie fame ocean and Sarrinam ; fouth, by Amv 
tcaia aad ftftt i weft, by the Patific Oceaiw ^, 




1.0 Ifi^iss 

^^ Vi M |2.2 

!!? 144 ""^ 

1.1 ■ I."* KS 

1.25 il.4 il.6 







9^BtAMm BcniiNiiiiB m sjoiExiea 


II ft divided intO' 

f Porto Belloi, 

Terra Firmt Proper,, 

or Daricn, 
St. Martha,, 

New Grenada^ 
Bopayan*. VbpzpLm 

R'tven,] The prinGi|9aI rivers are the Barien> Chagre^ | 
daiKa Marta» Conception, and Oronoko. 
\Citm0et Siilf md ProAaioiu.'X The dimate here, f^\ 
I^cially in the northern parts,, is extremely hot andfol. 
try during the whole year.. From, thejnontb of Miy . 
to the endof ^vember, the feafoncalvd winter by ^Ik^ 
uihabitants, is almoft a continual fuece^on of thunder>, 
rain and tempefts ; the douds precipttating the rain 
irith fuch impetiK>rity, that the low Imnd^ exhibit the I 
appearances of an ocean. . Oreat part of th? country ij,,| 
of confequence^ almoft cnntihually flooded; and thU,,J 
together with the exceffit^ heat, fo impregnates the air 
with vapours, that in n^any provinces) particularly about 
Popayan and Porto Bello,, it is extremely^ anwholefoise.. 
The foil of this country is very differeiiti . tl^c inlandl 
parts being extr^mdy rich and fertile^ and th^coaflsj 
fandy and barren.. It is impoffible to view, without ad* 
. miration, the perpetual verdure of the woods» the Idx» 
uriftncy of. the plains, and the towerii^ height of tk:| 
mountains.. This country produces -cpm, fugar, .tobac- 
co, and fruits of all kinds. - 

ClfufjTo'umt^y Carthagena is the principal ftiapottl 
towfi in Terra. Fnma. It is fituated on Uie Atlanticf 
Ckean in xtf* »5', ^d 75** aj' W. long. The 
hay on which i||ftaBds is feven miles wide, from noi 
to^iputh ; aninlli a fufficlent depih crf'tratcr, with g' od^ 
imchorage; and To fmooth, that ihips are no n^orc agi- 
lated than oh a livcr. The many fhallows at its c: 
Imnce, however, maice the help of a good pilot rc« 
<MiGlt7.* The. town and its fubtu-bs are fcniHed ia 
. - ** tbe. 

the modem ftvk ; the ftreefs are ltr^itthti» bloM* ^<^ 
well pkved. The hoafes are priacipally brick, and o«e 
gory liiKl)* This city is the rcftdence of the |>overno? 
<f i^ Mvlnce pf Carthagena > and of a hilhop, whoie 
ipirittt3jSnfdi^on exienus over the whole protbce* 
There is here alCo a court of inqaifitton. 

Parama U tl^ capital of Tena Kr»a !*r6pet, i^d ii 
fituatcd «*'45',W. Ion. 79* 55';ttj»ooiiap 
pacious bay, to which it givts its name, it is the gTeat 
Tcceptaclf of the vaft ^uaatktes of gold and fiivtr, with 
oih« ricit merchandize,, from all parts of iPerji and 
<3iilii here they arc lodged in Aore houfcs, till tho 
proper feafou arrives to tranfi^ort ihera to Eitrop^. 

Porto Bello U atuatedcbfe to the Iba, on the declfr- 

ity ef a iBOsntatn which iurromnds the whole h»rbo«ir* 

*rhe conveniwte and fa&iy of thii harbour W fucht thut 

Columbuti mh- Bfft di^overed it, gave, k the name of 

!*orto Bello, fr the Fine Uaibouci^iiiN^lat. 9P }/»W« 

ibng. 79*'45^ 
ffl/hry»J ilii? pa»t of South America was ^©fored 

by Colu«Bbii«» in his third voyage to fclu^contittefit. v It 

was fttbdued and £s«ded by the $paAiard« about the 

year 1514, after defttoyiiig, inth great inhumanity^ fet- 

cral ttitttOAS ^^e nattvei. This country ws^s^jalled 

Terra Fintia» toi^ aecoitol of iu being the firft part of 

the c0itt)itea£ w>ich wt$ dtfcovered 1 ail the lands dif* 

oOnited ^evjLoa& to thtf* being i£«u»ds. 





- I^»les» 

length 1800I i,"^l^rh»mmf,^Mf^^- 

Breadth 5q6J ^**^^ l6a« ai^l W. longittide. 

p^juj -I 130UHOE0 n«^l>r Tert* Rr^ 

^0iiMfiin«O jy «a J weft, by die FW^fie 6MiMri 
^ttth, hfWa i itt4 ttft^ by th« aoiptiiUtf cnlMte 



' DkffJmtJl Pem it divided into the fsllowing pro?. 

iocct : '^-^ " 

FMncoK. Chieir Towns. 

C^ito, Quito, Payta. 

Ctma* Liina,1at.t2*» ii'S. 

X^&Cbarcos, Potofi, Forco. 

Rhftrt,"] There Jire fcvcral rivers #hich fife in iht 
Jtmlef ) but mad of them run to the eaftiward. Amon^ 
tbefe ure the Griinde» Oronotco, Amazon, and La Ha. 
ti. The Amazon rifes in PerUr- but diredi its courfe 
•ftftward, and' after running between 5 and 4000 miles, 
^Usjnto the Atlantic Ocean under the equator., Thit 
river, like others between the tropics,, annually over. 
ifljTs ii« Banlcs, at which time it is 15a miles wide at 
fvs monthv It is fuppofed to be the iargefl river in th: 
iNTOrid, whether we confider the length ^w its. courfc, i^e 
Jepth o£ fts waters, or its aftoniihi'ng-. bmdih.' 
: CSmate^ Ahr mid Soil* }} Jx^ one^ part ace motintams ot | 
stupendous. height and jnagpitttdei having their fum. 
mits covered wi£ fa^vr ; Qii«Uie othdi*, volcanoes flam- 
iiig within, while their iummit» and' chaftns are in- 
voiyed in ice. The plains are teniperate^ the benches 
and vallies are hot ^ and laftly, acecKrding tothe difpo* 
iition of the coui)tF]f^^ its high. or low fituation,, we find 
all the variety of gradations of temperamre,. between | 
the two 4>xtremes^ of heat and- coldi It i markablc, 
y that in (omt plaees: it neV«r rains ;^ which c6t is fup- 1 
plied by a dew, that^fiUs every night; and fufHciently 
vefrefties the vegetable creation ;. but in Quito they hj.'vc 
prodigious rains,, attended by drcadiul llorms-of thun- 
;der and lightning., ki the inland parts of Peru,' and bf 
the banks of the river,, the foil is very, feztile i, but alotog 
tlie fea^oaft it is a barren land«^. 

jlhtmet^ami l^^tM £roduaiem,1 Vkft numbers of 
cattit were imported by the 3paniafds into Peru, when 
>lhey took pofiij0^ of that cotiiitry ; thefearenow fo 
iimazingly iilcreml^^ that they run wild, and sh« hunt- 
ed like gs^me. The mbft remarkable animals in this 
«^nl^yaw Uie Peruviaii fheepi called lamas and vi* 
cuanai* Thejpma, in fevend particulars refeinbles the 
OAMditM io^che lha£e of, the neck, heacjli and fome otb*^ 


<r parts } but has no bunch, if iniicb fmaUer, md it clo- 
ven footed. Its upper Up Is deft lika that of a hare» 
through which* when enraged, it A>its a Yenofflons jaiaa» 
that it\&smt9 Che part on which it talls^ T^t wool* with 
irhich it IS coveted, is of different etAoani but genc- 
xAly brof|!|. ' Thefe animals are gen^rallx tioctle, fo 
that the, f Hdiani uTe them as beafts cf bonien. The-if 
left is efteemed preferable to imitton* The vtciinna 
tefembles the knla in ihape, but is mudi fmatter, a&4 
iu wod fborler and finer. 

This country produces fraiuipecnliar to the ^iBiat«» 
tnd xnoft of thoie in Earope^ The culture X)f maiae, 
cf phnento and cotton, which was found eftabli^ed 
thsre^'has not4yeen neglected $ and that •of wheat, bar* 
ley, caiTava, poutoes, tugar, and of the olive and iflb#,> 
is attended to. The goat has ihrtven very ^dl i but 
tlie fheep hav^tfegenerated, and their vtotA haa bf conk 
extremclf -coarft. 

Minet. ] In die nordiem parts ^ l^em, are Icnrcral 
gold jnines ; but thofe of filver are found aUxnrer the 
country, Parlicnlafly in the -nei^bourhood of Potoit. 
Nature never offered to the avidtty of ttankitid,. in any 
tountry on the globe, fuch rich mines as thofe of IPbtofi. 
Thefe famous nrines were acoicently xlifcovered in the 
year 1545, in this manner : an Indian named Hualpa, 
one dayi Ibfiowtng fome deer, thelyxmade direAly up the 
hill of Potofi ; he came to a fteep, craggy pait of the 
Lill, and the better to enable him to climb upv Jaid hol4 
of a (hrub, which came up by the roots, and kid open- 
a iniUs of fiver ore. He for fome lime kept it a ftcret^ 
but afterwards revealed it to his friend Cuanca, "wiko^ 
becaufe he wouM not diicoVer to him the sne^hod of 
refining it, acquainted l3ie "Spaniard, his iiiafter, named 
Vahtroel, with the di&overy. Valaroel regtftered die 
mind in 1545; and from that ttoie, tiR^ 1658, thefe 
mines of Potofi had yidded 395,6#9,goo pieces of eighty 
which is about4,a55#3eo pieces a year* Potofi is abou^ 
so or 2$ leagues from the city of jyi Hata. The |iill, 
andalfo tlie codntry fytn. conAderable dtftance roiitld> 
is quite barren and-dtfert, and prodaces neither ente» 
plant norhferb i fo that the inhabitants of Potofi, which 
is fituated at the foot «fitic hilh on thefouth fide, art 


obliged to procure all the neccflaries of l/fe from P rr 

CWifcl TIM eitf tC Liiiria is thfe capital df l»cta, an4 

of the wiMieB|ttntft empire ; Its fiVuati'^ny in tf^Wid 

dkof»^^ciity|ipd-deHgKtfrfV%an^ up«n 

l>7 Uk hanemlMitr^i ts ili^ mnft J^optfi* f6t z cry, 

whteiilui «kfila«^d wemkl' pt?.{cYf6 hi^^mmorj. h h 

fomtXi wmsnd bf ttte Rimte, that iWe fnhah^tirits com. 

iwtnd a ftre«499,ieiich f^r hh ctirif n fd 11 itfv afc many 

very magmKeent iiru^reW fitiikiihrly churches, i.i 

this; citj^. . Lmkh abi^m t^^^a le^gi:el fr^'i^ the fea, ex- 

tei^s in lengcb twa*n^If^a*kJ in hrea^h one and a quaf- 

ter;>:? One temarfeaW* fia is •^flrffi^^teisi to demonftrate 

tb^i|tealtl)<jGltKet'<;i^.^ W^ the Vicerov, the (f ike 

' deJa JP;rt*da,ma<felii*ien^ymtr Ltrtjfil, in i6«2,th^ i:i. 

nfl|i!t|ot»i>t^;do hitn hwl^ to hi 

v^f$$,^th ingpts af filfe*^ amowrtttng to fRrcmtcnitiili 

licwji fterUi^. iAtH tmiKelkniljpeak witti A|»a7.ement of 

the dfeoorations ©f^ the chiusches Trith g>i(^, f^ver, apd 

precious (Wne«,i«?hicii load and ornament even tjhe walls. 

The on^jMiig that ctmld jt*(Hfy tlt^fe accounts, ig the 

inntienTe tiches apd extenfive convnierce of the inhabit. 

arm* The^inerehaiitt>dr £4]na may b^aid to deal with 

all the quartfrs of tW^orld, at»d that both on their own 

accotintv iM^s faAdse for Oiiiers. Here, alt the pro- 

diiiSs of ^(outhern provinces arc conveyed, in order 

to Be e«chan^ed at the harbourdf Lim^^ for fuch articles 

as il^e tfkhidiit|u«liMj^ro ftiin^ %%iM the fleet 

froa) )^trofe <uid the Baft loditt lind itt the famie hS- 

boiir^an^|jtc<onjiiK*dities f^ M^Elxtdpt,^d A^ieri- 

cav«|!l^iji|i« bartet«d for e^ch o^ri Butill the wealth 

of the y^b^ijy»tp* aU the*be»iitf of ttie Jituatron, and 

t^MnmfMtkm^immt^'i^ Atffift^nt to 

ct^mp^^tf %r ^ difi^i^ i«hidl 4iiiiy4 tb^ateiis, and 

ImJtnMii^etafsillr be&Ue«rtlit»l^' In theyeif 1 747, 

^ m6k ^^tiii»«%^^ ttrteelbtirtl»s^ of 

^^fpn\w^$l^i6^l^^^ dcttiolmied 

Call|p, tbc pqrt ^vm l|flor*^iig tO it. Never wa» any 

d«ii|ia^ ^BiMre^l^ea, oat nwpi^^iif o^» of tkite 

■Ac. ' V ■ . ' - 


tkouiaod inhabiuuiu being left to record tlu* dreadful 
c!ilainity» and he farjr a providence the mod fincolat and 
estraordinatjr imaginable. This man, ^pi^ ha|>pened 
to be «Mfort which overlooked the hatfaoor, peredved* 
iQ oDcdbitey the inhabitants running^jGrom their hou- 
fei in ^ntmoA terror and confufioi 1 ^iie fet, at'ir 
ofaal on fuch occadons, receding to a ooniiderable dii^ 
tftiice, remmed in mouotainouf waves,, foaming with 
the violence of the agitation, buried the. inhabitants for- 
ever in its bofi)n^ and immediately all was (ilent>i bnC 
the fame wave which deftrojred the town, drove a litUe 
boat by the place where the man ftood, into which he 
threw himi'elf, and. was faved. 

Cusco, the ancient capital of the Peruvian emphre, 
lies in the mountainous country, at a diftance from the 
(ea, and has long been on the decline, but is yet averf 
confiderable place. Quito is nect tn Lima in pppula- 
tion, if not.(upeTior to ir. It fs, like Cufeo^ an icJand 
cit<y» and having no mines hi its neighbourhood, is chief* 
I iy timous for its manufadures of cotton, wool, and flax, 
which fupply the conlUmption oVer all the kingdom of 
iPeru. . • : - 

Iv.hafnttmtSf Manners^ and Gowrmiuiif.l It is impoflibU - 
I to afcertain, )K-tth any degree of preciOon, the number 
of iuhabiuntf in Pf rds The city oif- Lima is ^id to con* 
tain 54,000 ; Guasaquill, 20,600 ;. Potofi, £5,000 ; La 
I Paz, 20,000, and Cufco, t^fioo. 

The Indip.ns and Negroes are forbidden,^ nnder die 
Ifevereft penalties, to intermarry ; for divtfion betweea^ 
Ithefe two elates, is the gr«9t inftrn^ienl. in tH^cli. tM 
Spaniards t;uft ;for the pre^nqkiioflh, CHt ^ c<^imi||k 
iPcru is governed by a Viceroy, who k jhgiWite | IgmX it 
(being impoffibie for him to fuperinten4 tfet^viiiiolfi tx- 
Itent of his government,, he d^e^gaifes a pa^ bf^liiinv. 
^rity to the ie vend audiences and courts, eftijp^flwi^ 
It iliferent places tfaronghout his teiritories. ' ^ 

Nahtral Hiflory,] There ilt certain wateri m thii^ 
^ouotry^ which, in their course, tii:?l>i«to ftoneiaa|L 
[ountatos of liquid nutter,, catted tiM^$ refenmog^. 
^tch and tari and ufcd by io^iMiA^ Ae iia^^^ 


.On the eotft of GuagaquiU aAd Guatimala, are found 
a ccrtiin i|pe4it$ of inads, w^tch yield ike jmirple dye 
fo celebrated <bf ihe aaeieolt, and which the moderni 
have Stippedbi to have been loft. The ftell j|i|^eoxi. 
Uins tham It4lil^ fodcti watered hf the ||||!^t It is 
of the fiu of %Sfgt tnit. VarioBt methods #(e ufcd 
to eitraA th« pt^c maittr from the antmiL 'There 
if nocokfar that can be fowpared to t|iu# tidutt m luf. 
Ire or perinancnoa* ■ • ..j- 

'Geimnal Qifii'waiioM*^ ' In trcatinf of fStia covntry, 
the miad it nlmindlT led back to the barbaronf and 
cruel conqueror! of it« rAiOf eomiag €ram the old world 
in queft of gold, to fatisfy their aTarice# Splayed fccnet 
ihodeing to humanity^ AAerthe.conqneilt the eoun- 
trf fotrcelypxefeirved asf l^ing but its name^ every 
wing'aflumtng a pew face. There were other edtfica, 
/dUier inhabitants, other occupations, other prejudices, 
and another ireli|;toxu ^e J&obex^Gnk'f Hiftory of 

I « . » n' ifc 

H I 


V . 


r<j6tTVAtio« AM* ExTjiar. 

length i2f6o1 j,,^^^ 5 aj** and 44^S. l«t. 
Bf<m s8o J •^•*'* lUK^m^is'' W. long. 

£o4&h^miy tYOUlfiDED hy P^nii on the 
CWftb4m.\ Xi^«*A J by Paraguay, or La 
I^lata, on the calt f by Fatagoniar<»tfiefouth j and by 
the iPacific Ocean, oti the weft, tt lies on bodi fides of 
the Aifdcss CbtH Proper ]»H on the weft ; andCuyoor 
OiUo^.on the diSt. ilie prhtotpaV towns in tlteformer, 
at» St |ago find Baldjffa i kkm^l^r &«'>)» dc 


*« .;>*? 

^»i *. 


The climate of Chili it om of die 
noft dcKghtliil im the world, being a medium between 
the inceiM beats V the tonrtdf antf the piercinp^ colds of 
the fri^ aooai.. >Aloagthc coaA of the PacUic Oceafr^ 
they ei^of a fine tdmperate air» andj^ckar ferene tkf, 
mott pari of die year i bwt foiiitiifne».lSc wilult that blow 
from die mooatafM, in wiAterr art eiceedingly fliar|K, 
There «^ few |iUce& inthie eitenfive- coantry, whera 
the foil it not exuberantly riolk i and were its nftnral ad- 
vastagis feconded by the indiiftry of the inhabttantt^ 
Chili woi^ be the moft opulent kingdom ia America. 

Jiiimal tmd Vesdahk Pnduaiom.'y The horfet and 
mules of Chili are in great eftecm> particukirly the for* 
merr Frodi^us numbers of oxen, goats and fiieep, 
tre fattened m the' ioxuriant paftiires «f Chiliy and in- 
deed this ia the only piitrt of huibdndry vto.whioh tb« 
.inhabitants pay any eonfiderHble attention. An ox, 
well tatteQcdk may be purchased for fpvr dotiar$. Tvr- 
iiies, geeie, and all kinds of poultry, are found here in 
llie lame p: ofulicn*^ 

The coafts abound with many excellent fifh ; ^.ttt 
aretdfo vaft numbers- of whales, and fea wolves. The 
foil produces Indian and European corn, hemp, c^rapes, 
and allotlier fr uit?« The Europear^ fruk uees -ax obii}^ 
ed to be propped, to enable them to iuHaiin the weight 
of the fruit. Of jnge trees are in bloom, and beai fivtt 
throughout the year. Olives alfo, and almond trees, 
thrive exceedinglT w^Uf and the inhabitants pie^ ^ 
kini of muicadine i^-ine from the grapes, Vr'hich iaV 
c{ceed& any of the kind made in Spain.- 

M'meti'\ Mines of gold, filver, copper, Vit^-qmckAl. 
fcr, iron and lead, aboa'nd io liits couniry, . \fsiil quan- 
tities of gold arewafhcd dowu ^om the mounuins bf 
brooks .#Bd torrwl# ; the »nnuuKamou'i\t of w'htcb, 
when manuf»ftured, i;^ edimatlrdatno lefs.ihan^CQif}00 
dollars^- .. ^ .. - ■• .-V..- " j^^T 

Contmnt,'] Chili has always had ^ctmmft«»l vCon- 
aexioiis with the neighbouring Indians en itjsirOi tkrft* 
with ?erti and :^tiiifttuaf . Xiyt Indaijis iath^i^^iraniae- 
tionsi are founCf Ttobe pe>feftly honell, Cliili fujiplies 




^tnt with bicletf dried Ihiit, copper, fiiU meat* hnrfc*, 
henipy and com ; and rcceivet in exchange, tobacco, 
fugar* cocoa, earthen ware, fo^e nanttfaAures made 
at Quito, and fome articln jaf luxvnv brought from Eu. 
rope. " " ' 

Chili ^nds to |*araguaf wine*, Ivandy, olU and chief. 
1/ gold ) and receives in payment} Qiulet, wax, cotton, 
'the herb of Paraguay, Negroes, l^c. The commerce be-. 
tween the two colonies is not carried on bj Tea i it haih 
been found more expeditious, (afert and eten lefs expcn. 
five, to go by land, though it h 554 leagues from St. 
Jago to Buenos Ay res, and more than 40 leagues of 
the way are lunid' tha Ihowi and precipices cf die 

> I»bdbUants iimi ManntN."^ The Indians in this cotm. 
try ire ftlU in a sr^t meafure unconquered ; they liye 
icattered in the dderts and forefts, and it is iapoflible U 
aicertain their numbers. ThoTe Indians^ which are not 
fubje^ to the S^anifh yoke, are rcrjr honeft in their com- 
mercial tranfadions 1 but^ like almod all other Indians, 
they are .very fond of fpiripious liquors. They live in 
imall hutfir which they bijld in the courfe of a day or 
two at furtheft, and which they abandon when hard 
pulhec^by an enemy. ,, They are brivire and warlike, and 
til the attempts of thel^antatdk to fubdue them, have 
jproved tneffeS^ttal^ It ts ahnoft equally difficult to ai'. 
ceitain the number of Spaniards in Chili. The Abbe 
Raynal, (ays, there are 4p^oco in the city of St. Jago. 
If this be true, the aggregate number in all the provin- 
C«i of Chill mu^ be'moie coniideruUe than has been 
.|;cnen^ fiippofed. 

C3b«rr»iur»f. j St. jfago it die capital^ of this country, 
Ittid the feat of government. The commandant there, is 
fudordinate- to the Viceroy of Peru, in aU mafXevs rela* 
ttn|^ to the goveminent, to the finances^ and rx> war ; but 
lie lijndep^ent of lUm as chief adminiiUator of juf* 
tice> and prefident of the rpyal amdience. £)eten infe* 
rior olBooVf diftributed in the province, are charged » 
uiiileclui or^k(r% with the dctaiU oC^ciminJAratidn. 






8iTt74TS0N Aku ErrfcNT. 

Length SfSOoT i..^^..„ C it* and 37* S. latitude. 
Bieadtd i,ooo J «^^*^*" ||o* »od 75« W. longituder 

B9imttartet.j ^ ^^ Bruil.*»a j by Fiugoaia, ibmh; 
and by ?eru and Chili, ive(^. 
It ccMftaini the foUowtnp proYincei : 
Paragnafy Ouirat« Ttrcuman, 

Parana, tJragua, Rio de h Plata. 

Rtver/,"] BeHdes a vat\ r.uniber of fmall riven which 
water ihU country, there is the grand river La Plittat 
which delerves a pai^icuUr defcription. A Modenel'e 
Jefuit, by the name of P. Cn'tanr^t yfho {ailed up this 
river, fpeaktr in the toUowing language concerninjyr it : 
** While I refided in Europe, and te;id tn books ot htf> 
lory of geography, that the river La Plata was 150 
miles in oreadth, I conhdered. it as mi e;!aggeratinn> be> 
caufe in this hemifphere we have no example of fuch 
vail rivers. When I approached its mouth, I had the 
moft vehement defiie to nicer tkln the breadth with my 
ffv.'n eyes, and I have found the matter to be exactly as 
it was reprefented. This I deduce paiticnUriy iwm one 
circumitance. When- w^e took our departure frorti 
Monte Viedo, a fort fitu^iited more than rco miies froih 
the mouth of ihc river, and where iKs bic^dtb is confido 
trably dlmini^h^ we failed a coTm/iete day: before we 
difcovered the lahd on the oppoiite bank of the river ;. 
and when we wer«i in the middle cf the channel we 
could not diA:over land on either ride,and ikw. ^'othirg 
but the'fky and waterr &« if we had been in ibme ^leat 
Dcean. Indeed we Ihould have ta^sn it to be fea^ tf 
the freOi TWAter of .the river, which was turbid Irke^ tbt 
Po, had not fadsfied us that if was a river.'* i ' 
CSmateprSoUt tmd Protlupr 

if*r.]. From ihe iituatidn 0/ thi#|. 
f^ it entreinefy hot, feom ■% 

•ouotry» ' fom« patfi^ of 

Ihealmoft Tenicalinfiuence of the la^rs of the Ain 1^ whild 
other paits mufttbt pieafaT^it and delighthil. But the 
heat tc in fome jiiami<»«<iAted by die gentle bree«et*r 
which genttaUy begin ibout iu^e Of t«a9f«Iock ia th^ 



flMrniivgt and coptinuc the gM»uA pait <ii dk daf. 
Some parte of tbe cQaotry arc very monnUinous ; but, 
in mMif othen, |ou find etuafWe and bcatttiliil plaint, 
where the toil is tery rien, producing cottcm« tobacco, 
and the ral^able herb eaued I^tfagaay, togeUier with a 
variety offrilits. There are akb prod^gioofly rich ptf. 
iurei. Ml which arc hred filch herds of cattle» that it is 
iaid, the hides are the only part eiported i w^ the flc(K 
is left to be dcvouttd by the ravenoiH beafts of the wil. 

ComHurfe, mid Cbkf Cltr^] Biraguay fends ammally in. 
lothe kingdom of Pens a^ manjF as i»5oaor %ooo aniiles. 
They tvmvcl over dreary defiMts fcr the diflioce nf 8 or 
ooo lengues. The province df Tucaman fumtfhes to 
rotofi annuaUy, 1 6 or 1 8,oc6.oien^d 4 or 5,000 hories» 
broagbt Ibrth and rehired upon its own lerriiory. 

BuiNos Atrbs is tlie capital of this conntry. Its (xi^ 
nation, on tlie river La Plau,is healthy and pkaiknt,an(^ 
the air untipeiatCk it is tegukirly bttitt. The number 
of inhabitants is aboul 50,000. One lide of the town 
is deeded by a fortrefs, with a ganifon of & or 700 
men. The townllands 1 80. miles from ihe fea. The 
accefs to the towni up the river, is very difficult. 
. InMkanU,^ From \kB bo() information that -can be 
obtaineda' thete are not more than fcoo,ooo fouls in this 
country, includiag Spaniards, Indians, Negroes, and the 
mtied blqpd, or Creoles* The &,)anii<Tds exhibit much 
the fame character here as in the other kingdoms al- 
ready clefcribed. 

. Htfiory and Rei^imJ *th9' Spaniards fiifft discovered 
tbis cotintry in the year tsiSt and founded the town of 
^uenos Ayres in 153^. Moft of the country is ftitt in- 
llahited by the native Americans^' The jefuiis have been 
^idefaugable in their endeavours t» convert the Indians 
io the belief of their religion,, and to iotrodtice ataonii 
them the arts of civilized life* and4iave met witb.lbrprii- 
ing Aicoefs. It is faid that al>ove 34P.060 famifies, fev- 
em years a^, were {ub^& to the Jefuits, Uving in obe< 
dicQce, and an awe bordering on adoiation, yet pfocnt- 
f d without atiy violence or confiraint In 176^,^^ Jef- 
tti|8 were fent out of America, by rayal authority, aad 
their fubje^ were put opon th^ ^ube footing with the 
Ipeft of tie coUatry*^^ 

/*^ . t*twiugtcrc 


II » ' JJ i 


Portuguefe America*. 

B H A z I .t. 

Situation anp £itimt. 


length ^500*) Ug.«.-« Ilhe Equator and 3 j» S. iM. 
flrwJth 7C0 J '»"^««^ |s3^o ^^ ^0 w. longitude. 

o / • 1 T> OUNDED north, hj th« mooth cfi 
BoumUnis,J Jj^ ^^ ^^^ Anww>n and the Atliintrc 

Ocean ) eaft, by the fviw ocean ; roitth,,by ihe river Ljk 
FUta ; ^Reft, by niot%(re&, lukes, torr«ncs, rivers, ^nd^ 
mountains } which fepamte it from Amazonia, and the 
Spanifh poifelTions. On the coaft are three fmaiU iflandv 
where (hips toucb^for provifioni on their voyage to the 
Sourh Seas, vi». Ferdinarido,^t. Btib^ro* and St. Clth< 

fitly t, Harhmrt md Rh^tTf.'] • Tlieft are, ^e harbotift^ 
of Penambuco, All Snifliil, lUo Janeiro, 'the port of Sr. 
Vincent, the hat Hour of Gaitricl, and the port of dr. 
Salvador. There is a great number of noble Areamt, 
which unite witirthe river Amalicn and.La FiaSsg befide 
others which fall into ijie AtlafUic Ocean*. 

Crmtf, StUakd Proihm^ut.J Th^oKmate of Brazil' 
is temperate^md mildi Mvhen compared with that of Af- 
lica. ; owifi{( chieftf t»tl)e rcfreihing nirind, which blows 
eontimial]^ fr^m tlie fea. Tht air ia not only cool b^^ 
chilly thfoligh the night* fo thiK the iiat(vet kindle a fire 
every evening in their hiUl. As Mm 'ivei t in this oouN- 
tty ann«aHy overflflW^ their banlcs^ ind kft^ a foit of 
iliaM upon the lan(ll«, the foil in many piftcet it mmatiiigl jr 
lich. The vegetable prodii^onliire» lndi^cOllk,rt^at 
eanet, tobacco; tndigO|. hides, ipiBcAtftutnhtti lMdi«iii»,bira- 
%it woodi. thelaft tt<>f aitcd colour, ha»d.«Bd dryii^d it 
Hchicfly Hftd in dyii%i but ftet the l^d (nf the bed Hal. 
Hel«|irifeUK;r«U0»(ttlUc» of «ift.i|i<lrui|[yelle#|)Mi41 





^beamiful kind c£ fpeckled wood, made ofe of in cabU 
net work. Here are five different forts of palm trees^ 
(ome curious ebonyi and a great variety of cotton trces^ 
This country abotinds in horned e<*ttle, which are hunt- 
ed for their hides only,' 2o,oco bsins Tent annually in* 
to £virope» There is. alfo peltry of deers, hares, and 
other game. Amoiigft the wild beafti found here, 
arq tygers, porcupines, janoitveras, and a fierce anim^ 
fomev^hat like the greyhound i monkieS, floths, and 
the topira(fou, a creature between a bull and an afs, 
but widiout horns, and entirely harnnlels ; the fleih is 
very good, and has the Havoux of beef. The/e is a num> 
berlefs variety of fowl, wild and tame» m this country. 

Commerce, tmd Chiff Towtu^'] The trade of Brazil » 
rery great, and increaics evefy year. They import as 
many as 40,000 Negroes annually, ^e exports ^f are diamonds, fugar» tobacco, hides* dfugs and 
nneUicines ; and they rvceive, in return, vtrooUen goods 
of all kinds, linens, laces, filks, hats» lead, tin, pewter,^ 
copper, iron* beef and cheefe. They alfo receive from 
Madeira a great quantity of wine, vinegar and brandy; 
and from the Azores, /"i 5,000 worth of other liquots. 

Sr^^aLVAUoa is the capital of Brazil. This city,^ 
which hi|8 » npl^le, fpacious and commodious harbour, 
i« built .on a high and fteepHiOck, havirg the fea upon 
one fide, a lake forming a crefcent on the other. The 
Htuaticn maikes it in u manner impregnable by nature; 
afid tliey have be^des added very ftrong fbrtiHca- 
tions. * I-t is populous, ma^ificenl, and, btyond com** 
pariibn, the mo(b gay and. opulent in aU Bra^iL- 

AT/Htv.}, There axe gold mines in many paHs of 
tiiif country, which have been wrought with confidera^ 
^le profit to government. There are alio many diamond 
Inines which have been di^ovetvd in this country ; they 
lire of all colours, and almoil 0^ every ihade. 

Nativa.) The native Bratiltaot are about the Azeof 
ti:e Europeans, but not fo ftout*. They are fobjedl to 
|iE;wer diftempers^ and l6ng ^If ed. They wear tu> clcih- 
ing ; the women :wetf their hair extremely long, the 
teen cut th^r'i^jRiort ; the women %veir bfaceletk of 
%oaes oC a beautify wj^iie^ Uie irikii». neckUcet of the 

^ , . ^^1. ... 5w»>' 



fame ; the women paint their faoes, aad the men their 

Re/igi0nA Th«ngh.the king of Portugal, as GraDft 
Mailer of the order-of Christ be fol«|y m poHedlon of^ 
theTtlleSy and^though the produce of the cniiade be- 
longs entirely to hita; yet» inthi&^eitenfive country, (be 
bilhoprics hate been faccefirvely f^nd#d, which ac- 
knowledji^ for their iuperior, the archbiihopric. of Bo-- 
hia, eftabliHied in the year 1552* 

Gwermnent,^ The govemmesit ef Bhizil is in the 
Viceroy, who has two councils ; one for ciitainaly the 
gther for civil affairs^ in both which he prefides. ' 

Only half oCthe 16 Captainries, into whicK this coun> 
try is divided, belong to th^ crown { the r«ft bein^ fiefi; 
made over to fome of the nobiI«ty> in rciiRard of their 
extraordinary fervices, who do little snore than ac« 
Inowiedge the favereigcty of the fcii^ «f F6ftugal. 

H'ifiiryy isfcy fhe Portuguefc di£overed this cona* 
try in the year 150a, but d^ not p^9nt at tiU the yeaf 
1549, when they took^poiTtiffioQ- of Ail $liints>Bay, and 
built the city of St. Salvador, whtcllis now the refidenct 
of the Viceroy and Archbiih<f)p. The X>utch invaded . 
Brazil in 1623, and fubdued Che northern provinces; 
but the Portugjuefe agreed, in 1661, to pay the Dutch 
eight tons of gold to celin;:)ui(K thoir intereftiii-this coun- 
try, which, was accepted* ^ndthe Portuguefe remained 
in peaceable po&flion ofall Brazil, liU about the end cif> 
1 762, whim the Spaniikg^vemor of' Buenos Ayres, hear- 
ing of a war between Portugal and Spain, toof^ after a . 
month's fiege, the Portugueie frontier fortrefs, called Su. 
Sacrament $ but by the treaty of peace, it was reilofcd«. 

French America*. 

e A Y E N N E.. 

a s^ 1 TlOUNDED north and caft, hfAtt 

aoum/anss.2 JfJ Atlantic Ocean ; fouth, by Ama- 

tonia i and weil» by Guiana, or Surrinam. U es^unds 



.2AO miles along the ooaA ef G^tiaoa, and nearly t^oq 
mtles within land ; lying between the equator and the 
jllth degree of north latitude.. 

Ciimate^Sei/, and Produce,'] The liind along the ooafl 
is lewt marihy, and very (ubjeCl to inundations during 
the rainy ieafons, .irom^he multitude 6£ rivers which 
vuih down fVom the mountains with great impetuofity. 
Here the atmorpliese 19 v<ery hot> moilVi and unwhole- 
fome, efpecially where the woods are not cleared away ; 
but on. the higher parts> where the trees are cut down, 
; and* .the ground laid out in plantations, the air i^more 
healthy». and the heai greatly mitigated by the fca 
.breezes. The foil, in many partsi is very fertile, pro- 
ducing fugor* tobaccCf Indian corxii. fruits, and other 
aecellaries of li£e. V . 

-HU ' u. .JL i uwat " . ji '.", [> 


Dutch America^ 

'.- y 


THIS province, die otXf one l^longing to the Dutcht^ 
on the eontinent of Americdr is iltuated between 
5* anJ"^** having die Atlantic and the mouth 
•f the Oroneko en the north \ Cayenne eall ;. Amaze- 
itt» fouth ; and- Terra Firma wed. 

The Dutch claim the whole coaft frcm the mouth of 
tfee Onuntiioo, to the riveit-Marov^yne, on which are fitu- 
ated their colonies of Eifequebo, Demarara» Berbice, 
and Surrinanu The latter begins with the river Sara- 
macha, and ends with the ^farowyno, including a length 
ff coaft of 120 miles. 

Rivert,'^ A number of fine rivers pafs through this 
eountry^ the prinaipal' of which are,/Effequcbo, Sun 
Haiii^. I)cmaraxa» Berbice and Con*ya* ' 

'■■v.'' ; ,■' -■ . ' 





Chmatt,'] In the mor ^7 xf ^September, Odoi^ tni 
ICovember, the climate h jnliealtky, paittcuhirlf to 
ibrangers. The common diicafes sre« putrid and other 
fevers, the dry belly ache, and the drofify. An hundred * 
sntles back 'Stam the fea» you come to quite a diierent 
foil, a hilly country, a pure, dry, wholefome air, where 
a fire fomedmes would net^be dilagreeable. Along tlie 
fea-coaft, the water is brackini and ''nwholdbme, the air 
damp and fottry. The ^nnometer ranges from 750 
to 90^ throughout the year. The feafons were former- 
ly divided into rainy and dry ; but of late years, ib much 
dependence cannot be placed upon theih, owing proba- 
bly to the country's being more cleared \ by which . 
jBcans a free paflage ts q>ened for the air and vapours. . 

Chief To'VJHt and Pofufathai'} Paramahiio, iituated 
on Surrinam river, 4 leaigues from the CcRy N. lat. 6^j 
W. long. 55 ^firom London, is the pripcipal town in Sur- 
rlnam. It contains about 3QC|P whites, one half of 
whom are Jews, and 8000 flaves. The houfes are prin;* 
cipally of wood i fyrae few have glafs windows, but , 
generally they have wooden fliutters. The ftreets are 
ipacious and ftraight* and planted on each fide witli 
orange and tamarind tree$. ' . 

About 7p miles from the iea, «n the iame river, is a 
tillage of aboi|t 40 or 50 houfes, inhabited by jews. 
This village and the town above mentioned, with the 
interv^ng plantations, contain aJl the . inhabnants of 
this colony, which amonnt to 5»aoo whites^ and 43,000 
flaves. ' . . ' - 

Soili Produ£iioMSi Tffdetr ^«*] On each, fide of the - 
rivers and creeks are iituated the pUntations, contain- 
ing from 500 to 2000 acres each, in nqmber about 550 
in the whole colony, producing at prefentf annually^ 
about 16,000 hhds. of fugar* 1 2,ooc^ooolb. of coffee, 
7oo,ooolhi of oocoa, 85b,ooolb. of cotton : all which 
articles ^cotton, excepted). h'<ife fallen^ off within 15 
yeHr<:, at leail one-third, owing to bad management* 
both here and in HoUand, and to, other coufes. Of the 
proprietors of thefe plantations* not. above 80 refid^ on 
them. Indigo, ginger, rice, tobacco, .have been, ^jl 
may be farmer cuhivated. In the woods are^fo'l^Ai 
many hindb of good sod duraUe (iJlBbcr^ a^ ^om 


tfS9 D U T<: H A M E R I C A. 

voo^Ar onuuncittal purpofes, particularly a kind cf 

mahogany called eopic. HiefoH arperh^ps as^ rich and 

as luxvriant at anv in the %vorld'; it is generally a rich, 

ifat« di^ey earthy tying in fome places above the level 

of ihei'ivers,at high water, (which rifes about S feet) 

'but in mod places below it. This country has never 

experienced hurricancsy thofe dreadful feourges of the 

Weft Indies ; and droughts, from the lowneis of the 

land, it 'has not to fear ; nor has the produce ever been 

•4e(^royed by infcds or by the Waft. This colony, by 

•proper management, miglit become equal to Jamaica. 

Jinitnalsf Serpentfi lafc.'] The woods abound with 
.plenty of deer, hares, and rabbits, a kind cf buffaloe, 
'iind two fpecles of wild hogs,'one of which (the peccary ) 
is remarkable for having iomething refembling the na- 
vel on its hack. 1 

The woods are infefted with feveral fpcfles of tigersv 
but with no other ravenpus or dangerous animals. The 
rivers are rendered dangerous by alligator';. Scorpions 
arid tsDrantulas are found hore, of a large fize and great 
Tenom, and other infei^s without number, fonie of them 
very dangerous and troubleftme. The torpciific tel 
alfo, the touch of which, by means of the bare hand, 
or any conductor, has the effect of a llrong eledrical 
fliock. Serpents aHb* fome of which are venomous, 
and others, as has been alferted by many credible per- 
fons, are from 25 to 50 feet long. In the woods are 
monkies, the (loth, and parrots in all their varieties ; 
alfo, fome birds of beautiful plumagCt among others the 
flamingo, but few cr no fmgin^ birds. 

Governinentf i^c,"} This colony is not immediately 
under the ftates general, but under a company in Hol- 
land, called the dire^ors of Surrinam, (a company iir ft 
formed by the ftAtes general, but now fupplying its 
own vacancies) J>y them are appointed the governor and 
aU the principal officers, both civil and military. The 
interior government cooiifts of a governor, and a fu- 
preme and im'erior council ; the members o£ the latter 
are chofcn by the governor from a double nomination 
o£]^ principal inhabitants, and thofe of the former in 
tii^iiUBe maaaer* By thde [powcti» and Vy a magif* 


A BO mi GIN A I^ AMERICA. 2l» 

frate pr^fidiiig overall cHfuUial affair^; jttfttQt jf eie* 
cuted and laws arf. cnaded necioirarf forth« tnurior 
govcrmaem o£thecok>nv J thoTe ofaiiior«geiM9iltn4 
public naciire nre en^ta by t^e dire^^ors. 

Th^ cqlpny i»gusir4ed by afiout t»i$op regnliu' tfoppi, 
paid by the dire^ors. n 

Hiftory,2 .This cplony was fird poilei&Ki by i^e Ffendi 
as early ai^ the yp9x 163001: -401 9nd was abandoned bf 
them on, account of its ui^bealthy climale. la the year 
1 650 it vfas taken 1^ by fopae £ngli(Iimcn» and in 1 6^ 
acharter was granted by Cbvles-^^, In i667» it wat- 
uken by the jbutch ; and the Euglifli haying got poi^ 
feiSon about the fame time of the then Butch colony ^ 
New York, each party retained its con^ueft. ,l7ie£n<, 
gliih planters taoQ. of them retired tp Jamaica, leaving 
their flavls behind them, whofe language is ftill £nglilh» 
but fo corrupted as not to be undetftoodl at firft by an 
Englishman. , . . ; v 




Aborigiml Amerii:^^ 

Or thkt Part whkk the AioaidiirAL IiiDUiil poff^Si 

A.M, A ,z" a'N MA. 



, . ■. . • v; ^: C.V Si-tW^tK^ll AW© EXTBKT. 

Lengtb i4*>ol k-*«--« CThc Edoatorandae 
Breadtli. |9g| ^^"^^ % SoSth latitCide. 

by Paragujny^cf w^ft» by Pern. 

River f.'pr^^l^ riyer Anmzm t« .4ie Isiigcift hi-^ 
known wQiM^vnipsmer, i» famonifa m^iml0M 
i'Tf '• Aa ' ■ ■'^<': ti$\ : 

.'-''J"- -. 


Hs eomCtt tlmt great Taflsil of the fem to whkh it brmgt 
ithe tribute it has received from fo numy of its own Tai:> 
/ds, fctnnsto be produced by innumerable torrtnti, 
which rulh down .with amaxin^ impetuofity from the 
eaftetn declivity of the Andes,' and unite in a ipacious 
■phiin to form this immenle rtFcr. In its prbgcefs of 
3,^00 miles* it receives the WRtert of a prodk^ious num- 
lier of riverst fome of which oome from w, and arc 
very broad and deep. It is interfperfed with an inH- 
Aite numHer of ifland^ w!iich are too often overflowed 
to ladmit of culture* It falls into the Atlantic Ocean 
•under the £quator, and is there I50imiles bro^id. f 
CHmate, SqH and Produiihtu,'] The air is cooler in 
^ this country -^n xopld l>e e^e6ted| confidering it is 
fituated in the middle of the torrid zone. part- 
ly Wing to the h«avy rains whi<^ occafion the rivers' 
to overflow their banks one half of the year^.and partly 
to the cloudindti of the -weather, which obfcures the 
fun great part qf the time Jie is above the horizon. 
Punng the jcainy feafo% the .country is fubi^e^ to 
drtadrol ftorms^ thunder and lightning. 

The foil is extremely fertile, pieducmg cocoa nuts, 
pine applet, batmnas, pliintains, ^nd a great variety .of 
topical fruits ; cedar, redwood, pak, ebony, logwood, 
^nd many ^er fbrts of ^ying wcloii ; tt>g«ther with to- 
:^acco, fugar canes, cotton, potatoes, baUam, honey, &c. 
tThe Foods abound with ty^er?, wHd boars, buffaloes, 
40^9 ^nd game 0% various kinds. The rivers and lakes 
^abdund with fiOi. Here are alfo fea cows and turtles ; 
but the .crocodiles aiid water ferpents render filhing a 
.d«mgerotts employment*, 

* ff^itvesk^ "Qiefi: n^itives, like all the other Ameri- 
cans^ are of a good ftature, havchandfome fe^tures^ 
long black hair, and copper coin])lexions. lliey are faid 
to have a tafte for thtii imitative lairts, efpeclalljr j)ainting 
ll^d fculpture, and make good mechanics. They fpin 
juid #eavie cott^ cloth, and build their houfes \f^ith 
"^o^d/VodtTafr ^4 thatch them with reeds. Their 
arms, in geaeitpJ, : are dairts and javelins, bows and ar- 
f&i^ i$im tof^;^ of cahe or fiih 0cins. The feveral 
|i«piqili&'«K ^vcrncd by their chiefs or ckfliques } it 
; .j: being 


being c>brenrahlc tKat the monarchical {tittKi o£ govern* 
itienc has prevailed almoft aniverfaUyy both arncn:^ tbe 
ancient and nUxktn barbarianst dmibtkrs on i«ccouot 
of its rel|Uirtng a hmcH Ufs refintd policy tlum the 
repablfcan fytlem. The regalia, iKrhich ^liiitn^uiih^.liie 
chiefs are a crown of parrots' feathers, a chain of ty* 
fr€r*s teeth or claws^ which hang around Uie waiil, aiid* 
a wooden Iword. 

. <mf0<l<» >m iftV;.^ • «. 

|r A T A a ON I A. 


Length I xooT u-*«-.« T35*** *nd 54.® Sontik: 

Boum/anes.2 1^ Par^uay | eai^ by tht AtlaiS 
Ocegn I (oath by: tlie l^raits of Magellan ; wefl;> b^ 
die Pacific Ocean. 

C^f^fi, SoUaad Produce,^ The cHin^te is fa^ to j^ 
much colder in this country, than in thft north, linr* 

.rhe f^tne parallels of latitude ; which is i9)puud to itp 
hdng in the vicinity of t&jC Andes, which pajfs Uiroii^n 
it, being covered with eternal ihow- It iiL .aiiroliii|i|-> 
poHlble to fay what the ibil wouldprodt^e^ras it is not 
at all cultivated by the natives, xheije arc, howeye^ 
gQod paftures, which feed incredible numbers of hom- 
ed cattle and hoi^es,firft carried there by the Spaniards^ 
and now increafed iiv an amazing degree. 

Inhabitants.^ Patagonia is imtabited by,^ variety jd^ 
Indian tribes, among which are the Pata^bns, frcm 
whoni the country takes its nalne. They are exceed^ 
ingly hardy* brav^, and active,/ making u(e pf thel/ 
arms, which are bows and anpws beaded with fitnts, 
With amazing dexteritf. 


As to the religion or government of thefe Tavajves, 
\re have no certain information. Some have reported 
that thefe people believe in invifible po^jii» both e^ood 
and evil ; and that they pay a tribute of gratituas to 
the one, and deprecate the wrath smd vengeance of tht 


WE have now traVerfed the feveral provinces of 
that extenfive region which is comprehendeil 
between the Ifthmus of Darien and the fifty-fourth de- 
gree of fbuth latitude. We have takeii a curTory view 
^the rivers» the ibil« the clun^e., the produAions, the 
commerce, the inhabitants, Itc. It only renaains now, 
that we ihould make fuch other geotral ob^rvations as 
aatitrally o6cur upon th^ fttbje^. 

Thib luftory of Columbus, together with his bold and 
«dventaroi>s anions in the dtlcovsry of this country, 
■refiiffici^tly knovhn, to all who have paid any atten- 
tion' to hillory. His elevated 1mihd fuggefted to hirh 
id^ ili^penor to any otlier man of his d^e, and his afil 
jllgrmg gtnius pirompted him to make greater and more 
^iitt^ eibrto for ne# difcoverie^ He croii^d the ex- 
tenfive Atlantic; and bro>ight to view, a wai'Id unheard 
•f l>y the pebpk of the ancient hemifphere. This ex- 
cited an eiiterpHiii]lg<, avarfcibus fpirit among the tnhab- 
StantaW Eordpe ; raid they Aocked to America, for the 
jp^xrpofes of caniagC' and plunder. Accordingly, a fcene 
of barbarity hais been aded, of which Soum Amn-ic^ 
Has i»e6n the principal theatre, which fhocks . the hu- 
^anhindf and>almoli daggers belief. ^ Noibonerhad 
the Sp^is^rdsiet foot upon the Ataeriban continent, 
than uey laid ctaim to the foil, to the mme8» and tq the 
iiirvic^^ the natives, wherever tlieyj came. Cburi- 
tn^ mttfi v^vaded» kingdoms were joyertumed, inno- 
cence was attacked, and happineis tad no afylum. 


S O t^ i H AMERICA. 


Derpotifm and crudtyi with all their terrible fcoufgct, 
attended their advances in every part. Th^y we«t 
forth, they conquered, they ravaged, they dcftroyed. 
No deceit, no cruelty was too great to be made ufe of, 
to fatisfy their avarice; Juftice was difre^ardeJ, and 
mercy formed no part of the chara^er of thefe inhu- 
man conquerors. They were intent only on the proif- 
ecution ofj fchemes moft degrading and raoA fcanda- 
lous to the human charadler. In South America, the 
kingdoms of Terra Firma, of Peru, of Chiii, of Para- 
guay, of Brazil, and of Guiana fucccffively fciLafacri'- 
ficc to their vicious ambition. The hillor/ cf their 
feveral reduAions is to* lengthy to be infcrted in a 
work of thi& kind.* Let us then turn from thtfc dlC- 
treiling fcenes ; let us leave the political world, where 
nothing but fnoftacles of horroi arc pr^f.-ntcd to our. 
view-^where Icencs^of blood and carnage diilrmft the 
imagination — where the avarice, injuflicc and inhu* 
manity of men furnifh notliing bat utieaiy fcnfations j 
let us leave thefe, I'fay, and enter en the natural .world, 
Nvhofp laws are cDnftant and uni form, and where. beau- 
tiful, grand and fublinie Cibjtifts cwRttnuoIly preient; 
themfelves to oujr view. 

We have *ilready given a dcXcription o£thoft' be^a* 
tiful and fpacious^ rivers?, \vhich every where jnteffe^ 
this country. ; the next thiYig th-^t will engage u^'T 
tentioUi is thrtt immsnfe chuin cf ritountains* which rua4^ 
from one end of the continevit to the ptiier, ' i^t;iigiil5 
of thfele enoriiKriis maifcs, which riie to fuoh prptligiovi 
heights above the humble furface of tlie earth, whejfc 
almort all miyikiud have fixed their tefidence ; of tbofft 
mafles, which in one part are crewncd with impijnetra* 
ble and anciviit forefts, that hiivc never refour.ded wijth 
the fircke of the hatchet,- and in anctber, >aiTe. th.-*ir 
to\yering tops and. ftop the clouds in their cQU^ilc^t 
V'hUe in orhtr part* thuy keep tb^ traveller at a dil- 
tance frqm their fumniits, either by ramparts of i^^^^ 
that furround them, or Jrciji vclUcs of flanie HlTuing 
forth frotii the frtghtful and. yawning caverns ;,mafle$ 
giving rife' to iiiipetaoas torreuis, defccnding with 

A a 2 dscadful , 

♦ The reader will find the be ft hiftory cf thc(c tfagic^ jEc(&CI| 
ia Di> KcbecUba's HiAof y ojt Svuth ^cfica, ' ' 




dreidful noife from their open (idcif to rivers, foumiiin.4 
and boiling rprinn : At thcle appearances* 1 fay, every 
beholder is fixed in aftoniihxneiit. 

The height of the mo/l elevated point In the Pyre, 
nees is, according to Mr. Caflini, 6,646 fe;;t. The 
height of the mountain Gemmi, in the canton of 
Berne, is 10,110 feet. The height of/ the Pilce ot' 
Teneriffe is I3»i78 feet. The height of the Chimlx). 
razoy the moll elevated point of tlie Andes, is 20,280 
feet. Upon companion, tht hieheil part of the Aa* 
des is 7,102 feet higher than the rike of Tencrife, tho 
moil elevated mountain knuwn in ihe ancieut hcniiP 
phere. ' ' 




Weft India Iflands. 

BETWEEN North and South America, lie a muJd- 
tude of iOands, which arc called the Weft Indies ; 
and whi^h*. fuch as are worth eulttvation, now belong 
to fix European powers, rh* Great Britain, Spain^ 
Francef Sweden^ Holland, and I>etiniark, a& foUdws ; 

The BaiTisH cia.l'm 
kupnaica, St. Vincent, 

Barbadoes^ Ihlevls, 

«t.ehri(|opher^» Moat(errat« 

;Atitigua» ' Barbuda, 

Greuada and the Qtena- Angitilla,* 

diaes, Bermudas, 

I>ominU}a» The Bahama Ifliuii^ 

Br Aim claims 

juah Fernandds« in thi^' 
Pacific Ocean. ' 
The Fkk«t.^ claim 
HiTiittikiola br St. Dbmingo« St. Lu«ia, 
)vf^rtim6o, JpeT^a &M|rigaIsmtt> 

Oandalogpe, Tobago* 

, ^ - Tkt 6s«»« ^Uim 

St. 9vtholomei^* That: 

!^orto Ricc^A 



The Dutch cUim 
The Iflands of St. £u- Curailbu, or Curacoa> 

ilatiat Saba. 

Dkhmakk cliims 
The lfkn6s of St. Croi», St. John**. 

St. T])omas» 

The clicnate tn a)) the Weft India iflands is nwvXf 
the fame, aUowihs for thofe accidental differences 
which the feveral ntuations and qaalities of the lands 
lliemfelves produce. As they* lie within the tropics^ 
and the fun goes quite over their heads, pafiing beyond 
them to the north, and never returning farther n-om a^i^y 
of them than about 30 degrees to^the fouth^ they would 
be continually fiihjc^ted to an extreme and ihtolerHbie 
heat, if tlic trade winds, rifmg gradually as the fun giith- 
ers llrength, did not blow in upon them from the fea, 
and refireHi the air in fach a xi»anner, as to- enable them 
to attend their concerns even under the meridian fui •. 
On the other hand, as the night advances, a breeze b«-^ 
gins to be perceived, which blows fmartly from the* 
md, as it were frotn the centre^ towards the fea*^ to all 
f oints of the coHipafs at once. < , 

By the fame remaHcable 'providence in the difpoliilg 
of things, k isi that when the fun has made a great t>rog- 
refs towards the tropic of Cancer, and becomes in a 
manner vertical, he drkws after him fuch a vaft body 0^ 
clouds, which ihield them from his diredl beams ; .aiid» 
diifohrin^ mtof rain» cdtl thjb atr» and refreih thccous^ 
try, thirty with the long drought, which common^ 
prevails, from '^thc begioning ot .January to tfa« latt^ 
end of May^ 

The rains make the only didtnAlon of feafons in th« 
Weft Indies ; the trees are green, the whole year round j 
they have ni^ cold, np^ofts, no.inows, and but rare!/ 
feme hail j.the ftorms of hail ar^, howcvef, very vie- 
lent whe^ they happeioi» and the hailftonesi f ecy great 
andheavyk -5* ^ 

The ^and ftai^k commodity cf the W^ft tidies is 
iiigar. The Pprtoguefe were the firft who cuhiltated it 
la Azbentci* ' Ths juice of the f^gar cane is the reoft 
lively, esodlenv mlhe;l69i^ clo^mg ivimkk niatur^ 



They computei thae, ,wbeii tlHngs mre well managed^ 
the ram and molafles pay the charges of the plantation, 
and the fogara are clear gain. 

The quantity of rum and molafles exported fhmi all 
the Britifli Weft India iflandiit. in I789». to all parts, 
wai, accurately* as follows : 

OallOM. OattoM. 

Rum 9f49S,i77.of which 1,485,461 came to the U. S. 
Molafles 21,19a do. - 1,000,000 do. 

The lilands of the Weft; Indies lie in the form of a 
bow, or^femicircle, ftretching almoft from the coaft cjL 
Florida north, to the mtx Oronoko» in the main conti-; 
nem of South. America.. 




ty. . .| *nr*^HIS iiland; the moi^- Taluable ap« 

Jamaica.^ 1 pendige to the britifli dominions 
in America* is 180 miles long and 60 broad ; of an oval 
fbrm, lyihe between iy'^ 54 N. lat. and about the lon^ 
gitudfc of Philadelphia. 

Jamaica is divided, into the counties of Middlefex,. 
^brry and •Cornwall, which -cont<klh>5,ooo whites, and 
i{Oo,oqp negroes.N 

':^is . idand is interCeifked .. with a ridge of deep rocks, 
from which iffue.a vaft number of fmau rKc, ; : f p'urc,. 
wholiefome water^ whieh'fall down^in catar V.t<u ;n: .' to- 
gether with the ftupendotts height of the x.ioantains, 
^nd rhe bright verdure of thetrees through- which they 
flbW) i^orm a inoll delightful landicape. 

The ^geO: daf in fummer i» about 1 5 houts^nd the 
ihort'^^iv w'«iter rboct eleven; but the roofbufual 
divirr IS rf iiie ieafons in>the Weft Indtes> arc into the 
dry iwd >' -'v^ ferfons, . 

Sugar is the erealeft and moft valuablf prodt^^Iot 
f»ll^iflaiML 'Qfthift artide wa;^4orted to Great 



Britain* in ^ )^— 1,185,5 19c wt. It projnres alfo, co* 
(oa* ginger, pimento, or, us it is caUchU j<«ni«ui a ]><( per, 
4ind vulgarly HlUpiec} the wild cinnumon i the nutci • 
netl, wboie fruit, thonvh uncommoni ' dcli^^h.iul totiic 
eye, contains one of the woril poifuns hi natorc t the 
cahbage treei remurkahle for the hardneis of its wood, 
which, when dry, is incorruptible, and hardly yicld<^ to 
aiiy kind of tool ; tKe palina, afTwding oil, much eftec. 
eJ by ihr f;. .' 1 j;5, botir in food and medicine ; thefo:*," 
tree, w*"o:\ Uwn . anfwer all pvrpofcs of vraOting; .the 
margio/c xud cUn btfrk, ufeful to tanners ; the fuUrc, 
rr.d reawc :a,'to the dyek-s; and hitdiy the logwood* 
'^ ^ ndigo plant was formerly much cultivated, and the . 
cotton tree is ftill fo. They have maiae, or Indian corn, 
Guinea coni, peat of Various kindsy with a variety (if 
roots. Fniits grow in great plenty; citrons, Scvillor 
and China oranges, coitunon and fweet lemons, iimos» 
Ihadocs, pomegranates^ mamees, fourfops, ^ap^, pine 
apples, prickly pears, allicada pears, melons, pompions^ 
guavas, and feteral kinds of beni«s ; alfo garden Aufis- 

in great pldity^vatid god^ , 

FortRoyil was formerly the capital of Jamaica. The 
convenience of its harh€|iir induced the inhabitants to 
build their capital on this fpct, though the place was a 
hot dry fand^ an4 produced none ot the neceffaries (^ • 
lite, not even frelh water. Bui the advantige of its ^ 
harbour, and the refort of pirates made it a place of 
great confideration. lliefe pirates were called Baccav 
ncers; they fought with a defperute bravery, and tliea 
fpent their fbrtuiie in this capkal, with as inconfiderate 
diliipatif.M. About the year r693, tio place of its fize 

ald^be eompared to this town for trade, Wealth, and 
cntire'corruption of manner^. In the month of Jane, : 
in this year, an earthquake, which (Hook the whole ifl* 
and to its foundations, totally averwhelmed this city, Gy 
as to leave in tone quarter, not even the fmallcft velUge 
remaining* In two mintites the earth opened and f^aU 
lowed up nine-tenths of the houfes, atid two thoufand 
people. The water gu^cd c^ut from the opennig^ of 
the earth, and tmnUed the people on heaps ; but fome 
9f them ^d the goiM fortune to caich the beams aa4^ 



ants B It IT! S H W »6 T TKl^ I>BS 

rafters of hcrufcs, and werie afterwards faTedbj boats* 
Several ihips were caib away in the barboor*v and tbe 
^wan frigate, which* laf in the dock to careen, .wasxar^ 
jiied, over tbe tppjs of finking houfei^ and'did not overfet, 
bat a£^ficd.a retreat to fome bundreds of people* who 
favcd thafj lives upon ber» Atr officer, who "Was in the 
toWo r' this time, fays, the earth opened*and (hut very- 
quick .1 ibme places} and he faw^veralpeoj^efink 
down to the middle, and ptbers appeared with their 
heads ju ft' above ground, and were fqueezed^to death. 
At Savanfiab* abpve a thoufaAd acres were funk, with 
the bou|es and pegple in them i the place appeared for 
foane time like-dt lake,, ivas afterwards 'dried 
houfes we^ faei^ OlA fo^ie partsy moui^ns wetefpUt; 
and at one pl|c^ a phqit^tieai w^ remoyed to the |lifH 
tantceef «mil(l^ Ttiaj again rebuilt tbe ci^i but it 
was aXectvOfi tiBie» ten yeais after, deftroyed by a great 
fire.- The eitraovdtnafey conFenicnce of the ham:, 
tempted them^^to bttild it once moie ; and once more» 
•i»:i78t^tt was^latd <in> nibfaHh bf af^urrricane the 
sioft terrible on record. , ^utfa repeated calamities' 
ftem^i to mark out this placie at a devoted fpot t the 
Inhabitants therefore refolved to fbirfake it forever, aad 
to iMMe lit tbe^yvwi^ they-bmlt-KiMOSTON, whid 
tt now the capital of tbis4fland; It i^fiftsof upwards 
of one^ttu^iand hoiifeSt Not^ |rom KiQ|p<^ott ftands 
6C. Jago de la Vega, oi Spa^ tow*, which, though 
at prefent inferior to Kiagfton, ^Z9<30k the capital of I 
Jamaica, and is dill the feat*of goyernmenr, and the 
place where the courts of iuftiee are Jbld. 

This ifland was originally a pwrt o^ the Spanifh eft- 
ptre in America. It was reduced, under the BritifE 
dominions in 1656, and ever finee has been fubjeftto 
die ^ngUlh. The government- of it Is one of the rich* 
eft places neit to that of Ireland» th the difpofsd of the 
crown, ttie ftanding falary being a^ioo/. per annum, 
an4 the aflembly commonly voting the pernor as 
much more;. which, tvith the ot^er petquifites, make 
it on the whote little inferior to 10,100/. per annum. 

Ji4M4adMi,J Mhu Ulandi tbe moft vafterly of all the 
Caribbees, isiUtvated in 59. degrees weft loogitudc, and 


% • 

sr annom. 

•B*rtlSH *^iST INDIES. t^ 

13 degrees north lalitude. It is i\ miles in lengtht 
afl4 14 in brendth. Wlien.the Enelifli, fome time after 
the year i625r&A landed here, itiiad not the lead ap- 
I pesrance of erir having been peai$!ed e^en by ravages* 
lliere wai ho kin^ oHwafts, no' fintit; no herbs nor 
lOOts, fit for fiipporting the life df man. In 1050, it 
contained more than 50*000 whites, and a much greater 
nomber Of negro and Indian ikves ; the latter they ac- 
quired 1>y means not at all to their honour / for they 
feixed upon all thofe unhappy, men, and tarried them in- I j 

to flavery—a pra^oe which has rendered the Caribbee 
I Indians irreconcileatfle to the £ngliih everflnce. They 
liiad begun, a little before Hiis, to cultivate fugar to great 
hdvantage. The < number of flaves was, in confequence 
[oFtheir wealth, ftill augmented ^ and, m 167:6, it is fup- 
pofed tha^ their number amounted to iddtooo, which, 
[together m'ith f 0,006 whites^ nulke 150,000 on this 
[imll fpot ; a degree of. population Unknown in Hpl- 
[land, in China^ or any other part of the world moft re- 
Downed'fisr nuiidb^ers. 

Their annual export^ at this time, in fugar, indigo, 
^nger, cotton, and citron water. Were about 350,600/^m 
land their dirculattiig £a(K at home was 200,000/. Tbil- ? 
Iillimd ^n<^e has JMs^ much on the decline. Hieir 
InttmbeFS,. at'prefeht, are faid to be 26,000 whttes, and 
]iOQ,ooo flaveSk Their capital is Bridgetown, where 
Ithfi governor reildes, whofe employment isfaid toibe 
[vorUi $ooot* p«r annum. They have a college, found* 
led and Well endowed by CoLCodrington, who was a 
ptive o£ thi# iflandi Barbadoes, as well as Jamaica, 
fuffered much Vf hurricanes, fires, and the plague. 

St, Chrifi^pher's.^ This iflandi commonly called by 
jthe Tailors^ St. Kitt^«, is fitti^ed in 62 degrees weu 
longitude, and 17 degrees north latfitude, about 14 

tgttes from Antigua, a(nd is no miles long and 7 broacU 
It has its name firOm the famous Chriftopher CiJ!um<> 
bus, who difcOvered it for the Spaniards. Hiat natioii,[ 
however, abandoned' it as unworthy their attention; ^ 
ind, in 1626, it was fettled by the French and Eng^ 
Fonjtitiftly I bfit entirdy ceded to &e l^ulb by the peat^e 
^Utrecbc* HkMu cottott^ ginjgeiv a^ the trc^c&l 

3^ PitlTIS^ Wi!|T INMBfs, 

fr|iits,,it produced, m i787» iiU397cwt. of fugaff. It 
is co;n|>uted that this i^nd ^pntaips 6,009 w)|ites» and 
36,000 negroes. 

^ntigu/(k% Situated ia .61 dejgpree;& weft loBgitudei 
ani 17 dej^ees north Jatrtudisy 19 ;of a dr^uhir form, 
lit'dT 2K>0nii^SLOver ew|y way,, it Jias onie of the bcft 
harbom-s in the We^lndies ; ami >t$ •capital* St. John's, 
whic^, before the ^ 4^ 4769» was iarge and wealthy, 
is thc'^dmary feat ef the gf)¥emor.. of the Leeward 
jQands. Antigiaa isr fuppofed tp contain about 7000 
whitef » aii4 .^OyQoq iUveK 

jSrettfJ/tamltlk Grtifi^aitilu^'l Ovenada is iituated in 
12^ north liuitudci^ and 69^ «feft^ ionptode* ahput 30 
l^aguei S. W^pC Bsirj^adoes. AThis iwnd is fatd to be 
3$^niU^iiV leng^ and ijrin lu?fadUi< - It produces fu. 
gar, co$ee^ tqajH^co, and. iiidigq, f A lake on the toj^ of 
a hill in thiia twiddle of. the^fland* fupi^s it plentifully 
with fmall river»> whijch a^om and rartili^^ it. 

Domimca*^ Situated iiif 6*^ N. Iatitu4e» and in 62* 


W.; longitude, 4i6s about half , way between^Caudaloupe 
and M^inlco. Ik i» 9«^?r aS iai|es,i&' length, ahd 13 
.breadth ; It obtau^d i^ nsuue^j^om being difcovered 
y Colui^bus on a Sunday. - Xh$ ii$i|<if»f this ifland is 
thiut ana bjetter adapted tothe reaxing of cottooix than 
fuga*' I but the fides of the hills he^ the fineft larees in 
th« ^eft iodiest and the J^and is wcU fuppliedwith 
rlVutets of good water. It exported fn Great Britain, 
in 1,7^1 .upwards of 50yOQOcwt» of fug^t* 

^'St, ^incefit.2 Situated in ^3°* H. ratitu<3c. and 6i<> 
Wi{ longitude^ 50, miles northweft of Ibrbadoes, 30 
miies ibuth of St, Lucia, is about 24 miles in kngtb, 
and tSin breadth. It is very fruitful. It ientto Great 
Britain^;^in «i 790*. 76»747cwt. of fugar. ' 

^ Nevit, and MontferraU'\ Ifwo' fjnall iflandsy lying I 
between St. Chriftof>her's and Antigua, kielth^ of them J 
18 miles in oircumterence, and are laid to contain 5,000 
whites, and 10,000 ilaves. They fcnt to Great Brit- 
ain, in 1787, io8»324cwt. of fugar/ but much lefs ia 

B^t^jmAt).] Jptiiated^ guiles' i^oxth pf Antigua} ii 
i^n^^ fiR i^gth, smd ta in br^idth^ and lertllcij 
The Inhahitiftts anioiiftt 10 ibottt liSbb. 




iMoHt^mSm la%i^«Dd to l»Nwa» tlib ii^ 
feaiy fei»l* 

dai^a Sp9i^iav«l|.«aa mtxt calM SemnicrtMiliftfid^ 
from Sir CM»rg» Soflntfi^s, irlw tris fliittwi«6M <iii 
their ilMifH in i^, \BillM^^^<ffL;S»m!Mk. Hiey 
are <itiiat«<l in fif ;N; ktiftulf , pA%f W. lon^^e, 
diftant from chr llM«inu4 *b(Nft i»so0 ladgaei raM 
from C>arciltQa» joa tThe iilaii^ 'ik'ro«lK7 aiid tetifvh. 
In the in^f^ii^k^jr inAy 1^^^ tMcvm^^^ fe, 
nam/ p^ic«%ivj|li «flki(|hf tlmttiiiiiM4^ 1^ 
left, and i^ UfMiffiibW oflf fc lK#^lb / Tkr a^r ir 
beaithj i a «oiilinual %rn^j^Yaflls 1^ iaKiiiitiiili^ 
Laiemisittoiit $ if oV'a^iiOCiiD afr it6U«i!^ilfi'th^lii|l 

weft 4««* ^ IW extend «lt% tl« toftH of Bsm, 
onite d^wki^fiv C^i^ftud i|^«M4to be 500 ilii millilitr^ 

and MU«i aUI^, IMi^^W^i *iiiniiiAii^ Wj(|i£ fW 

lloia^ ol&eii»^«v^^lil8^ 1110^ liirtae, on wlud^ Se 

^-^t.; sT%M#l;i tlie «r4 1% mci^imhiitki^ 





1 • 





' ,^-».' * •,'. f>*5 ♦ 

.'U -^ 

. f-l 

*•>* » 





Mat^utttti^ ^S^^iMk^ki ^i^ti^^ 
knd is Skbbut 40 RitUs taiei»^iitta 24itt6reiMJi^i 1^4 

1 -,t 



nvlicM t|i€ Mt StmM'HkMi^ w^^^ is 

^ i>ii( bfllVitig fofne ^Oi^ J^ it tt.foiad 

ff xm^^tkkAt fm ck« lAg&iib 'aif^n*. to ^ouch 

fiH to the* cllcka^ pviSttci Slloyiffiii CniSx* It 
{terns, one AUauiukf SMfk* p ,0«^ti^h|iiab»yWas left 
ti&lmM4(^ S0firfi^yM ¥f c^pmht iriltre he 
Ut^m iiH^ jr^ui^ ttpl lie f AS ^eovemdliirj^aftaia 

vovlred ftrqmi i 

It UMiii.l' 

„.,„ , -^^tliehi 4<M»»f>» 'Mlife ibark- 
iiuii&^, yMch ]>rlet^0« Some 


', «'"i^. w 

it tte|>9li|lE<i# Die &f^^ii(j^ ik 

J.. i^ l 

Ji f' A 

wmaaam , .. . 

Doroingo,4u the mm abpdnant 4^a]lfl«ti-'^drHMil^ 

the Ereneklia^ lhc rd« po^ftd^iVi^^MKi^ ^e 

l«'gr,^4iiiipmtamoi)%bililstrtt^^ ; ' * ''* 

gwes ofNllat, and III 6^ digfeiif W. tong, lyin^(igrtt 
40 dcgBBi* Ni W; of B«tbadi)«, is-^^oflt ^5^«|^^ 

V* V 


•loftg,4uwl?58^|Mki Its M isi i<^Uy^»^, 

that k wSfe4 HI '^^ Weft Hidie^^itli tte^d^tfi^^ 

hMhmm^ ■' ' ■••■ "^"^^^^- :> '^^ 

and SuChiitefhifs, f 



,-• .^' 





.>» I,'* 

m\''/ riiliiiiT" Tf II liijifM' ir y"Mi"^-Tl 


. \ 

t I 




" < .• 

^ 1 y, 

tTUATEP. in 17** 2/ 

good iccoitt^^ 5^Vlijtci, 

1^ bl li oen^lvitiorio hk* .9 or 10 


^.„ ^^ ii#ipfirMk;ii«iicsi. 


JDwiih Wefi Indies: 

* I »*■ 


6. irJu- A Kii»c<nliUcriiMf merobii'oriliepi^^ 
su retmntt j^ bee«i. it ihtiaieil 1^.64° wft loif . and* 
kS*' K. l^, nboiit 15 isU«s in chrcmnfereiice» and hm a 
fafe and eoirmbdwilS ;!|tAr|^our. It prodvces- uptvanii < 
of i^odo Jiogili^tiils of^lul^i ij^i<ics otker Weft India , 
coii*i^ij^tfes;' '■'■'■/ ' "' '" ' ■■■'■" : 'i'-^ ■ 
St» Cfiin^ or $anh(^^, anotner fmall and ni^akhiF 
SliMf fci«tf ab^ttt. fift I«%j«i wft «fc' St. ITio^ai^ ten 
or^iW^W\tmmt« In Icti^jiSfe an4'!*fe!»'orif^ it 


K r 

».,^ i 

f^TJR >lniwlete of I** glpbem)N^ 

k. AflBAiA i^ctfu^ didiijl^! 

Ifc- '^I^^^^W^^WW '^l^'^^W^f^r*' 't'^^P^JPI^^R,*' 




•li die ttft HidE» 'Cdlhpfttr) Wi wrtcktd on one of 

fhn; In Avfnlft ijl^s^ ' FfM <bi afiiotklb.|iveii of 
St\0«nAiVf Ca];^' WfUbn; who comma^ed . the 
pnWIr H a^()ea^ thatthejr are fituatcd betvrcen the 
, S^^ ^tki&fsrttioi h6f«hl4t{ttt<ft^ irndb^i^lcn 130 
attd i 56 4fireej| ,of «&ft fongito^ ftw Gr^wlch. 

Ti^ natlvet of th^ lAuOt art a ftottt» ^ell made 

'(beople. . ••' '. 

^ Th^gdv^iftemUmoiit^hica], aiiltlic1tiii|^al> 

JHjlite, but hit poWef is etdrtWi i^t Utith: the ii^ild- 

ntfs of a ath^ thiui dt ^ip^^. 

' li; ip|»eaH tKat wh^ii the lSgl!(h were diro<i«MMm one 

of thiefe iflandl^^tiilt *»rci^re?tft«d bf th^ iilitlres>5th 

the pt^a hW^viHitf likd h6fptti%f i tfnd tiU th€it <ie. 

partutft, >^en|l|^ the iitfl^llc<^xt(^ ttitypiatioi. 

¥ They felt tfp^dple #e«e diftirjeffisdt andiftCbii^- 

^^etU%» #fihi»l^tlre]f^oal4:%0^ 1^ to 

tt wan tidt that ^Wf liitlj^ibt^e. iwai he^. 

^d^titaids^fts fikf 00)^ wiifira diftaf^ cjf:c to #ctn. 

i. ^ ft t»aii' the pittfic emo^^^ bi ixifvrt :h*^cy.c- 

hiadm It was 1^ lo^i^ n^ to maft^ |« wasWicene 

ifeitheterrt'!'*''' :''^''^' \ ■ •■ ^V-/iv'- ■ 

b^ S^* Jolec^ In^rah^un^ i»fBoft^ <bihmandei>o£ 
thi bi^aatiiu^ Ho^, on the. 1^ of A|nJ,* 1751. 
11w7 lip bcti*eett «« *^ aod. a* «' S; lat-i^acd bMwe^ 
H<^* «9<' atid \^ it ^. 16^/ fto#:Loiti^ tlfey 
wfitm 111 milil}%r», which CsU>tr IMiahitaii BahKd as 

> #;ife^^|tiidi^ C^k^^iit^ dii tfaj& t^ 

0f Jti^r lf^^ vlt ^^itwi^ h4tireci)t^ i t*^ io^fl^ » 7*5l' 
^i.r«»MiiOiMuex w^ ii£An«erH»^Ea««i&c^#iihmM^ 


- _f ■■ 

I,. ( ,-^'tVv 


Hiw biscfot 




long; '84iMp«morOulielir«m-f«r^j0pdta| iiii 
Capt. CmJk W91 o#fMHiii«i, ^lilcKiriHiiBlMVloliiMMm 
* lit f»i tbe liriiole ilbiid MMiiiiitff to to4,«i6o,r inltli- 

tb4ir1rlfiitaiiifeiil 1 fo b<i|]i'«eiiittd woncft r«Mi«»U 

timtt tTtry daf;. Tb^ir kigoagcit-lbft and ntlodioi»» 
aodabotindi witli towfb. 

The iid^^iiu ol" Otahatt» lyelt<vc iHjpiil SnprtiM 
Ddtf • b^ at iU^mt itme admowUdga awi^jr of i)i-» 
bordmai^dekift r ihey ofiet ttfvtiidr pimf ciiriiittoM tlii 
ttTc^f j4Qlt» ind'bflimtife MiAcnctf of ilblinii bi» 
it^amfjh^^ nvlMVtt thett ire tHHb Ikutttons, o(4Uftt« 
cot degreee of bap|»iotiil OHi^te U^^dd to bt abk t^ 
iuidoat i|7to war (^Mbeti «nd.(Stioc^f%h|iiig t^em 

^fiQi^ JUfi^ % ^ied U Iponoti^ itf^* Kofal Soct. 

7% Minify ^fil^.y^ VwSt iialMi ««^<0 
bt <%t. W^ ibi.tb»ieit ttH, on a« 
fi'teiidQiw tmi'tf^pepicd '\<^ fobfift a«f?(>i% 


and btat 0^ #ffi^t ^arU olTfhttr bddy tifl(til»i|i^"^ 
t» ^l<^ V i^ibi«^* ^IJii^y tcUt a1tt)l#.>f tb^f Mi^» 
tnldt tbeyji^^UlB^^^ eiafe» they 

A&fi^ ;aMm^ ili^^^ 4«^c(]ri|ered l^^'falnM^ tint 
i)^ic|>:]iHmat<f^fl» Uw^^ .^i^piibrbSd dtf- 

comfqs lil* Ci^'it^MFf ^MoiM rottiul itt k is lotciadi 
to coafi^ef A^ latge iiljirtrii, dfiMed ftrom eatb -"^ 
bx ailra^/4(n;5i#ij^ Ttejj s^e 0ni;K 

twtf%tli« I&«ud»3 ^$J^ miiltites €..i^ 

iwtn *tbe iongjtiMJcs ^t ij^ f«4 iiP^ipm 
Gieetiipeh,; '- ■ v '" ■'' ■ •/• '■■"■^^:\^^:- ■ ' ■ ^ '' ': .: ' . " ■ 

Vt^es 0^101 cJi^c^m»^viga|ora«id gcNT^ ' 







il0oclaMD iholt 9i^m!LC9t^ IiikitArft voyage 
10 the S^ 6n»r l^MMicL»ctd Hw teiflty Iflandi ) 

th# ftniti wlucMcpaimtv the t^Ho iflaods» «od are ciUkd 
after ^ fuunt i tii, wdt » «0|lDf4tu Atrf ty of botb. 
4ic vfctnfpnU efptotid the Eaftftn coa(i of Kcw Ho% 
knd, Uillifrto onktiown i, an ixmt of 27 4«grcei 0$ 
iitittt<iC| 6r ufwaiids of a,ooo^€f» / 

In hii fkcdnd cjEpeUitkm he iolvcd th€ gtcqK problem 
of « iuuchcro Contiatot* havipg iraFciied jh»t hemii- 
phet^^btt^ween/thf Utiiudt; of ^* alkd,70^ in fuch % 
matmet at not to Uatt a poffibility of iu exUlcnce, ud- 
left'0«urlhepole,,aiid.ouJLdr. the reach oJF navi^atton.^ 
During thk voyage ha dncoverfd N^^*^ Caledoaut^ ihe 
largsU iflandin tlie foaihen^ Pacifici except New Zea* 
Iwnd ; the i^m& of Georgia t aod aa uukaowD ci$k, 
yirhji^h he naaaad Saadwiehlandf i^e 7>^^ of the fouth* 
eni.h«ll»i4>iiereta2Mi having twice f lilted the tropical 
J|^>|mI fettled the fittiali^nref ' the o|d» apd ttuufe iiev- 
eiailllWsdifeoteries. : ^ 

Bn&thelaibroxiigeis diliuigoHM ahm all the reft» 
Jiy; the eneot iid in^rt«nce of it*. difisoTerief . Be- 
fid^t ieveri), toller ilttadaihi-ihe Soulhera FicSfic, be 
diicoveredt to the nonlhof the vequmoxial liaei tbe 

ftoMjp taliecl thte Saadnridi: Idandft which* 'from their 
taatton aad prodiMEiioai, hid faiwr forbeooming an ob- 
Je4l pf confeqiiei^^ io th<ef]r^un4)f Europeaa^aaWn., 
tion; than any other ;difcovery in the S^^uthSta. He 
af^er^ardft explore Vh^c*had JiitheK« remaiiied uiw 
hoowo of tiie wellertt coall of A)merica»> from Che lat. of 
41^ |o 70^ Aonhr coQtaiaiiie an eiteutof 5*500 iniles ; 
a&ertaioedjheiptoziftiity of the two gttait t^ntioeats of 
Afsi and iM»et4^ i l^ed the Oiaitl beiweei^ them, 
and Xorteyed thi^ co^ our ea<^ fide, , to fuch a height, ct 
^^U^^tttdei at^ <|emonOi;rate th< iiiipx^icahility 
^A i^ti^e in that hemtfpheriit Yrom the AiSand« intc^ 
fkt ^acifieDeiilfli cither hy all ealleiii or weftertr courfe. 
Xn Itotty if j|pi except the Seaof AiiIikv and^^ Japan- 
ife Aiftl^peh^o^ : w^«h ftiU remata. iilifkMxfe^t hnown 
io,Eim*atov.he hit^ cjooipleted ttie-lidrokc^y o( 

WSKWegWKw W ^ - 

. ; , As 



HEW mscovii^fBs. 


ThcnMiiiod 'Mtk he ^Ceam^ utA h iascMitUf 
miribc4|4)f prcifanpiiig ilie ImiIA of ftamtii* fprmi a 
iit« en in imilgiiiMt M^viivitt^ tANTfliit liU Minctto 
^ture igep» ««io«g dlt/H«4i and bMMfiiaoii of naft. 

nov* ^^ 

TtioA'-wko iff ceAfcttet ia naval hiftpryt l^ed not ^fp" 
^t6l4atlMW dcaraiaUtlM adv^astagti wludi.have 
been ibogii^ tkiw^ jthe madtum of ioo^ ▼oTaMt jt Tea, 
We Always be#ii porchafed.. That «!readfiil 4ifiM^9 
LirUlih 4t peculiirto tfae.lirricc. And whoie nra^t 
' hvrt nai^kejl thoi tM^ of difcorereri with circomflwi- 
cH#lm(ift,too flKickinji to ftlat9» ciuft* w^oot-tier- 
cHing^an .nawinantal^ tmnAy o«t* the livei of our 
feament Ji^^e slaved an intoftralile obllado v> the f^roi^ - 
ecotioiit)0^tt(» «nt^»ptketi <Iai>|im fdkr^ for C^ft 
Cookrtc^ir cli«>milrW, by^wpeatad tHa^ib iM f*!*" 
ages iniffktjk pcotnidfd to tiw iiuiriuikqg^ of'mm-' 
or ^?eaTottr ylwf, in uakoown tegtfi|f/ and nn^ t«^ 
Ay cb«iigeti|!i<itt«l^ i^ ihe oKniiiB, iioi onlrwUbont 
aileaif^^ Wi#; vM>eA f^o^ dimil^lhh^ tha 
trrobah% of H^^ tM ihiiiiiid d^rlt. 
•• •^:■ ■ ''■ .n- : •■-■•■ 



'lB$iSt^ M|tT 


!»?■;-!•%• "«iij,_ 


-"-■4 ■'; • ''^ <, 



E U R O P E. 


Tbe chrifttaa religion is tftaUiilied tkroBi^ottt erci^ 
part of Europe, except Ttnrkcf i knt from the Tariont 
capacities of the htunan miail, and the different lightf 
ia vihkk fpeciiktiTe opinions are apt to a|^»ear, iSien 
▼iewed hf perfons of dilimnt edwnttiont and paffionsb 
that religion is dirided into n naniber of diffwent fed«» 
bat which naay be compirdiended nnder three genend 
denominations f ift, tbie Gteel: church; 24 the Ro» 
man Catholic; and $df mroteftantifin : which Uiftjs 
again divided into LuthenToi and Calvinifin^ lb cvl- 
ed k<m idither and Calyin,,, the two d&ftingttillied it« 
formers d* the i4S|h ccnttOT'. 

The number of Roman Catholics, before the Ercneh 
Revolution, was eftimated at Qo^opOyOoo; t^ munVer 
of Proteftants, at al^t 24,000,000. 

The languages of Europe are derived ffotti t^ Hx 
following; The Greek, Ladn, Tentomc or old G«rn 
man, the Celtic, Sclavonic, and Gothic. » 

The armies of all the counties in Smttpc anoiuil ti 
about two millions of n^en ; fo that i^iijppi&fi§^ t^iuU* 
lions qf inliabitants in Europe, no «|or& tim ^ff |||9 
whole population are lbldier$. ; :'^''r^'X'W^-':'y'^'^'^'- -^ 

The greateft part of £t^^ beiiig £mateilnhoi|re iSkt 
45th degree of northern li^ude» tfnd ev«n its ttoft 
louthem provinces being f{ijt.diaant from the tonwl 
zone, the^ecies of organized hodies are ijemck I16 JM^!- 
merous in Europe than in the other parts of the sidbe. 
I'hus, for imftance, upon an equal number^ iquan 
miles, the number of'fpecics of quadmpedes m Europe^ 
is to the nomber (rf" them in Afia, as i to if, t» thiit m 
America, is t to'ZjJ-, and to that in Africa, ar t to t% 
and the iftinmber of the vegetable |^ies in t)ie oth«r 
three dsvifions of the jrlobe, is jBtiaidr tlS^ridf t« titao 
m iLurope. ISut nature has ennched tie.Etkn^^iHni 
continent with ever^fpeciesofminel^^ diamond ^pi^ 
platina, pezhaps, etccptcd. Gold, » irftof tt«la|^ 
IS not found in Europe fo plentifull^is iil tl» othe^^ 
coittincnifc Tloweter, «s the Europiatt nl^ntjiafve 
the ^tdf dl^a&i^ihc heft uie of fMr ii^r|||li^ 
tiom, iMfiave ta^Nn^a^ tP>iipirfl^ tn|o^r cnift 
foil is m^X cf th<i '£mgn produaions ds. dirar nati^ 
will ptfpti^J^ope, hpon i^e whole, mnft W aUowed 
to^ ^ mlliii n«hcft paruof dte g^. *, ' 




^k< great^ft part of Europe is under the inf!ttence of 
a climate, whkb* being .tempered with a moderate de- 
t^nce of cold» ioTRis a race of men, ftrohg, boldy a^v« 
Ln4 iogcxviouf 3 forced by necieflltf to^makt. the beil ule 
they can of the fmaller ihare of te^ible juid'aiikiinal 
tr^uures, which their foil f^rj^^M*' 



: a 




. Ireland 







IfOMaiicc Mid 









ipo^t 300 
a4a I ..»8o 


j ip Q- ijtoo 


Germ any 

11 -.-^-,- 

■ ! 5 r — — -1 






ox, ' 


600 1 5.06 ■ Viipaiwi^^'V ^^ea C 


iftif tuga l ij isfeo xoo LUbbn 

Swftks^Uni liSp 1 too .tenIc5SrJ, 


• ■'■• '• 

170 N. "^^ 

500 HJE^ 

7jOvN. E. 

1x40 N. E. 


III i iiii m « • »» 

[¥» ■»*» 

i8ogi - 
tSb s. C 

tl 'l i ' I I I* 

r. «cw 

■aod S..J^, 


850S. w. 

4*9 5. e;. 



Lniii. Calv. &c, 
Calvinia>» &c. 



Greek Church 

tctWi |i Ca). 




Homan Catholics 


Romi^n Catholic;.! 
Kuman Catholics! 

|ll i I n II fH i nn p I 

— llw^ 

' ■ •' f H ' 

Several AaHStat*t^ Vft* tlitir'CtHe/Citkt. ., v* -:> 

(N VFroYtttcer*, 





400 #40 Athena 





1500 B. ^':*pO*e(|t'«*urch. 



• ThU iocladet Csam .faft^ry, wm utAtdxo M^i, 

E Cr }l Q P E. 

• ^VS 

'^-'^tum^tn 'i^ ^dyi 



la the North 




fp^>)i,ti>aca,A\tcn. Sill- ;•(,— i — 


Sicalhoit. Denmark 



., *' ., .\ fJothlitld, Aland. 8,ucei|i , - -, ^ -^ ^ w^ 

.,.«,--«-.- - - Mvica,. . ' >* .•• -^^ ••' 

■ "♦> 

Ivica," ppam 

•crctf't Sic- 


V" 1 ',; t!Saf«l!)Bia, - ■ - - >' ; Cadiari, 

AaHSt5«»,V f 2Luficrta,<Cor;fi4.CfphaiOni<^»'> . 

Guile* VcjBlet,ti3&s*t,ii*€ii«4aia, "j j". T "^*^. 

Archipdifio. It iT^^'rWlMl^^^^'^'rl 


5 ^'^tw^te* wati;taJt«o from Spaii>. tiy Oett.^tinhoj?^^ i^o8» a?Jd 
cvrnfirmM toM^reat Britain, by thu Treaty of Urrecht, 1713, true 


.. , T^" 


' ft 

■ f '^J^ 

,'-.■ \'^ .zJ,-::-^%^.^' 




■/ - 

.^ .*4 y*' €.* 

' ■» 




': r. 


jPossESioKs OP BENMARK, :.ih £urof£. 

/^ • ■ . • ,«.-'■»>. , - ■ 

ji- ti' the t>atoi/h prtfmce« eontain 182,400 ftjuarc 
XjL xnflcs, and» including the colome^ 2,j;oo^qco la- 

er, on the Bal- > ijjPOf 1 l.Mj;^ 
' tie S<^ J^ 

Atift lb Gtr-> 

'hi»f the Atlml*^tSSi«Oe 
tic we<l, J 

■ n 



Clakfbifii ; »48j 






^k1^ x^ earldon»» t^bfronieif 93»cilRtesof thein- 
fertolnobilitf, aiid'7,00©^^ipi. " ; 

l^^vajfcontaini^Hi:^ it j^^ aaariJoii^ »nd27 

IphI Bai2^ have rettlttidftts at Coromstlid^] m Afia« 
oil the «dsit <i£ Ooinesi ami other places in A&i<:a» ind 
k 6«^fl^<} in Amelia* Greenland k diviikd into 
£^a^ We(^ Gteenknd^ a very titenfivc c6n#y, bnt 
ti^t yml^d. Cr^si ret'^nd aid f ^$| Uxt^ and 
^"— wiadefing tnhaliitaitts in Weft Gteen^n<k The 
am'^ ^Y nation trhb haye fet^i»|ica;i^ in 
Gb^i^uBul ; ^ere^o^^ tlie^ fj^j^btlS^itm, the 
ilCt:#^^#^t^ late v;i^tS/uaxie6, ao^ ir«rf nfeful 
l^ji^iftiiteiil^.,.r ':u /^'''■, . ■ i". ■/;■;/■■-;• ^^..r.-:^ 

■ *ldW **i#Si^ If thet^Atandbi^ f*ig- 

ii^ ^, Koiriimit d^ not Ireciafee' large fiq^liet of corn 
isionir'ii«l»talE» il«: latter a&iM ei^oiii coii^lerable 
liteiii^ df it; BtStnek, Jutland, Ze|i^da^ifl^eU»id4 
S|^^(^ CQiintfkl, ^al^«in4.ia|Wtcat- 

"\:p^' ■*■■;*■;-.'"'' -J ;i^'/' /■,.;■,.; ^ ■ . - lW« 

/— • 



tie. The chief produce of Kon^'ay is i|;oo^ timbci'» 
and a great variety of pel try. 'Die ,inl«lii of Norwlj^, 
are very vaJuabk, . ik Veil a& iti^lfiflieiicf- * Only- cnfe 
tpurtccnth part of it is fit for agriculture. The balance, 
of trade is in favoUn of Norway^ |it^d aeajhft.penin<i||yk*;. 
Thie whole of the exports of Prnina'rK and J^lftfii^ 
amounted in 1768, to i»38i,68i rix dollars ; -the im-t 
portt to 1,976,^00. ' The exports of Norway to 
1V7 1 1 t$6g^ and the Impoits to t fi^,^^^; d«Uar$. • 
Manufadures do not thrive in Denmark.- 

ground* on the margin of the Bcdtic oSea, an4 liat a 
heautiful an4-co'i^'Dodious harSotir, wiiiichidiiiitftlKilf* 
one (hip to ehtief ft at a tinne, but 4s' capable of codtatning'^ 
590. The load for tl^ thipping. begins- at>put » ipUesj- 
from the town* aiid is"dVf4nded b>;.9)Q pieces of c;<|finoii. 
On the land fide are fome lakes which fumiih the /in ^ 
habitants with pUlitjr of frefli watd-. Thfr adjacent 
couoljfcy is pljKafanjL landloffQfite thecity li^s the iilaiMi^ 
of ^mac> which i» very frumuU and fotma the liarbcwii'. 
It ft joindd < to th<e town by^two biidges. Tiu» cit^ 
more tlxaa. fix miles in. ci];cu|pi6:tence» .ap^ mal^ a tine* 
^peWanee'aiadillance; .- J. ■ 

'; Me£^un.2 ;Tliie eftabliilietJ rellgicn^ U the LutHeranw 

Gcvertaiurii:^ ' ^Denmark is aji hereditary kiiifidoin* 
and'gpvenAed in an abfolute tnanoer-; biu^lihe\&anifk 
Kings ar< legal fo^e^^gtisv and pei^iap^ ilhe duly leg^l^ 
JbVir«i^in |ije^wBi^d^4 fox- wc fcijatiiri^, nobility ♦t&rf 
g3[ and^QitMiiJt^^^ dWtftcd Jthemi^!t«ls of tli^ir ri^jm^i 
will ^s fo^cf^ in the yeat t^jlSir aotd n?adi? ji ipttnal, fur# 
rehdefm^^^ijnr liberties io^tJie tb«ft'King Fredcricic Jit« 

ffjfioij»% r Denmsirk, . the aackai }iiiig«lotti l?Ath» 
60&, <wta£lm knowatill Uie'yti^if^.. vImsii 0o>^ 
wasKing. ttiriftiw VJl^ ^i^tijfis^ipa^Jsmt^ 
he v^t»3*Ejiteat » 1768. ;Hi«$iieciu.J^^ 
<aer^<f taiN»«:in: too&i^rtaO^ufe 11^ 
dedyll^ll^iMlxfidcm a eaftk^a Cb|^p^ri^Rr,.„^ 
aftetWdt Vatifliedthe kiogdpitt. 'Pie Coiinlt Serib. 
^e mi Braodti (the M ^rime ti^tmft«r, and t% 


L- A^^ %'^/^' H D: 

BiMruoUnust .celebrated for hii knowltdge Of 'aii^« 
ffi^f, aii4 Ti^cho Brahe, thi fiuatm ^onomc^t were 


■* •.II—. 


^y>*»* " > v^ 

•■ . ■ Ij , Av E.: t, .-A-' N, ■ b'..' ..' 

f 1 !^'lf 3B wMecoMtry of XApUmd eztend^i fo far as it ^ 
X ie known, from.^ North Gape ior 7 1 ® $0' N; lat. . 
to th^ IWIiite Set, ftsder theAraic circlf < . Pud of 4^1^ 
land 6ek>nra to the I>sine8) aiui is included in^ 
tfttOifiit of WardihiiTK ^ part ta eke Swe^es^ :^ic!h is 
1^ far tlie^moft iraluable 4 apdjome pari^ i>) the caft, , 
tpthcltlii&xmi^e^lir Rlnfliiinsi^ h Js'tntpoffible to p«»int 
am, tW diioetmon»^ of each^ . Iff h*« lyreti generally • 
&0Q|^ dn^t t|i||^X<i|()axiderfl^ ate the defcendants of 
Fii)}asid«MricdirWffll;t^^ of . th«iro\ico cott|:^t^f, and that 

loJuapWiidi ftf £omt months in ihe funEini«r» th^fun 
•|»«i|rilpir i^ dtffing winter it n?ver ijfes : but the 
Ihhji^biEilib riit^e fo Jwt& tiWSSttd by the. twiUght, and the 
aurora borealis, tliat the7.^sMev«rdif€oatinct^. their wor)c 
00 accoutit of thb darllKis. . 

-■-;}. -CiiiwtiiO 0iir wmctf here, »8 m»f eafily be conclud- 
. ^, ase^tttmnel; cold. ; / Xkift'i of f|iow; <^!^n threaten 
to biHPfihe tnii^^Uflr^ aiid^i^^^ the gi;oiuid lour^ipr Ave 
-lec(4eep. ^ AjthvwfoQ^iimer takes placffi a^d then, 
theit^ft'tl^ fucteeds^ Itrefents-che l.Apkmd|r with a^ 
fiiiOQthierel of^c(i^^0vef 4R?hj<^'hc tiiavels with^a rein 
deer, jna>.iledge,. with iitaonceivable' fwiftnefi/ The 
heats of fumi»<B(bare f Ik^ftfllv^ipr %^^iifO$i j^ and the 
OMtMaae, wfa^h^«IHItomche rrft^ttnt^insy^jO^ifetiipcere&t 
to the «)Fe the r^ piduffftiue aptfsarfl^t*^ - 

i**^! <;|foiw* (^ ^^wi] > SJwi m^9^ f«fc^ the 
Ji^plaiKidtoici ^g^ns* ^ f ^Tbe nun^|t^CMUi$es of 
^tiv^ fii^efiUtkMi^ liave >tr/4ueedthe n^r^etii-itiw^erj^ to 
Iclimi ibfet the>: art Jk2^# 1^^ 


. li* A P LA; N 13r . 

^ods ; bat have ainong lUm gr^tt«n«i%tof the Sri^^ 
iffal tnftttuti0tM. V They;, believe the/traifoigratiog of 
thtibtili^dliayeMtKaas i^t apam jfor the worihip of 
certain genii, called jeuhlesi who j^t^thmk inhabit Iho 
air, aha have greatpower over human anions ; but be- 
ing withootioFmor fubftance, they afiign to them nei. : 
ther image^ nor ftatues. . 

The erapioyment of* the vwmeii conftfts iblittakrng > 
nets for the fiihery^ in drying fi(h and meat, in tnilking 
the i«ih>deer. In making ckeefe, and in tannings hiddi I ; 
but ttisn'nderftood to be thebidiaels^f the men^olook . 
after the kitcheo, ,in i»hich«. jt. ir£udy JdMtwaitiiQn never / 
inttrfetet^W^ :--\ ':; *.i:' v- '• "•> ^' • ■ '■s ■ >^.i^'^ '^■- '■!.■. 

The»Lapts(nd^l U«e in iiteit Iirtili6^3m 
2 5 to 30 feet in diameter^; , and flDt 'mudi abovi8^ fix feet .: 
is height; They cover them •acc^rdhig ta the {etfotf , , 
and the means of the poflWi^r 4 feme withbriarf,^ bark . 
of ibSirch, ^n<f^lineil i othtrss witli turf, coarfo dothrjor 
feh', ror t!i^ ifOdikins of r ein-deer^ Thte A<»ft is, of .felt, , 
made Ul^ t^M^ c^iatns^ 1/irlki'^eh o]^ A Utl^ ^ 

place fai»oiii)fGbd ,^h ftdhe^ is made in the mld<^<of \ 
the huty:^ for file*' over ;vi4ii^*a obiih itr fuJ^ndeP^^ » 
hang thi^ teble upoh. Ih Wlket, ;H . liig^ti^, ^^y i>tB( < 
theh: ;nakcd.^t int^ a Air bag»i • ^ . ■P-'- : \ ^ « 

liapland is but poorly peopled^ j6wi|^* to the ^6Q«hil I 
banreiinefs of its foilt . The v»h0le imm^ of its inhab*> 
itantsthay^ilmoiuitto iibbut^o^dd.. .B<>th'meiii sM i 
vwmen •are'' iti^eoeral. con^rablflhita^ 
fouthsni£ard«)eanm , y^feti^mfW^ittM^ ^a vwoaiiii't 
iK^o iiral (ucleitng.hef chttdit^v^^^ tibtet- 

cesd fottc feet: tv»o inches^ ;iftd Itliall ; Ihey iHsik^ |l^. . 
everj .a mtich mof^lte^eable anpeswcethao theioen, , 
Who iee ofted illfli*^d iin<t t^f md Iheir lt«ads too 
l^g^i^thiii^«1^iel!^^ ^^lireiitteR^'^ 
chafte,: efteo «d||iiii<i,^nd exu^eio^ nart c^^ ; #hich 
48 aaib; obTei^fiil^li^ 

Wto* IHplaiK^er Intends to tnsrrly^ fc^ile, H< 
hi| fi»<^^ cllii^h|F :&^riN%th'bilidf i 1 M^^ 

^ Itk |ptf»^iknttato litdrJtlf rose^l^ 

«a t 



/ ' 

S W ED £ N. 

ht£Qrt,wmp9x^, iHit accepts oi iA.)n(i. 

cry adBUttaiv^Vtp tk/t fair - 0ft4: ii . puichaled ffofn her 
fathiiri bf her loyer, ^ith a bdtUe 4of ■ brandf , uid this^ 
prc^QiIgs the {C^tEir^fhip foiD^timei W thrbe jei^^* The 
prie4.G|ffhe pariihai^^^'Iaft <4lebraces the nuptUls^'but 
the ta:i)legr0O|i>ji^ obliged to fenre his father4n4aw for 
four years aftcTf' He then .carries his wife andher for- 
tune home. ^ 

S W E D E N. 

SiTUATip^^4)|» Extent. 


»• /.'H »i. 

- liengdi SiDoT; . , . f 55* and TO* N. lat.^ 

/ BrtSi5t>o|:>^ 

»^«-^^- n1C> FUNDED -nttrr^ii^^^b^^ the Froi^ft 

^'''^'^^'-JJBP-Oeeani eaft, by RtMPa ; ibuth. by 

Denmark; and thie v9«ltic ; *#ett, by litorwAj, The 

while Jtii^dom of Swedeil: contains rQ4rtowas, 96>a5d 

vill^gies* ai»d itaoo eftak^ of, the nobility* ' 

a Oothbua, J .«f»«30 
c Fmbiidi' . 48»^8o 

'a.io6.90Q l?^o<^«»*«'-- 



J 8a«doiahabi»nt)i- 

•■Abb.' ;' 

/ JTkSj, the t^Uidcdf Butbc^tiii; 

, .^: ■ ■ -.a,->^:''^' •^-- '■ • • \ X ^ . .'..-- ••.....':■ 

, Hi^xt'to Rnffia» Sweden i« the t^r^Aateia Kuxj^|»e.: 
Ottpi^lX STPCKHwlwr the, coital of Sweden^ 9^' 
We ]:ffidfOt« cif idi<l^kti^^,[ irfiUMt^^iiik Ut^^pic:!>^^^M 
£< Icnoir* 1^' %0r 1p^ >^il<> ^' E. ^om i^Qd6iw* ;i^aE(d^ 
•^ atthe^^^^^ Baltic t^ai^d^^^ 

f ^ a4rai||aier4^ bi^li fiik^m^ £^d9k-^elr; It it 

*W^%^ ., -^ 


.fv'- '■ 

SWEDEN. t%t 

of the town properly called the city, ire above <oo« > 
koufi;i{ inao^ of thetntokdiftg Mi pttes. They Mt toh 
cntlr^ ptilaAi^^fHi are foisr or r * ft6f^ m^ ; bue 
fome aft cete^ed^?lij|ii topptt wjiM plitis% Aado^eri •w 

withtUfM. \ "^,/' -••...r^i:-v».>. .• --.,.:■ _ 

All part9^ofthis city art etfntieAeiil^y bridges. Ita& ' 
fotcfft a l^e proQi^ i» th<fef l^c Mat^dii'One fide, and. 
of the iMtrbcMar ml t}tt otiier. Tfiit Mltioter <tf ii^ . 
ants wYiOpfty tsttesi iitMA^oted «t^^»OQQ.r 

CUmat€t Stilt Eit^rts and ftkpo^tsJ^ Sweden hai a cold - 
but heahhfttl clianate. lAanxus reckims »300 fpectes of . 

?lantS| and- 1496 fpectes oC^aimnals in* this kingrdom^ 
'he indufby 0^ the inbabiunts, in arM. and ^grioulture, . 
has tai&d it to ^ rank o( ki^dadtr^ £uropeaa.power. ■ 
Sweden imports 300,000 ton«> of com, and 4*5 3 ^ ^ogf- 
heads of fpTrituous liquors^^befidef b^P» flat,^lt»^%ine» 
beef, filk) paptr, leather, and Eaft.andWeft India goodl. 
the eicpOTtaofSvfejieil- coaiUl chiefly pC lK^o4#^eh, . 
tar, fiih, luin, eopfflr* Iroi^ ieme' gokt aitd (jt^e.'4 and 
other ininsirats, to the ;unbiint,ia ^ yew 4768, oi* up; -^ 
wan^s of X 3 mijiUons of dollars ; an4thi9ir imports in |he 
facte yfarioHtiitoiiMtQ llt^e more tb^, id lh9$(M!isof ' 
dollars. Thn^^H»m^tsiik\iT^ik»iiSxifopefto^ . 
Levant^ the £aft a|id lW%lt|jid|eftf4o>Afri«a«nd Cbiisu 
ReviHui,'] ': la^ji^4iMi4*M^ of rii^^oikfSk 
Gweftthtm*^. SJib«e th^ r^eim)rabl« teWtitiott »n 
I7^i, 5w^bj|fiay bd cHlcd^ aibfl^chyt, .T^f f#ate 
ftill clatsi foiftielbar^ in tb$.a4«>Hitftr^io|k« but itis um- 
bers ^li^^eik^ bt the l^iiig, Thf Ki^ bM ^« Sibi- 
late difpo&l^ Ihe^ bi» titfe ^ifttM isaUffig 
and of ^Sjltin^ the aiciObly^ijf thfeitatesi buthgba^- 
not i^jpprc My ;l6«iH|i^.ta*i with^Vtt. clM*l5ll^ '0^\^- 
•Hie f^iiiss i» the^M^ft 'Coayrtir^r<^^ «Wg- 

domi a^td licompafed of r^ fenatorl, of fiiptek* co|». 
fellor$,. TThe prpviacw arc ijo^ihr ^iritippi* «»JJ 0^ 
vincial capta;tnS»'f -" -c- : >- v : 

JRxHgio^,'] Th9f«|%ioqeftabltaiq||nSwediii^tbe 

gaged to mahitam itt the jcingdptii^, CiJitii^ iLoa^ 
CkthoU^ jm^ Jews are tQl&9X^\::l^Wlmsfp^ 

"^ Ai.j 



R, U » $ > A> 

ic charviliik.: it is cQinpofed^ U^e ArchbiHiop o{ 

oft^Bi^Itst ando# 192 FrttlMehU; 'l^e jui 

icm in ^cl^afftieal'iimtten is in the hands of 19 

FTPJ^ndiW^ mi^iitefft <if panfticfi»; rpcc. .amouato «]% 

Si.-SSte?'!^ W« b«Trtii<>«ec^f4lfrof tluscoiinlryfcfll^IiB 
reign of Bornio Hi. A4lX.7i;4<r>vMaargaret»';QneciLo£ 
I)enp|^M^, lUMi NorwAy^: rwas M^Ud to tlie> throat of 

^M^gP'^M) w^^f(Mt^^%Wgtmiie^oiAlhtrtdmitiKiti^r 
A. D. I38jjr/., ]ti.r<m«uikld united tojbe^DaiBik ccvwn. 
tUl i<|A5Mi^9^cii^0ttS duftavus ¥^ «ipdled the 
^mfft .994jflfJf1ffif^fit has renia^Aeiilndepnid^Q^? bue* 
wasmadi s|n ^bfohilt^^imoBafchyfk b)/: Gv^avus I^ 
1 77I;. , IrW latfsi I^ing» ' GitiUytts IV« waA aHafiopatod: 
bf Anl^erttfpiii, po the ,i-6ih Q£Maurch»i)t79i 4 aiuiAv^s: 
fuccreded hf l^s^foni .the prd^nt King, tlicn 114. years: 
ol4- The eatiiuIiiUUc (lilaain^ i^mkl^tKt.g^eatcft. M. 
fcrings, glorjleciin/W* viUaiiXj*- .. .>.?.; Y.-srjr 'iai'D::,: 

H-'t'»'i"./.i''W.< r; .i>^jv.;' 


MUSCOVtt OK T^i litisisiii^'ij^ 

mih; P#5-, K^^.,: ty*k%.?86fWS.i;»(j; 

np|pg>ii)l)nvn)^e tmpit* AfiBtchM.&«ttfth^ 
on^^jm^ t<jk:ms^tt^ 4401 d«^.^f 'bfcu«j«.theift>uth, 

o^y^i^ j^ it is^hopnded by B3bSd«;>Ii(^ 

R^ 1/ s It r* a: 


m- ^iii ^::« 

JSoropfaBr^U of !»<&#» 30 
AfiacicRuUia, 11 

TI^£9fexiQtiifoithM Evr^imm.p^ own dutvdl 
•but imoiltiYited psoviaois, «f AfliN^'if IbiMlkJI^' THil 
provinces acquired by the diviiioii of foknd vth^/filf 
valmdila to Ruffia, to Mvhkk the ac^HUituiA aiOtimtsL is 
l^ oo.iiicaiu.coniparablein value.^ - 
. This immenib empire eomprehMuft u|iiMirds of ^m 
different iuitifins» and the number bf laafeuagei is fti|pp* 
fed not to be lefs than the non^bev of nations. 

JVioHbaml Gornmuxe*'} 3«iraiVa%i tra^ of cotfntry ae 
tbe cmfMre of Raffia, fpr^idlng anSier many- degrees W 

btitple,.wate«edhy more than et^ynnn* which ittn 
tbronch the fpace of aooo miles, and crol&d by an exten- 
five chain 4>finountaias,. we ma^r «ip«a4o find an infi- 
nite member i^ natural produ^iont, t3;iouigh we mud 
make ibme aUowances for the great defertt ^Siberia* 
and the many ps ts, not yei thoroushlf Inreft^atdd by 
naturaJ hiftomw., Tl^fipefjieji «£|ihuxu, peculiar ip this 
Paft,qf "thc^lobf^ whigh h»ye already >«ctv ^ifcioverccL, 
^ttkoka&wvtisivff th(Mifandsi The IqH (lontains aImoR^aIl 
minerals, ti% p|^(i^a aiHJl ihme femi-metals excepted. 
Ruffia abounds with animals of ahnoOii all the vari<iiis 
kinds* and has rtaay that naVc liever laeen defcribed. It 
has the zreateft variety of the iineft fur. , tii 4^^7^ i^t))0^ 
wire >3^Mirt|5d «bm Pctcr(biftg alone^;4iM7 7 fl^^s^ oi, 
toe«i 3«ipo4 of go!y fijuirrcas, 1,354 of beaiSi 2»6i8cf 
ecmioB, 5|€5f:of foxes, §00 ofwUi^ ciits, b^ridesth^c^ 
of wc^a^ im^^Q^ptJhc i(a>beautiful aaiiiiai <^)lie rit 
kind^)>^duJtve (IT the eapQitatibn of i^e iiime arli'^ 
from Anhaogel^rlUgai^iiiM^C^^ ikohe yiar 

there 'w«pe Oipc^tfett j£^#^iM^^ 
tai}ow{a|md iiuqEaaI^IOfc^).«,^o3 1^^ 
J93 3pu4 ai^^aitievi Jtt ifSi Irom ^<^erlbikt^, b^S,^ 
pud of red lej^her, 10,885 pud of leather fov.i&||9»v 
53o«%^lwof'fairi|fei S^iff^e^dof pm; :iifiksM, 
pttiijoCo^jbdosiM g^^tre Jtirts^ • Hie fiih^srWf^^^^ 
ing t!Bi(i$^a^j«», ti^ produaif e; The %eftff tif & 
trepKArfci}i«i«iiife% tnlMiyitv Oalt and M^ do i|ot 
grow to # ofeltti^Me ii^^^thli^ikh^i^ «»l uc^ 

• - -^ ■■ -- ^,..^^,'~' - -■■■■■ •■•./^ 



liM^e. Thf r<tp»rt timkktifU^ HM tndftttft te ^ 

. #ir^ nuvbll»' fMttt, ftc* ■*« Moag the woMliont of 
ktffta^ ^t^riMltf of the «i^«rtt ^ Raffia «iMmited, 
m 1765/ to tttar isibiHiMikeCi^kiUwiird<41ai« i "^ im. 
jpoitf did HOC wnA eiMOd the Ibin «f rs miUimis. ' The 
inmoitfl ceniift chieAf df i#iatff*>^^cff>-ir«itff« imi^loth, 
Mtf'^Mhit tnafmAaored eon|Mo£^fe9«ui^i^ 
. hfiPQiy. There lin Ihid te'^ «t^ftllae» no' nm than 
4^1 niMMifa^turers in the whole empire. ^^ 

♦7*4» <w 368.901. "^ *• .'•■'" 

^mny.} Sixty three armed lhf|ii»aiMl 3j6,aoo failorft. 

Govermmmi^'i Tile Eitiperor et A'fttgcrator of Rtifilfi, 

(the prelett Em^rtoTi ftyUshe^lf A^t^ati1t>ls^bft>. 

lote. Hcnmlkhe^ th^ Gt^k church,- hf tht'anctent 

. cnftotn of the empire* iTie ,dhly- Witteti ^ftm€awetital 

law cxiftin^, is «h«l of teUtt I. }gy vrhi^h the right df 

. fucceOioii to the throne expends etitirelf oil the enoice 

oftherdgtiliig tnonardy, \(^ has ttxilfmittBli -'aothCTttf 

over life Ihrei «nd prwert^ of all his fH*>je^, -^ 'The xndTi" 

agement of t>ublie a^atrs is ertt^oifted to ^iMeal ilspart- 

mentf. At the head tif all thofc cohcerncd^; Ar teg- 

ulation of int^al affairs jf the cccIefiaftttaK^h^ttS^cXccpt- 

cd) is thefenate^ tinder ttie prefidency of a chaiKfielloT 

aitd'vUe cbvnceUor. The ibt^erets^ft libmhiate^themem' 

bcrs of this fHpreine toon, which-ts diTid|diiit;o -^chaWi. 

hers, 4.(|t Peter Aiirg' and 9 at Mojlhw". ^he pfCirhfces 

. ave r\Ae&hf gm^mtm appointed' W the fbyer^n, cbn- 

taining, oil an ateragr» 4bO}bodiQbjeA5. 

ChSf Cities.^ ?iTf«sti^<5i,thV capital ctfliufta, 
lies at the '^tmaion of the tivcr Neva iifeh ih^ Hkf JLa- 
:^iapkt in K. hit. 59* 57', and Ei l0n^/^5t'* j hT?^t tifc^i- 
dei^ may have a bettier idea of ks fttttatioir/ \ff:\t)^'\ii' 
f^^rmed that it fbadir on binh ^^ i£e' |Rhref Nevi^ ^■ 
twten diat lahe imid ^%6tttan df ^^i^i^'g^-^ tn 
thofiiM^ I76|i liblnt^tofilbltdor iT^'ihiSll^fe^ 
h^teit»^ aH|«t lbliDaT% that ttttf^ gn^ttd;''^«^ "Ifeined 
li^hiaeliMHte. jft'myw etWQdelj^ll^Mis ererr 
v^fT't^ai^ eoa«ih»f ""rrery Ihwi t u i^' Ip>^ ftiagliligace, 
the^iipio#tiMntof>die am, rcfvefitte^ tfavi^tiin, Ifrar 
and commerce^ diaMtte iob^h^e i|hi|i ilMke viati ci^e^- 
tede^<^i&£ttrofe» '^ . The 



of MaMmm i*.il»o«t 9|Oiboo^ beficlet , cH^bdd ift.4ii 
adjacent irillage^ ^ ^ . 

Tb|#KW.>f 1]1>I Molct«r»t tW Uittft m the M^lft 
weijli* 445»77* !»ni«n<l|. ;. w .?. . ; 

-^^^wf-l^rag^glnn ♦l^liWiiW in tK« Rn&H 

Latm cIhwcIw m th« ioMtle, mt^^i^lMf Ghoft pro- 

overlodded n^ cmiftcpo^ ^n-mtMmi9$ Ci^^ 
Saiuttare bdi<| in yenfiratiott» innd' piinteiJ iiMgtsof^ 
jii^clitttQi^/lUiiue^.m ^ diunhtt. 

Tke cimrch Imi( Wftt fo^«nit4 Onto tk^titMv^mtm 

MatviagejiforbltMtntotlit ^€liiUlK)Mim4 Bi(hfl|M^ 
bat it f^M^d to ^ it^cam^mm' Thtfnv^A'm 

70,060 ^eridniu' Above feo^ooo peafiints Mmurl^ ill 
tftttfB in ppflcflSon oC ^ clmf . 

i^jlfvfjrj The etf^li iMditii^ 9«coiint we hnve 
t)f Ru%,, Ssr A. X>. S^9, ^htnv Rnirte wm gMii<i iU« 
tf NoVogoro* in ^-(^nn^V. ^ In the fear git, 
Wo^fiBierf wmt tih« firft Olriftiai^ King. The Poki 
eonqg^dii ^Mit |^0!|8#i>it it h un<;matn how 
A^ri^Jt. ^Bd^I^be^^n bit reign 1158 
laid ih ft^t^non of lilofccxw; . Aboitt t»30o o,.^^ 
Miii(|«| ^Fartnrii c<^iiS^naKdlt^»ttd b^d klti^ to cheit 
tffl iff&t #fft4<?NnM^<*^?^^^ It ^ ki^ 
pen^eadj^; Aliwt *e Jiai^iiU oT^ lM««»^ eWilii 
the ||ii^Biiiii(cili«k« «OBj|Kte)fi#i»iB#ii^^^^^^^ 

^^ •*"**i^yt'*** whisn ^^irtier'I. njii««ii the titif 
f "'"l ^ g ^ p i PP'the Rii$ais,.^»r^it #tt adnHtted h^r 



, y i^fiJV 

^i .^^ 



•| ^ ii . yf i ! > > T i i ' i*i 

iv(Mv..,d lif^ ,^ :',4Jrv^-,'7^ 

^4 fotl^e othtr forts there wvse ^t^xtiH^,9p^ m 
iflaiid of St. H^ena, and tlwiCapc pt .Good Houe. 

ltoehd*^*ti»e'JE#ik Indj* feta^»>«»l«. J^^m^' 
1^ arf ciiDlifMtod' to <io&fis|ii^ io»[^«ysiQQ(>i|^^mtpx^ts, 

i,M^ |«Hkm«itt oo the cpall rf^ (^ 



?^-.?li§9-^5* ,'->*' -^ _ __ ....,....„.„ __ ,_ 

Wjcilih and Comm^cgf] The two dlvifiwlB of Cwttii" 
Briiaia, E^;^lan4 ^'f**^ Scotfenjf, di%r widcVV ■vich r«-' ' 
ipgd<o.tI>gii; natural fervjyiiti^jind tO:the yreait^ of 4:Wf 
inli^)lmant5. South Sricai^., or Eiigtandg akpoundfi witil> 
all tj^^a/pfuLprodti^ions of thoijs cciti^ries of Euro^^ 

\vi]4 s^iiimals except^a.. ^g;icpU^^f4K|i§rarai0e^ tl^e 

feeding cattle^ and breeding. horfe^ ^xA. Ihiiep, are tari 
rie4Q«^ju England to an^fto^ifHiriglTeight; Of ahodt 
4a,^j9W'P«^cr|qs,H'hichEng^lfi?d,cont^ • 

ndirf able p»t is lliU wafte land^ Yet out of the cro|t 
ohUJbe^frpfl»^ fifth, ■ p^^ »f 4i« laml«» there l^ve 
UfcS^jB^|?<^teiJ, 4^^ fit $« fsaiRi fsop l^^ 

to 1 7'56« ql^A^itiei; <jf <:ot» to the i^alu^. of Xv^^^PP*^^ 
ftcrl^g^* ^ The n#> ^dace of" the. J^riiftk^^^ lai^t U 
o(U|^d at rt»©ofiMaM^ i^e«Wi»gk^^ '^^ of pa^uif 
grottnd|,mead9ws, ;^. «|t 7,ooo,ato/. * The, omober of ^ 
p<o^l6lff:iga|^ed nV iO^r^m fttp- 

poredi^%.V4|v24oiC)i,opO. EfigM^ Jikh^U>4»^i^ ^»<^lie&| 
cat^e if diWp. ,liif4Ji4htg»aM»flt P^'tljeii^fen^ 
tttf/i t^i^ we|!|.f^p|roftd tq jbt , ^|,QCK^f$>QC> .of Jif <^ 
andifkifnoiuher ha*«^fince h^ iotCl^aHog. , t%Jhf 

e«p#t«JllfNSa £»sMAj.^nchjH* 
.^^3t«ti*l t « «^Wa«di54|f 

fTO«»^^ 6d|OCN3 tl^lp^f i^j^ 9il^^J<^ji^ 

Umi^bariroiu. *, 

England /" 

3*1 0Mm§f^^Mvn^^»XbAMk- ■ 

j^ixpoi^^y^^ t^€m «losg thf 

inSci^,cd|H|-.d^^^^ -(1 ...'•■ ^ • v ■■ * ''- -' 

iGfcpT^^AfaEr?. i^ pi'oAilkioni arc^rcotlf^ inferior 
rtf^MfiStof^^^ refped toi ^n»r »^ 

|l|t|^. ft^produQcs cl^fly, ililx, hemp» coalf^ itm^ 
kfi^^xtiiiiiaviii}^^ l^ci^de of thk cootitry cdtififti 
ctaj^ j|t litidir %ead> soclcoftl^ I they b^te kid; be 
j^^ i^li^Miillttre el^tbrcsrj^^^ j'i 

f J^flrAiib;^ iir.mQU. of its ptovincc^, not inMorit^ 
iertltitf to pigltlid. ^e'iphief anicfesef:it» pvods^e 
9tfi .ci^kt ^M^* b^^).a^<ifl^t r targe tfjawaxxikifbftt* 
fellejfkt i9Red<i]^ri(,, beef ali^ biittet are amnu^ly er- 
porie4^\ '-'■■'!:..,:,-.'■'- : ' ■ ' 

The Infli Vrdoj ia yer^ fine. The pFiasipftl- maoO* 

&^Mre of 1r«^d, is thai i^riinen, whieb> at preftiitif 

ft vei^ taM^^«Fti^rof f«p0tiltiOn. Fiftceir bihir 

drtd per^^nt ili% efQpb>]F^^iii tbe IHk iMttfa^M^ 

'DnbHn. .. •-' /••■ •-■•'■.' ink a.-- ;!■••»?;' -'V; j; Bvi^- 

With tliie iiiei|ar4.o£ UbtiVjl^ iM^ailJiryftlkb^^^ 
dom ii^ 1(^1^ <o' the coiwniif^ial ct^eqiiinteito 
ttisli lit it ^lli^ Igp i|«; Ccrtiliif and fitd«l$oiw « v 

like lottal i!iin« df the ejeport* £rom ityetidjto Great 
' Brite, ill it^if iildvi,70oiat aii««enig«,%«a^|do:«0o/; 
Thi^btila|Fi it gr^iM^ in f«vo«i^ of frcl|ti^. n / >^ ; 

'£he #iatt($i§^ce in EugUiid ire, «o«ifeMljf^9 %HtIi. 
Ipdyiewixo^^iitiib^ tfaoi^of IHht^te^mrie^. 

For ibkf lltfMtiort^f , tb^ ^, a^J^cooatt^ ti^ebted^to 

to U)eir excellent con(lttatioif< 
' 11^ EfigHUi Jpremmejit, %oufabl« to eWy exet* 
tioi^agatutiii i^pcofvidcd^ brf liUbliftdei^^lent Ittws, 
fi>r. Ae ^eurtfii^pj^em'^. ^r0peH7^a hfia-- 

wtp^ffMiiiid Ib^bcM^y «0 has reniov«d(( obiU^letto in- 
suixfi'hf ^u^t^mg tlie iMf^or^ttoli of^ich oticlei, 

tis%aimii^^iiavfi'tQiAW^€'W , . 

1760, {24 yi^ b^ore) -hXnp^mkmiMm^^^x^ 

;^Mdlbr.^ei|i(* mte tlii. i^^ tiowjiri^ of ' 

the 0)UaRring:}re9Uf;i i'f%$f}if'^ipmis^<ifyi^btK>iO^ 
fterling. . Tfat bdaace of t»ftd#%t^¥dltr^^^"E^gtiii^cl . 
iajeftimftted «t^ioeoiooo/j -fhe ifil^d'trad^ hf titled 
I ,a(b4iMQqo)Ocb/.fterlki^4 l^'^Oicri«rQf:0'eftt Britain^ 
I VQ Tiomfcrmi » ^ tery ^pfedttdifili^ J? »'!Pi«s ptfVHegcd : 
Us^ili^flBori .^^ »^>afwhi«li>,tbe<Ea(l India Com]^«^ 
chartered* fij the rcien of Queen Elikabet^ !s 'tu« 

n»t7rM)bidl«feailimittdl iiioiMiec^ It Is'a^otnlyihtf^ . 
tion of a monarchical aikd'popdkBgoferniiieot. ^TjfieS^ 

feoiatd ddTeMidaiilsca^e^eattifthlci'b^ fd^^ Th^ 

&^/i^.T < l%c 4:ftabliih«dv mlij^W 
O^oit^ritiiii caUed'^iiglaiitfi; Is ^r EfTiftidiija^ijtiKchn \ 

itualpotciM^ ii:lii^:li^^r> Hie weniirs o£ the cMrcn 

ling.. Aliothdr denominatiomi^(2)hHMni|^^ned I^^ 
reBtc|i^«|Myifir%; aia. toliffate^- ^ Fbur^ifni^ldf t^c peo- 

qucatly^i wluJ t wl" i i^ii H ' ult^alreg df >^it a^d frbfit. 
Their lelilttgr:*^ MllfM^ 


%t6ttf , 

v: \ 

if Jy^l Bfi|ii| vtM firft inhabited 'by- a tribe of 
Gioif^ ^llftT^nv^aH^^^^^ of Chria, Ju- 

iiuCti^i^iif^'i^ The 

MmamMSmnmnS^fmaliMrs of Bi^taiti 500 yearsr till lli^y 
' 'Wviii'caSM^kanii^iihM of thvir natii^ copntry 
^pliitfr the inva^' ib^ thff 0oths ^d Vandals* '^lis 

fnd* ' t^>i69|yWilitafii>D»ke of Normandy, obtain* 

v^jijijC^ is £aUed> thf Normatt Conqueft* Mafna Obaria 

itBii^A liWty; In 148^, the konies of York and 
,ta»e»Sux. wfii^iittvied Jn nenry V i^ after, a l4»ng and 
W^J con»sli. in.,|6p^JKiii Jsiimit*.Vlv 
whp &cca94%Qnfii^ Bi^^ kingdoms, 

Visiter ilie |$^^^*^$i»ac^®l!k^ a%<:^^rpation of 
Ctkimweli4<Mil5|'liee ki 1647. I^hirr Solution (ibcSall^ 
«di tn ^MlMtirf ,^^ lecoAd 8 abdicatmg the 
^rbiic» 16 ixdiom ^iltkin aiidi Mary fiiMo«dc<i)> hap- 
ped i«PB^/ X^eei&iy^^M^ 
jin i(7^;^i^^ of ChxflM I. 

' ^i|^:l4 ^ the^h^afe <l& iiii«D«M afcenc^ tho throne 
^Vimim'^ ^ttCC8ii|iiBr1ia«(^fiHM been regulati in 
WUp. 6^e;iIf^iiAfh«<|>t<ift«lt lling. ^ ^e 


il lJ ii i il >>| .| ^ | i ni| . it. ii W1|- | ^> < fHi j ».,i >ii^i 4 iiii 4pi i .|, i ^.^ yji^i i I 


T%iJ>; eifk -UT 

©• w ii »ii \ n Tf 


Lpwcf Saxony. 

how Q<)nnm^h^'m^Mlm^ by Onilthti^i 
Divifions*'} iSht Gctinki^.einpj^' t«^ijiae44ntor|^ 

1,006/300 . Bivaria ho rf jballi Ih6§o,o©o 

G«*iiwn.enipire,>. .^. .. .^) ^: :,,,.;;;' ^; v' ,{^^' .^^^ 

lli^lCinffdom or&plie^i&,'divtd^?iMo iJ6cif^«ati .^•a66^ > 

The Mkrqu'ratc «f Moravia, i^^'^^orrlfsi ^'j-»>, vj i,i 37,000 

*>TIk Marquiiate 08 Uitn^is^, #:lougJwg <<> «if i , i Aoo.ot^ 

fti^^^ar.ofSaxiJoy:) , . ., r , .n >. *»*'.ww 

SSefia, (btlqwgiiigto the/Hon»« <?in|)irt5; i;8oo^oo 

Aecording, »* the ll^ftyaccpimtSj ^Gexmanf contains , 
aS jfeiliiom ' of ; ti^bitanu^r 394 /r^e mM fovamfrt 
StatcsiiiWftwiiirfik ^vi|,3Q«t ,<^iif»Uj|S^ t^wns* / ^dl 

no^ lirg^ K^ets ^^ ^vnoiO)^^ %d^r beadiWtiJs • 
tiie; £Hiai^j4)i:> DjpsiAvi^t / ^ aa]led'Jni»b the fim^^^ 

ijaturilly 1^ fins^^f^iA U«??i»oi^4i Frolic Vieofj*. 
to hAf^ad^tk^^tig!^ff, ^.iskjf^^^flttfife th 1 ia ti}« mrs - 
between d^e Tiirk« and dvi^iiu^, fi$p« of ' w«r*h»ve - 
been engaged ontit ;:, and' its cowwiiieiicy' for carna|re 
to^att^-Wrwimipear^throoglrwjIkhit ^ihi,, U ioeon-. 
Cdivabk.; . The Daiuibe, ho:me.yer,jContaiiis a vaft num^ 
ber of cataradiraiul whirl^ols i < its J|rea# is rapid, aiul ^ 
ctsciOttrfe» wit^ut reckoning jtarningsaii^vindtaaB^ is 
fiOWttted ttt b«. 3,^2& miles. . Tiie Q|||«vpriiicf|^ riy- 

jKjEtcnt of GerilMflQr» ilj^ W va* 

'. ure ' ihoHii'^ Mr^49|aj|ieai , 
^eii;y»fietjr ttd-Mlli^^ 


3^ ■G-z,.-^ ^■■iA<^.,^:<, 



caUed the emperor orGermany, or the Roman En^i^,. 
All other ft /creigns^Uow him the firft rank among the 
KjMTJOpcaainattiid^ - Bighq»rmc calU 

c4 Eledors, have tlie ri^ht of elefkjng the Emperor. / 
The. eleSor$ j^ divj[<le4Ynto^cck$afti#l a{l| temporal. 

The Kitig ovMle£tor of B<k*V 



'"A''*-^' ''' "■ 


- ''t'f m 

■•^^yK&:^;h- in. 

■ Hi 'J. 


the F' €ti^ofmmdetJmi^ i ^ 

nm|^^^oWtt, .A^f^ording to ngr^senieiitvtnrr i^J» ta 
oli«k^lAithera«^cta8<d^4li6Calii^iiift^ .genegallr «a2M 

|^^/<i/*] <i Y||iii««>oti tfa^pattiite -istthe lapitid of. 
fei9iMi^i»iii9r|ii^ £^ 

P R U S' * t A. 


Jnd Ills iUc«to^ Jbte^ II^ Har»5i 

The OirriiNi^ eili^,>heri tbiLiltf«tie(l as om mg|i 
power or ftaje^ whk the effeip<^^t iTttli^aul, U'<vw^ 
grc^t political ctm^quoiee hi £ujrope^bi6«»re:fr6iil the. 
SiequslHty and wekit coj^e^wt « Ics^'naitii a«4 ihfe 
diiH.leftt natDM of tjieir £o«emmcnt^ iftnato tlflib infig- 
nifieajicy of i»^ qotopofedtmny, ^md aWe iiff, ft^. 
the different Views and Intercfts of its mafters^ it isneiet^ 
to iiiipoflible it» fCfkc fihitlA b< ixniteci^ wti^»Jk atiti 

W | i I 'l I i j i 

U'itr^iq? :'4 

f': It: U S, &';£ 


T^ HE countries berongiftg- to this motutrcKyv ar^ 
* ifciittciredi; anti' tHihotit anv natural 60imeiie)|^ 
The kin|jd9m„ .0f RtiflkU tetwViif^ hf fj^tlfe 
Samo^tia^ i<!nilh) ht-Pc^aildfropiaranil M:lfovhl settl^ 
hj p^rt of l^f^tmmiiiwefl', hy PQli(h Pruflli and i^^: 
Balbe i |^;fikDd3 jitt lefigth, p-.^ 1 1 i miles^ ill toesitoL 
Pr«fflt«ar|«^ t» i^r*^ :H. ht and fe^ 

The ccuitifcg wikfi <>» 4jt ^ft^ ti - , Vj??- '^; '•■■f '>•''•■' 

Pf:i^6iaii: »»^»ftar£hy^ s(^ % t»n^ffi^e^l if<^ dii&iirotlii; ■ 

produeti ' T%« htfi^m/^ Wii^^ l)eli)g>thir iilbflh 
northctin part olE^tli^^liii^nareKifr f^rtfe^lfr.c^fi, ^bil#/ 
manna, ^aft, d:Sxiand pc)tTJ^ o^ ^jl fortsi aiid ctjpbrt^ 
thefe (Mti^fes. illiqfl^er it ^otfcd'and^HSM to thevldiie 
of <2<^,ooo debars; jPmS&kmkiti /s^^ aatfhaino tit^i^ 
but ironv Ilie nt^ts of Its Hihertesl u^ ie$i|6der&l3^': 
Other p^trtsel^ uirino&ansbjr |>rd^tf^ ^iraribits iimi^' 
cre^ nahni^ ttfi^ lirecioi^ ftones^ - '^h<^ ftm iM!^^ 
i0rio th(^:kii^^otti the Mnes* ;jmtmm wSoOt^iM 
^ttimtim^^^ }»«^^i^iet$Mr» lo ^so^6o0v 

M^«^ / li^r^ th9tt&iid.haii(b are employed' in ilui^fii. 
' '"'' ' inan«ia4hirck >* 


F. R y, S S^ I. A. 

^U< of 6 wm0i^ oif ^oDars. . i(Jt^r m;umfa^ur^s {fi 

cspiul 'of I>turarTr(j'M^, and ^of ^e K ms o|.l%ma'!» 
^pitUi" ,don|iiniCfns,' U^fitJi^jitcd 'on tlic river ^rcfeal^ ^cr 
j*J)ic^ ^ lias fev^n bridgw,^. Accoriding j^p/i^Jv&hing^ it 
^C<^yen(bt1%s1hfircQih&r«^ andcontams 3,8oo)]iouf-.. 
^iiMabbut 6^'»c^ ihha^itan^. Its rlv'er bci^ |^v- 
i^aVle ^^r fl^lpW it lias rilaide a eon£derable fig^urp in the 
commercfsil world;. A uitivctfity wasfduiidedlatvKo 

0&at{j^ Is the capital of th£ Prufliitn dominions m 
Q«arfnany[| filiated) dn^^e rtvei. Spre^ lit the . marquis 
- fjl^ -of Bf adenbnrgi- , 

r^mU^ a Tei7,<K)mx3ic^d spachlne, whidi^ by ^ |n« 
gfii^i^s ^d iid[mit^|b^;^oaft]iidi(m|,^^^ tjbc great- 

pMi^m, jcvetir bra'i^ of aclmrmilt^a^^ Aitd^ jifor- 

, ^ti4^ :^be nagn of die . Cate Rmg* Frederick the 

bcjMii#ite.<^ is thn, reformed, 

i|>0, |K^F«f ,t^ p]^|*fir Jh<^ 9f ^MStfft^ |)^riJbiion. 

-ian..C;^olictf^9^;|(Wf. W^^ l^^umerOUsin the 

%niJoiniaijms^f fe ft«e- 

ed thge pedjpU with fucc^s, unfl after ^^logiljr, war <tf 
fifty je^tvrcduceitKeijti to ot>e<fieoce anil^gfd^'eiil 
to cp»w;f c< CJiridii^ltK ,;^<?jr i^»?^aained ff^ ^- 

their laft . Grand Waffer, K^Vii^ fiiacle htmfdf m^fti^ u* 
all ?ru$a» ce3ed the well^ part to tl^^ kiog 9f fp^ 
lafld, fWi4 was af^knowledgSl d^^^f the ca^ni part, 
but to Jbfi » fief of that kingdom, f £^: «1^op» 
Frederick William, r<irnamcd th? Great, ^)jr a treaty with 
PoUndi?> i6f ^,vobtatned a confiirm ulon of iShis part of 
l^ruffiatp hi^ andhis heirs, free from vaffiiiage^ arid, th 
!$$i, he w4s" d^Iared independent and foverejgn |)uke, 
Wlt]^ thc^ t|ti&s, and s» Grand M^fter of th«j*TfS60ftk 

«'^4«r^ ^eOS?^?*H?^ ^M^* f^ Iredcri^, i|n m 

Fr?^<^^ W#<^ t|ie Cf re^tjand Grandfethir tothelaW 
king, jailed the dul^hy of phifljato a Itwgdom. an^ cp 
jmnify |8> 1 7pi,vjn a fpjcthn affembly of tli'e %te5 of 
t|e §mp|l(^ placed the crown, with hi» p^ hands^ apo^ 
his hcjidijto ajj^r^hich ^, w^^knpwleclgel a^^ 
King ^of, "mms^ hjc all , the o^te jEt|rppieau powersi 
Frcderipfc lit, ^ied^Au0ft x yi i 7$(§, a^d :\«as Aicceed^ 
e4 b^ if ne^ey, IV^d^^,Il£^i|i^ '^P ^(^ K^ 
Vho washora ^, tlj^ -^mAm^ i;:^^^:,- ,; . ; ' ■ ^ - * 

■ ,;'Ji^, .i.'t? 

-» ! f- 



n ^ t % -, 




tati^t'^^i<^ belong tti^ 1^ German ^liil^-'^ie 


■''' 1 


A. O S T R I A. 


L^lMirdy ia Italy I 
BuclKMHrliiai Callfda 

and Lckbmirb ( €Oiiiitrici» wliid^ 
o^ mdependeiit of the Gtnnan empm^^ 

IPWlirii C<»i|^ The fTO^mcet of tlie Attf. 

t^idk'lBii^lhniilitl'arc not only ivroarzhlj fitiuitei at tp 

cUfllatWbii^ iliej may "he rerlu>De4 aoion^ the mod fet. 

tiW in jSbrope. T^^ere is ff^arcjely any raluablc produ^ 

•ii^mdi ii^ot to be met vAAi in them. Bohemia pro- 

«^ti^ite, and Yiports Bax« wool, hides* (ktfts, tiop*i iron, 

jR^el) tin, cobalt, vitriol, Imittdbne, allien, gamels, and 

Other, predOus ftone&; it Imports iait, ttrhie, -iflli cot- 

toil, ibicetf &e. Upon the whole, the vaHie of experts 

tT^cita^ ^at of the imports by two millions of florins. 

iSijiefia' exports large quantities of Hacn, and Moravia 

'hat a great^number of miimtfaAili^es of all (orb, chitfiy 

ii6f clotn, the produce of ^«^ch amounts to the V;ilue!| of 

13 miUions. The eJiport^ of Lowet^ Auftria to the Le- 

'vatit, are cbn^puted at fix millions ; but the imports, 

^onfifthig of the articles of Cotton, goats or camel hair, 

■ibices and coffee, at nine millions. Hie.dillnd com* 

|>rehendiag the provinces of Stiri% Carinthia, and Car- 

tiiohi, dUled by the Germitn^<tographers Interior Auf^ 

trta, is fiimoas for its mmerals* Lombarjdyrthc popula- 

'iion of whkh is prodigious, produces vaft quantities 

'Of &kf td the amount x>f 4,500,000 florins. The value 

ibf thV'minct of the Auf^rian monarchy is computed to 

amount td- 19,006,000 florins. It is weil known that 

Hungary produces an incredible (Quantity of excellent 

t«rines ; the moftdeiidous of which is ishe famous Tokay. 

The Atftftrfan Netherlands haye been long^ famous foi 

iheir iifh^eiKi corn, [madj4«;»'k and flax c^a iCuMrior fine- 

tkefs, of >«^h the Brabant lafde is maie^ which brings 

41 great deal of money ihto die country. 

^iEHii4 is the eapital <:^ the circle of AuQria, and 
U'tht t^eifdettce of t^e 'Ea)|>';ror e$ the Vhole empiri 
ofGemiitny* ItisanC^lc aftdajliong cky, and. the 
^^ces of the Hbti^ g^ Attftria have qmitf^d fiothini; 
tl^t could ticmtribute to its grandeurand riches. It& iii- 
Wbttaties ate reckoned at 206,0(00. , ' ,« 
. .fiHom^iii Thfi^fa^^ the Afi^aa moj^arc!)/ 

■,f... ^, ^^ ^ . Their 

B 9 ff ^ II I A. 


4^4» /O^P «f4^" *m* nccqfdhig to |lw 
r^i«il>»<MU of tg^79»,i|iii<railt.t9 9tjf^ 

i^f^'VllJS'V^'HA 'Hk *w»w ftrtliolic ijOig^ If 
f)% iteW^W . ?4fflon pf t^^^ 

Jbmf^^, M IqUl 9o,opp, Frqtiftuia m tk prof^ifCf 

>fl^iiff to the GerfliuiQ doplre* In HoMiryt the 

AmD)]^^^ |»rouft^ fi> gFcaiu |^ /iHcc 9i« «a of 

^»br«tiaii has been pu^jflied^ no Jdt iluui abo cboj^cli* 

esMYC been aUiiwed to ^lem. Tbere ait bon^ mi* 

nv qpfpiaiMl OrecJttf as^sooq. Jewt» «a4 a^oM 501P00 

J^j»tipt or Chivuesy m the Avfima domhikioi* .4t 

tb«)|f|piiapng of t^ diere yntp opvaidt 

of a^)0O coi|¥aiu of aionk« ana n«na, which m^ now 

wUclyre4iicedtpi«i4|. Th^am and^iencc^hither. 

to grtaw; ncffkaefjla ^,kI%{o na^iE^ conll^fnade, prof • 

rds. Too &y»eror jfoA^. awopriatedthtf g^^to^ 

l>avt of the i^Tcnuf % anAng ^ron thc( eAatetof the 

fecaijarize^ conveots, to the improvement 0^ t^yf lclkO«Is 

and the cncooragem^i of litenuy merit. 

,' hiV- <' . I- - 'J'.^'^F^i-. .JM'^j*:. 



.,'}■. J ^-Htd' 


• Bte;5th s%*l^'^^'^ ti«^ and V E- Ion- 

.Bounifar,es.:i U denbttrt.OOthiinordi j hrl%huui 
indHungarf on the<i({ift $ 1^ Auftrk andlbi^aiia^oi 
dieibtifhi and By the Palatraatbof Bt¥tDiK» On thf «nfi » 
formerly ^Oliipt^hafiiiag, r. Be^iem^ firop^ ) $w ifk^ 

fia ; and 5. Moravia. ^^ ^- -"'>' 

« : CHhahJ1!%m^4}^- VaAd«^t^lh«^apita]lof lklii|oi|b 
t» oi^e of the teet eilNi^'i^ 
rflpi^woA hmmB (at «I»1ie% biilgjl^ It» cjitumfer. 



ft O H E M I A. 



ence is Co Urge, thit the srand PrvAisn army, in iuUd 
fiege, never could compietdy invcfttl. The inhabit- 
ants are c6inplited at Bo,o0O. If centilni 91 churches 
and chapclm and 40 eloiftert. It is a pkce of little or 
no trade, iti^l therefore the middling inhabitants are 
not Wealthy ; bot^e J^s are iaid to cairf on a large 
commerce in jewels. Orniutz is the capital of Moravuu 
It i» well foriifted, and has manufadnres of wo<^len, 
iron^afi, paper ahd gunpowder. It contains iitooo 
hlhi£lU1lts. BreflaWTs the Capital of Silefia. 

C^mixe and MathkfiUiurtiA See Auftria. 

CmJUhOhk itkit (mkiriiniirit.^ Hie forms, and only 
the fiWnt of the <ild B6i)emian cemfUtistien fttU fubfift \ 
but the go«'trimiiiht'thidfer''ditt ^nperor is dcfpotic. 
Their Aktes are 6W^td t)f die cMigy, nabihty, gen- 
try, aiid r^prcfentatires of t«wns. i 

Hyhry.^ The Bohetnnm nobility ttfed to eleA their 
0Wn pi^eik, tho^h die Emperors of Oernmny ibme* 
times jmpbied a ^ne upon thetn, and at length ufurp* 
ed Uiat dirone diCRinlv^ In die jtor \X4t8, Albert 
II. of Auftria received three crowns, that ot Hungary, 
the Empire, and Bohemia. 

In I ( 14, John Hufs and Jerome of Pi^ague, two ofthe 
firft reformers, and Bohemians, were burnt at the coun- 
cil ofXonftanee, though the Emperw of Germany had 
giveiith<em hfs protection. This cjccaftoiied an- infur- 
reftioi^ in Bohemia. The peo]^le of Prague threw the 
Emperor's officers out of the windows of the council 
chamber; and the famous Zifcs, aHS^ftibling an army 
of 40,000 Bohemians, defeated the Emperor's forces in 
feveral.eags^ements^ and drove the Imp(|rialiiU out of 
the kinigtdom. ;The dtvlfiolis of the Huflites among 
themfelves, iaaUed the- Emperor to keep poiTcflfOn of 
Bohemia, though an attempt was arade to throw off the 
littpeial yoke, by ele£^ing^ln the year t5i8, a Proteft- 
ant KifWf in the perfen of the Prince Palatine, foQ-ia- 
, hsm t9 Jainesr4* of England. He was driven from Bo- 
iMa^xl^ SHtpe^ gen*:ral8» and being. Gripped of 
fail other 4eliiinl<M8, was forced to d^end tm the court 
.^fttptfi^wt a^jbfifbpoe. A&xt a war of 30 fears 
:<litfa<ionr1^>ioh4ofolated the whole ampirey^c Bohe- 
^iap%.JfoB$e thiltimr* lia«e.YeattuMd iopift to the 
mufe^Auf^ia^' -^ - 


•-• / 




[BcLOKjpiiro TO TH* Hobit ^,f ArtTKi^ ] 

Situation and Extent. 


Length $ool . f i7^&i3''E.lnn.l ,^^,^ 

Breadth ioo J ^•*^**" 14^ & 4^ N. latj .3?*^^ 

"^ JLJ by TraniylTanta Rnd Walachia } 
foutht by Sdayonia i wcft^ by Auftrta and NJoravU. 
Dmdod into Upficr Hnngaryf nojiii oTthf Danub(?| c.;p- 
italf Pteiburg ; and Lrwer HuHgary% rouuh oi t.he Da- 
nube ca]U]Ul| BiTdia. N. lat^ij^ '40', E. Ion. 19** :.;'. 

HivfirJ**] Thcfe stfC the Danube, D;-avc, Save, 
Teylfe, \jt^ri(b aod Temcs. . 

r^lulfti^iif'l Hungary coota'uis 3,170,000 inhabit- 

j^» $^il dJtJ PrcJuce,'] The, air in the foutbcni part* 
of H^ngitry h very uuhtaltliy^ owing to Q;^nau<d wa« 
ters ia lalqes aod mai-ibes. The air in t)>e ncirJ^l^er^ 
Pirtf IS iflo^ ftip^pe u^i healthy. The Coil ia iposxe 
paru if ^^g7 ^t^^% su^^ prodaciet aU^pft every kiiic^ oiT 
fruiti. They have a 6iie brieed of moifU'f-CQlpived 
horfes, much efteemed by military officers. 

Rtiigkn^ Tht e|labli(Ked religion in H'^n'iry isi 
the l^oman Cathdic, dimigh the greater part oi the in- 
h^itf^pM arc l^roUi^amts pr Qi^l^) and they i^oyr en* 
joy the firll exercife of their religious liberties. 

Gevkamcnt.^ {^ ^e conilitittiGih ^ H^ng^i?) ^be 
crown is (Ull held to be.cle^lvei This point ia not 
diluted. All tl^t is )n<\(ipd pn i«, that the lieir of thf 
Houfe of Aui^ria iball be elected a« Q\\9fi a» a vac^n^ 
Uapnens. ^ ^ 

The reialii^ of Huirgary, cohfifting of Ui? cro^ s^jd 
fceptrcofSt.' Stephen, tbe firft ICing, are d^pofi^fd ia 
Prefburg. Thcfe are tareftiiiy fccured by'ieven feH?» 
the l^yp^l^r which are kept by the fame number t)f Httu- 
garkm i^emsiu Kopritfce is hvid by tUe i^op^nluca 


H U N <3 A R T. 

•s legiHj their fbreretgnt till be be cm imeJ with the 
diadem w Kin^ Stqpbcn { and they have^a notion that 
the fate of then* nation dependf upon this otmn't re* 
jnaining i^ their poiTeffion ; it has uierefore been alwajrt 
remofcd in timei of danger^ to pheet of thegteauft 


CSh/T^wniil pRBtiuaa, N. lat 48" to't £• Ion. 1 7* 
$&, in Upper mngarft is the capital of the whole king, 
don. It is well built on the Danube, and» like Vien- 
ik:i, hasfuburbs more^ magnificent than itfdf. In this 
citf the Sutcs of Hungary hold their aflemhiiesy and 
in the cathedral church thefovereign is crowned. 

N(/hry,^ Thisldngdom is the ancient Pannonia. 
Julius C^ar was the firft Roman that attacked Hunga- 
tjf and Tiberius fubdued it. The Goths alierwaijds 
took it t and in the year, 376 it became a prey to' me 
Huns and Lombards. It was anneied to the Empire 
of Germany under Charlemagne, but became sn inde- 
pendent Jpngdom in 94a It war the feat of bloody 
wars bf^en the Turks and Germans, from 1540 to 
1 750, when, by the treaty of Belgnde, it was ceded to 
the utter, uid is now annexed to the Gerttian empire. 
Formerly it was anaflembla^ of different ^tes» and 
Stephen was the firft nho airamed the title of King» in 
the yettr 997. He was diftinguiihed with the ajMmla- 
tion of Saint, becamie be firft i&trodaced Chriftumity 
into this, country. 


• • ■ - ■.- . 

WE have thrown thofe countries under one dlri- 
fiop, for fi;veral reaibns, and particulanjr becnnfe 
|li-|iaTe no accost iidlciently exad, of iSief extent 
^imi^Mmdanes. The bed account of thtm foUows ; 
ISnnmfanin belongs to the Houfe of Au^riSm and is 
bounosd ontlienoith, by tie Carpathian iiiM^taini» 
tidUdi divide it from Poland ; on the eaft, byllpdaTia 
ind Waladibi I on the fouth, by W^lacbta i m on th* 
•i-'^ welt 

ireft» by npber and Low6r Hvtngaay* It lies between 
23 and 15 degnes of oift longitude, and 45 and 48 of 
north latitude. Its length is extended about i85» and 
its breadth 1 20 miles* and contains iieaily X4t40o fquare 
tnilesi bit it is ihrroiindeid on all fijjitii by high moun- 
tains. Its produce* yeg^ts^les and aniipals are aimoUt 
the fame wth thofc of Hungary. Catholies, Lutheran?, 
Calviiv(|:s,^ocinians, Arians, Greeks, MEdiometaos, iind 
other fedarief here enjoy their feveral reltgions«' 

IVc^nMTanta is part of the ancient Dacia, the inhab* 
itants oTvdiich long employed the Roman arms, before . 
diey could be fubdued. liie Tranfykanians < can br in g 
into the field 30,000 troops. StepliehL King of Hun- 
ffary^ iatrodaced Chriflianity there, about tlie yeox 
1Q0O. * 

Sclavonia lies between the i6th and 25d decrees ol^ 
eaft longitude, and the 45th and 47th of north btitude. 
It is. thought to be about 200 miles In length, TKnd 60 m 
brpaidth, ind contains about 10,000 fquare miles. U is. 
bounded by the Dra-i|e» on the north ; by Uie l^cmube oa 
the eaft ; by the Save on the fouth ; andby ICtria in Auf- 
tria on the weft. The Slavonians are ze;itlou$» RomaiL 
Catholics,, though' Greeks and Jews are tolerated.. 
In 1746, Sclavonia was' united to Himgary,. and the 
' States fend reprefentativcsto the<liet^ Hxxngaty* 

Croati»lies between* ^e 15th and jyth .ai:gi:ces of 
eaft longitude,, and^the 45th ar>d ^7th of north latityde. 
It is 80 miUs in lengthr^d. 7,0 in breadth,, and con^- 
tains al^uC .J^^wo fquarcmiles* The manners, gdf crn- 
ment, i?eligton,, language and.cuftoms of the Croats are 
&(nd?ir,to*ti«ibiof the ScbyQmans.3nd Tranfylvanians,, 
who.aretheir neighbours*. Carolftadt is. a place of fon^e 
note^ but Zagrab i^ the capital of Croatia. 

Hun^ian. Dahoati^ lies m the. upper part of the- 
Adriatic Sea, and confifts of 5 diftri^s, ui.whicb.tbe 
Viofti remarlcable j^ces ace Segng* w^h |i» a roy^ firee^ 
^wn^ ibrtifiedt bm by nature and by art, %nd fituated 
Jiear the ieat in a^ blieak, mountainous and bai^ren foil i 
«nd Ottq^cbatfi a froniier |bn't%rti(m'^^^e n^^ 




s.-- ; ♦ ■ 




length ^ool t^-^,^ f ij5* swd i^P E. ion. 
Breadth 680 J «'^*''^« t46«5o'and |7'35'N.Iat. 

BEFORE the eztraor<luur)r partition of thif country 
.by the King of PruflSat aided hjr^ the Emperor 
an^.B^prefs Queen, and the Emprm of Rnfliat 
whidi event happened fince the year 177 1> the lungdom 
of Pohitid, with &e Dutch)[ of Lithuania annexed was 
bounded north, by Livonia* l^tufcovy an4 the Baltic ; 
eaft, by Mufcovy ; fouUi, by Hungary* Turkey and 
Little Tartary j weft, by Germany. Containing 230 
•towns. ._ ,, ^_ 

In Poland, were villages 3,377, ^oiivents of nuns 86, 
ap^emen's eftates 23,03a, abbeys 37, convents of monks 
579, l)ocde« b general 1,674,328, peafants. 1|243,qoo» 
Jews 500,000. *, 

PivifonsJl The kinj^dom of P^and ^>rm^^ con.- 
tainedj55 towns, and Was divided in^o 

I. Gfeat Poland. 5. Courhmd. 

jt. , Little Poland. 6. Lithuania. 

5; Pruffia Royal. 7. Mafovia. 

4. Samogitta. 4. Podokchia. 

By a manifefto publifhed March 35, X793, ^^' nnfor« 
tUTipte country underwent another excifion, which left 
to the kingdom of Poland, three <4 its fihalleft provinces, 
viz.MaJov.'jfSamt^itiai zxidPodotachi^t containing 20,000 
f<|uare miles, ont of 336,000, which formerly belonged 
tathis kingdom. 

Wealth and Commerce^ Poland is oiie of the weakeft 
dates id Europe, owing to the opprefllon of the trades 

nle in the towns, and the flavery of the peafantry. 
e ikill of the natives in agriculture bore any propor- 
tion to the fertility c^ the foil; Poland mig^t be one 
of the richeft countries in the world ; for though a large 
pait of it lies uncultivated, it exports no hiconfijerame 
fMbputy of com. Want of induftry an#j£|^Etdoni,. 
are the- chief reafons that (he balance of tradflPtb much 
Igainft Pvland. The exporu m cocSf |)^p> ihx, horfes, 

"^^ C9Stlc» 

9. Pbleiia. 
la Red Rufllia. 

11. Podolla. 

12. Vollunia. 

Fi||LAf&> <H» linTClMlOA. 


cattle* (abont 100,000 oxen cyerj jtat) pelay, tim- 
ber» m^tal%^mkvm^w93h hoii^ &c. tlii liuue oltheni'i 
in the year i777» ampiinted to ncflij «o ilUIUoiit or 
d«Uan. The imports, conilfting chieRpJalfriiif, dodi» 
filk, hard waA, gdd, filvcr, Eifiaiid weft iiditt goods, 
wer6 ibppofed to amooarto 1^0 left th«Ei 47 mittioiis oT 

Googmmeni.'i What dieir more powerful and thrift- 
nical fleighbottrs aire pleaftd to appoint. ^ ^.^ 

ReiMon*"] The eftabli(hed religion is the Romaa 
<^oiic. Pioteftants, towhom the Jiame of -Diffidenta 
is now cdiifined, are tolersl^ ^hrpower of the Pope 
and of the Priefts is very great. ^ 

Population.'^ PteyioQs to the difmemberBient of 
this kingdom, in 1772, its iohabitants amounted to 
14,000,000} afterwards to 9,000,000; now to tela 
thsui half the laft number. * * ^^^ - 

Caphal.\ W;^aw, iinjatedtb^l^lliir 
the ceii&e of Pbland, eontains 70,000 tf&ibitaatst 

ir|^ib^.J ^^;Polan4 was itnciently the country of khe 
Van£^, 4JI^ emig^ted fro^ it to invade the RomaA 
cmpird. It^was ere^M into'l dutchy, of which Jbechua 
was the firft Duke, A. JD. 694. In his time the ui^of 
gold and filver vHfis unknown to his fubjedts, their com- 
me^e being carried on only b|r exchange of goods. ^ It 
becafne a kingdom in, dM year 1000 $ Otho III. £mpe^ 
ror of Germany, conferring thj: title of King oa Bolef-- 
lans I. Ued Ruffia was added to this king£>m hj Bo-^ 
leikus II. who married the heirds of that cc^ut^y,. 
A* D. iCi$^ Difmembcred by the emperor of Ger» 
jbafiy, the Emprefs of RuflSa, and the King of PrttSa» 
who by a partition treaty, Icieed the moft valuable ter- 
ritories, 1772. Thefe nations have lately made another 
partition of this kingdom, in confcquence of which, it 
is faid Uiat the Kins and Diet of Poland, have by treaty 
formally r^^ed their conntry into the hands of their 
•ppreflbrs^^fhis event took place early in the year 

jKuny intereftmg particulars refpediag tl^a country 
mty^fouad in the American Univeriu (^ography» 
?ili.|^^ t54.**-|0|. Edit. 1796. « 

-\ . ^ SWITZERLAKlp. 



{6» a»d 1 1* E. longit«4et 
4S** and 48<» 1*. laiitiide. 

BOU^iDED nm\ by Germany ; Eaft, by Tirol, 
Trent and Lake Condance ; fdudi, by Italy ^ weft„ 
by Franc<i. 

' DintifiGmJ] S^^it^erland is divided into thirteen can- 
fon$> vi^ich ^ttd tin point of precedency as CdUows: 
i. Ziisieh $ a. Bfrine; 3. Lnocrne { 4. Uri ; 5. Swttz ; 
6. Underwald; 7. Zug ;. ^. Claris $ 9.. Bafil or Baflc } 
idi Friboupg; It. 3<uoire; 13. Sca^auTe; 13. A p. 
pen7.ell. . \ 

CaksJ] Berne, on the river Aar, contains 10,506 
mbabitants. Bash, or BasltB^ on the banks of ilie 
Rhine, contains a^o (Irtets, and by iomt is reckoned 
the capitil of all Switzerland, 15,000 inhabitants. 

Rhea^ The principal rivers are the Rhine and 
Rhol}e|,^hoth.of'Whichiri4 in tbe Alps. 

*JlH^i ^md Ptodnahm.^ This country is fall f>f 
mbuntaiiifrf on^the tops of fome of them^ th^ fnow re* 
IQainsil^'yc^ ro*ma; the air, pf confequence, is keen,, 
and thcf'^fts fevere. In 'the Airomer tHe inequality of 
the foU feftders the (ame ptoviace vtstj uxie<{aal in its 
f^ons^ On one fide of the mountains, called the 
Alps»,the inhabitants are often reaping^ while they are 
tibwing oh ^the other* The vallics, hovrevcr, are wann». 
fruitftil, and well cultivated. The water of Switzer* 
laiiais excellent, defcending ftom the 'mountains ittt 
iHNHillftll catarads, which have a XDoft pleadiag and de- 
lightful effeifV. Its produdtioHfr are iheep,;Catt|e,/winef< 
flak, wheat, bCrley, tpples, ^peaches* cherries^ chefiiuts,, 

ftfuhtimMHiamrafkr,^: The iMinilMCfif ' inhabits- 
ants^.inJ795, was i,oto»ooo< 

Tht Swifs are a brave, hardy, hidttlbtoii* peopl^ le-- 

imiHiable ior their fidelity, and th^r teahmaattaithinent 

tolhe liberties of their country. iA^gcfifial^niF^if^y 

•of manners, an open, unafibA^d fhu[Uala&,l||^cthef 

miifa an invlxicible l)>irit of fr«edom» i^e tbe mod 



diftingniflii^g icharaAenftics of the inluibftanu of 
Switxerknd. On the firft entrance iato this coun- 
try, tiHTeUen cannot bu| obrenrc the air of content and 
fatiifaaion, whkfa appears in the covotenancesof tho 
inba^tfwu. A tafte for literature it |n«vaIcot atoong^ 
them, fnm the higheft to the loweft rank. • Thefe are 
the hi^p7 cdi^eqaencei of a mild TepubUcaa govern* 
went. ■: ^ ■ II 

RfUgtMi,'} The eftablifhed religions are CalTinifm 
andPbperyi though, in fome lod^inal poinu, thcf 
dtS& nanch from Calvin. T^etr ientiments on re- 
ligions, toleration are much kis liber^ than upon civil 
government. « ' 

Govemmeto,'} Switzerland comprehends thirteen 
cantons, that is, fo m^j different repubhcs, all united , 
in one confedetacyv for their mutual prefervation. The 
govefnment is partly ariftocratical, and ptti;tly demo- 
cratieal. Every canton is abiblnte bits own jttri£iic», 
tjon. But whether th? government l>e arii|0ei>i^cal» 
democraticial, 0-, mixed, a genera) fpirit of/jib^ity per- 
vades and abates the ieveral eonflntotions* l^m^ttaH 
iaterdb of the people appear to be att^edfl^'ni^ 
they enjoyed a great degrcie of happineis, )&i4!0i[^tii 
revdntton.' .■ 'i^' ./h y /■.-,:.' ■ - - ', '"M- 

J^ory,'} The old inbsbttants of ^6 comkttji^me. 
c^led Helvetii ; thqr were, defeated hy |uli«ui CMir* 
57 yicars before Chrift, and the teniitory remained iiib. 
jea^tq the Roaians, till it was conquered ^yti|ie Al* 
einaa^ German emigmilS) A.D. 595 ; who were ex* 

" d' 1^ Clovist Kii^ of France, in 496. I| nnder- 
y beinff made pa^of 

the^p^o^ of Burg^nd^; l0 Conrad ll. Empc^r of 
G^^ianyi fron^ which t^4t was held as pa^ of the , 
empire^ s*ll the year yQ|j|iir)iei.\ a very Angular revoir 
delivered the Swifs cantons fioni the German yoie* 
Griiler» Governor of thele provinces for the EmpeiM' 
Albert, having ordered one WHliam Tell, an iUnftkona 
SwcTs patriot, under pain of death, to iboot at aa a^pp|i^» 
pbeed on the head of ono of his children^ ^ had the 
dczterttyi^ though thf'diftance was very eonfiden^l^ ^ 
to ftrihf itHpf i«tthont hittNig th« chad. The tyrant. % 
V^Hpru^ that iam, had iiM#(r arrow under his clc4^ 





nthed him Ibr what ytupoCn he intenM k ^ He boldtjr 
repliedt «* To h«ve Ihot you to tb* heart; if I'd had thf 
misfortuae to kiU m^ fotk'^ The enraged Gi^vcmryt 
•rdered htm to be banged |. but his fellow cittisns, aai< 
laated b/ his ibrtituJe and patrtotiihif Btm to 4? 2^11, ai* 
taelMd.^ Ti^^ttilbed CfiQer, who wat ^ot 4mi bT 
' Till, and the indeperuieney ^>C tl^ ier«rid li;itett &i tliis 
#luntry, now called rhe llurttrm €ant^>{if» o vder a re- 
.pliblicaft form of go^mmeot t<? k place fiinfiediately ; 
Wich waf nude pctpeiafll» by a league amoog them- 
&lmi in ^year 1)15 ; and. conltmu 4 b^ trsat^ with 
lie othiar pow«ri of £ttri»>e» 1640. StTtn of tbdi 
i^antOi3% s^e Rdman Caihi)lief> and ux procdftantH^^ 


$ T H £ R L A N D & 


ienflttfe S^r k-t«e^ 1 4?? <¥i^ ffc J^ UtUu^ 


They are bowtdt^by t(e Cknnan &a on the i^SI^ v 
by Germ99y,>a(l; by Lofr^iand France|.rou^h j 1^^ 

by tlie 3riti(h channel, we^C ' ^ . 

V^t (k^l| for the fake of p^#i£uity« and to aVoU 
ri^petttiotii Irealof the ieYe;nte«n pf princes imdertwo 
ffreatt 01? iflptts ; Brft, Xhft Nortbtnif which contain the 
Iev«i|l^;td Provincef,. ufutiilly knpwn by the name tt 
StpLxaiip : ^coodly^ t|ie ^p«^4&«r«i eontaini^ the Au& 
«%>^^«?4 French N^tt^extodi*^ '^ 

'**«;;,<- , * 

H 6 L h A V ?D. 









BOtTNDED call* by Gennany ; fonth by the AuT* 
trtan and French Nrtherlan^ ; weft luid north* 
by the Geonan ocean. Coxkauning 1 1 j toimmf 194^ 

Dhijcm ami Ptjj^MitHcff, 

Utrecht, ^ 
Frieflaad, ~ 








Leuwirdcn, . 




, Total %;t5^t63% in 1785, 

Conniry €f Drenthe, under the protedioo of t|i« 
United Proyincei. w ' 

Lands of the Generah'ty, commonly called ^fttch 
Brabant, 435,000 inhabltantSi^ Chief tewn^ $Qis 1e 
Due; 1 2,606 iidiabitaLnts. 

Peffe^om:] t. InAfia, Hie coaft of tl^lfiand ef 
Java; the capital of whh^ U Batavta, ^teat of the 
gyremor-general of ail die -Eaft India fettlf|nent9 of jlie 
&lt!i3h. 2. Some fettlemen^ on the co^ of Snma^. 
3!^;^^ ^ateft part of the mliicea, or $ptee dif^dl j 
chiefly Amboyna, Bsnda, Qfcmate, Tid^, Moftyrt^Jil^ 
chian ; fettlements or f^dkorits on tfie iiiand of O^i 
&c. 4. On the coafb^ Malabar and Coroput 

Sedratpatauni Bimltpatan^ Tepatam, Cpehilk) andOi* 
nanore ; faAoKes «t Sul^ Pemw ^* alfo iii#|e 0i^ 
of Fetfla, M Gjismm, ^i[fibra, &c. 5. On|M)>tdyd 
ofCeykm* the chief, place it GoloBibo s- they hairo^be* 
fiAii* Tnfkpiiialey Jamap^iijnit Negamobo^aad Si^fKat 
""^"^""^of. lodges or^iao^ ' ^ 

. %• tm 

\r t: 




O L L A M 0. 

». fnJ/rks. t. TKt Cape of Good Hope,*! hrgt 
fttdcncnk, of whi^.llic CapetowAy with iti fortrcfi. Is 
the capital. There if alio a French colony at the Cape, 
called Noovelle Rochelle. The goTernor of the Cape 
doee not ckpeq^ o<^ ^ gotemor of Batavia, but it 
under tiM iinmdiatt •control of the Statef'of Holland. 
9. George de la Mina» and s>ther foTttk(k$ and faao- 
riea>lo Guinea. 

5. /» America. I. The iflandi of St. Euastia, Saba, 
Cttiracoa. a. The colonies of Eflequiho* Demarara, 
jBarrioam, and Betbice, on the continent of Guiana. 
f^fMtimdCmmtm:] The Seven United Prortnccs 
jftbrd a ftriking proof, that unwearied and perferering 
indttftiy is capable of conquering every difadvantage 
^^ climate and fituation. The air and water are bad : 
thejbil naturallf produces feateely any thin^ but t^if ; 
and the pofi*efljon of this foil, poor as it is, is difputed 
hy the ocean, which, rlfing confiderably -above the level 
of the land, can only be prevented by ftrong and ex- 
penftve dyhes, from overfiowi(i|g a fpot which feems to 
be ftolen froin its ^natural domains^ Notwithftanding 
ll^* difficulties, which might item mfuimountable to a 
left induftrious people, the pericvering labours of the 
pa^^vt Dutchmen have rendered this imalV and feem* 
InPl^iniigiilficant territory, one of the richeft fpots in 
Europe, Soih with refped to population and property. 

In other countries, which are pofTcfled of a variety of 
naturad' produdions, we are not furprifed to Bnd mana* 
fadhires emi^oyed in multiplying the riches which the 
bouniyof the foil beAows; but to fte, in a country 
like Holland; large woollen manufadures,. wbere^tlpre 
iure (cicely any Socks ( numberit , artifts employlw iri 
metal V#her%there is no mine 1 thoufands of £iw mills, 
where' there is fcarcely any forcfls ; an immenre<)uantity 
of corn exported from a country where there is nut 
agHieultt% enough to fupport one half of iu Inhabitants, 
; molt %ike evjsry obCerver witb adnairarion. Among 
lmi|i<i^ valuable produ^c^s of tliiscpimtry may be I 
rpckdfied ^fii* excellent cattle. They expoit large | 
quHuttties pf ' madder, a Vegetabki much ufed in dying. 
Their fi&eries yicild a clear profit of many ^l^onsofj 


^ Tin* place ba»Wea eafta^ed by die EiigMdIlb 

O L Ii A N D. 


Aortnt. The trade of HoHan^ eiteiidt to almoft every 
part of the world, to the exclufioii, in fome iiranche^y 
of all their European competitors. 

CafUat.'] Amsterdam, which is built on piles of 
wooa, and is one of the moil comrnercial cities in -th<ii 
world, hats more than one hairthe trad^ of HoUaad i 
and, in this /celebrated centre of an immenfe cotnmeree* 
a banlc is eftablilhad of that fpecies, caQed a Giro Bamk| 
of very great wealth and j^eHer ecedit* 

GvwrtifMnt»1 Sinee the ^"eat confederation of IT- 
trecht, made u\ the year 1579, the Seven United Prov- 
inces m^Il "be looked upon as one political body, united 
for the/ prefer vation of the whole, of Ivhieh each Angle 
province rs governed by it: jwn laws, and exercifes moll 
of the rights cf a fmrereign ftate» In eoniequence of 
the union, the Seven Provinces guaranteed each other's 
rights, they made war and peteie, t.hey levied taxes, ftfri 
in their joint capscity* ; but as to internal govemmeift, 
eath province was irtdependeht of the other provinces, 
and cf tht fupreme power of the repiiUic. The prov- 
inces rank in the tfrdtr they s^e mentioned. They feat 
deputies chofsn out of the provincial ftates, to the,gen- 
eral aifembty, called the States Grwr/r/,' which tnls inveft- 
ed #(tli the ru|9r^e legiHatiVe power oftl^ cont|i|rf- 
tion. iBach province might khd as ihany miinattbeivjii k 
pieafedi but it had only tone voice in tl^^ aHelibl jr «f the 
ftates. Before the late tevol'utiod, Halt ^Bsfttmlf was 
compofed of 58 deputies. At the head of thir^gbveriS* 
mentwststhe Stadcholdery who exerc^fed avcry cori- 
iideraMe part of the otectitive power of jtbe {Uttf, At 
prefent tjie government is unfettled. \ 

-^ %W.] TheCalvtriia or Ref^m^ed teltgfci^ ii^Sf. 
tahittiied in Holland^ bat others Ire toii»ate^ 

None \mt Calvfniib tan ho) \^ny einploymen^of, 
Irufl oi' profit. The dmrdi is gdvierti^by Pteftfyfe- 
ries and Synods. Of the latter, there are^nfiie for j^n-^ 
gle provinces, and one national %nQd,iubjed»h<^w^ 
ever, te tiie cdatrol oT the Sffites'd^eneraL 1«ie French 
and WaUoon CahriajAs have Synodsftf^^iroNwi. fft. 
the Seven. Provinces are, i»n9 tninifters of theeila^ 
liftied"(rhtirch, 90 of tlie Walioori church, 80a Roman 
F f - . Catholic, 

. ' 



Catholic. 53 Luthenin, 43 Armenian, and 51a Baptir; 
minitlers.' In the Eaifl lodte* there are 46 and in the 
Well Indies 9 mintftcrs of the eftabliflted church. 

ffjfion.'} TheTe provinces v/ere originally an aflem. 
blage of fevenil Lordihips, dependent upon the Kingi 
of Spain $ from whofe^ yoke they withdrew themfelves 
during the reim of Philip IL in the year 1579, under 
the conduA oT the Prince of Orange* and formed the 
republic, now called the Seven tmited Provinces, or 
Hottand, that being the moft remarkable province. 
The office of dtadtnolder, or Captain General of the 
United Provineef^ was made hereditary in the Prince 
of Orange'* family, not excepting females, in 1 747. 

f— —— ^M^—i — — I I I I III I <ilH l».l I I I ' I I ———1^ 


^ • MUcs. , 

21.ength aool . ^i^^ f4<)° and 51® north latitude. 

BwadiiiaooJ °*^^«*" \ a* g^a 7" e^ft longitude. 

BOUNDED nprtli, by HoHahd and the German 
ocean r.caft, by Germany ; fouth'ahd wtft, by 
France .and the iiidm, channel: '^ 

. DhHjSm^J This cpuntry is divided Into., ten, prov- J 
Alices, via.^ ^ . 

'Br*baot,bel(^ging to 'he Dutch W A«(Utant.' {b[^|J^ 

42j^if«hj<a to the Ho4re of Auftrii, Antwerp. 

Xiniibtfr^, wtongiiMf Co tue Dutch and Auftri^iis, .Lijiibui^.^ 
liPieimrgi Attftftao «nd Freochi .^ Lux«^|}|U|. 





Mnmr, middle Ittrtsbclongins; tq Aiiftriai 

Hainautt, Auftrian aod f renc^ 

<>mbrefi8. rabicd to^I'irance, 

'Art^ fabjea to Fr;^ce, 

— Jjj^^ibeloog^tothel>uteb,AuftrIan«,and ("Otticii. 

f*^**'*^J |¥cn<h, * \0^xfA,, 

.. ■ ■■'''■- ,' 

,}' ^i couni^ » diicliibcd as it eiifced before the late reyolu 
tioTii 1 ii now (n » rcv6lBti«aary (iste, irtd the feat of war. 



TaiHthUanit ami Rrrtpon,"] The NetUcTlands are inJub- 
ited by about 1,500,000 foul». The Roman Catholic . 
is the e(Ublilhed religion, but ProtelUnts and Jews are 
not moleded. 

MlfUtwfaSuret^ Their principal manufH^urei ar^« 
fine lawns, ciuubiies, hce^ ancf tapeftry, with which 
thejr civcy 05 a very advuuageoiiH tratHc, efpeciiilly 
with England, from whence it is computed they re- 
ceive a b.ilance oi half a million annualiy,^ in time of 
pcAce.- ''-^ /'"*''. ' ■• *•' 

Chir/ Tcwn."]' Bbusgels is the chief town of firl^ 
bant, and the capital of Flanders. Here the .heft cam- 
!>lecs are made, and' moft of the fine laces, which arc 
worn in every part of the world. 

Covtr.vmnf.'] Tlift Anftrian Netherlands are ftlll 
confidered as a chcle cf the empire, of which the arch- 
ducal houfe, as bein^ ibvereign of the wholcj is the ff^^Q 
direi^or arid fumtnoning pripce. This ctrcU contrihtl .s 
its n>are to the imp( fts ot the empire» and fends .in en- 
voy 10 the diet, but is not fubje<ft to the judicatories of 
the empirt^< It is under a governor general, appoint* 
fd'by the court of \ienna.. The feci- o£ an af- 
fembly^ or parltament, for each province is ftill 
kept up, and confifts of the clergy^ nobility, \spd 
(ieputles of towns, who meet at Bruflels. Each 
provtuce claims particular privileges, but they are 
of very little effe^ ; arid the governor feldom or 
never Eiids< any refinance to the will of his court. 
Every* province liar a particular governor, fubje^ to 
the regent ; and caufes are here decided^ according, io 
the civil and canon law. 

H0ory^ Flanders, originally the cctmuj, of ili« 

ancient Belgse, was conquered by Julius Csnar, for^« 

ieven years before Qinft ( pa0*ed into thebandiof 

France, A^ p. 4.12 ; and was governed by its Earls^ 

■fub^ to that crown, from 864 to 1369, By niarti. 

age, it^;lten came into the Hou& of Aulliria ; but was. 

•yielded to Spain, in i55$< Shook p£F the/Spani^ yoke 

1572 ; m the year 1725, by the treaty of Vtenoa, wai 

annexed to t^e German cmpii^e I, aJl^d is now (i79(S| 

aimmitp France. •/' : , ^< ^ 

n* • FfeANCE. 


r R A N C E. 

N C E. 



45* and 51* Ji lutitm^?. 
S*" and 80 £. longiiiidc. 

BOUNDED north, by the Engllrti channel and the 
Netherlands ; caft, by Germany, Swiuerland and 
Italy ; fouth, by the Nfediterranean and Spain ; wc(l, 
by die bay of Bifcay. Containing, before the revolu* 
tion» 400 citief ,. 1 ^500 fmaUer towns, ^»cop parilhes,. 
lOQiOOo villages. 

PoJf>gmx in ether parts of the Olcbe, 


, f . fh jf/ia,"] Some didriftt. on the coaft of C&roman- 
del, oF which Pondlcherry is the capital. Some hd con-i 
fi Jet able (ettlenents on the Malabar coaft, and in Ben*, 
gal, and feveral faAories. 

2. /a Jfrka*2 In Barbary, B«(lion'de Franee. The 
ifland of Goree, part of Senegambia, Fert Louis -on die 
Senegnl, -aJid Podar, Galam, Portcndic, Fort Argain. 
On the coaft of Guinea, l^rancols. In the Indian Sea,, 
the iflai^ds of Bourbon and llha of Ffance^' 

^ 3. /if Amfrira.2 The North American iflandt^ of 
St. Pierre and Miquelon. In the Weft lndict» the 
ifland of St. Domingo,, the iilasd of Martinique, Gua« 
daloupe, St. Lucia, Maiia Galantc, St. Martin and 
Tobago. In South Amcricai fome Icttiements in. Qui- 
anaaiid Cayenne^ ' ' 

All thefe pofieffionsi a^cordhig to Neckar, eontain^ 
libout 600,000 inhabitants^ Some of theie plaees haTC: 
lately falleii into the hands 6f the firttifh. > . 

Sthee ' the revohition, a new dWifion of France 
has been niade> as follows t *<'£ach diftria ifo be di^ 
i^ided into cantons of about four fquare kttgkti eitcfa, 
with at leaft one primary a0efttblyin each canton. If 
liie notnbef of citivens .in a canton do not atoonnt to 
i^i thtte isto be only pne afTembly) but if they 
amount jtd that titi»kber» there are to be two^^mblies 
ipf 450 ca^b. Each ordinary a^mbly to eoii Jift i$ near* 
^ iy as po^^^ of 6^0t which ih^ll be the mean number) 


r R A N C E. 


the leaft to be 440. The number of depatkf fent to 
the omtional a/Tembtf by each diftriA» to be in propor- 
tion to the population, taxet^ s^nd ttrritory, jointly con* 

This .new political divifinn of France eorrejboodt ta 
fome refpedt with the divifions of New England : 
diftridf in France, ani'wer to counties in New England, 
cantons to townlhips,- and aiTembliet to town-meet* 

CRuuti^Smlf Rhirtf Commeretf Cffc.j France is Citn- 
ated in a rery mild climate. Its foil in moft parts is Yery 
fertile ; it is bounded by high ridges of mountains, the 
lower branches of which crofs the greater part of the 
kingdom | it abounds with latge rirers, yiz. the Rhone^ 
the Loire, the Garonne, the Seme, 8u» to the amount of 
soo« many of which are navigable { and it is contiguous 
to two oceans. Thef^ united advantages render t)ii!i 
kingdom one o( the richeft conntries in Europe, both 
with refped to natural produAions and commerce. 
Wine is the ftaple commodity of France^ One million 
fix hundred thonfand a<!res of ground are laid ont in< 
vineyards, and the net [Profit iVom each acre is eAimated 
at from four to feven potmds fterling^. France annua!* 
ly exports wines to^theamoufatof twenty four millioni 
^of livres* The fruic» and other produAions of France 
do not much differ from thofe of Spain, but are raifed in 
much greater plenty. Fjrance has very important fifliv 
eries, bothon her own. and on the American eoaft; 

In vjj^ there w^e in France 1,500 ftlk mills, s i,coo 
looms for Alk fttiffs, 1 2,cx)o for ribbons and lace, 20,000 
for filk ftocking» ;. and the difl^rent filk. manufadories 
emi^oyed a,ooo,ooo of people^ 

III point of commerce, France before Her revolution 
waa ranked next to England and Holland. The French 
Had the greateft (bare in the I«evant trade — they en* 
joyed' fome valuable commercial privileges in Turkey,;, 
but their Weft India poieffions, which were admirably 
cnltitaud and governed, were the richeft. Before tli^ 
lite American war the balance of commerce, in favouxt 
o£ Francci was eftimated at 70^O0O|COO-livres. 




F R A N t t: 

Gvvtfimimt^y Revolmionaiiy and nniettled* 

In this coaotry t^ere w«:re i8 Arclibrfbopt^ ii i bifrf. 
ops, 166,000. dtrgymcn, 5^400 convents, c^rttaining 
200,Q00 perrons devbted to moxuftic life. Thefe were 
all aboliihed bythe revolution. 

Latrni/fgJj The feiences have arifen to a very great 
height iri this nation^ whicb.caii boail of having pro. 
duccd greitt mafter-ptfctres in almoft eir^ry braMtch of 
Ccientific knowledge and elegax^t literature. There are 
so univerSttfs in France. The royal academies of 
fciencesy of ^e French language^. and of infcriptions 
and antf^uitiei at Paris^.are juftly celebrated. ^ 

Hf/hry.'} ^twoJCfi wsis originally the country of the. 
ancteut Gauls, arid wasconqtieredbythe Romans tven- 
ty.five years btfore Cbrift. The Goths, Vandals, Ala^s 
aiHl Suevi, and afterwards the Bocgii^di, divided it 
amongft them frbto A. D.«46o to 476, v/bcn the Franks, 
another fet of Gerni^n emieranti, virho had fettled be- 
tween the Rhine and the Maiiie, completed the foun- 
dation of the prefcnt ,kin|f^dom under Gtovis. . It was 
conquered, c]£fcept Paris, by Edward HI. of England, 
between 1341 and 1559. In 2420 an entire, conqueft 
was.mad<? by Henry V. who viras appointed regent, dur- 
ing &e life of Chat las Vl. ackno^<rled^(ai heir to the 
crown' of Francejjand hoitiagt paid to him^ accordingly. . 
The !]Sngl)(h crown iod all its poiSeflions in France dur* 
tngthe reign of Henry VI. between 1434 and 1450. 

The laft lurtg of this potent empire, was Lnuis X VL 
the frienJ of America, and of t^t rights of mankind* . 
He was born Auguft 23, 1754; married Hkitx^ Anto^ 
uietta of Auftria, May 16, 1770 ^: acceded to the tHrone 
upon the death of his grandfath^ Louis XV> May 10, 
1774; and was crowned at RHeimt, June 12, 1775.. 
He was beheaded January 21,1 793, and his' qiie«0 met 
with the fame untimelv fate, 0(t. 16, in the fiime year. 

Many chaozes in the govenameot of this unhappy 
f ountry have HtKe taken place, and it may 0ill be con>- 
ftdcred MF ellutflt&^d OQ a .very ^f^^^^ fQuadttion, 


a B A r n; 

& P A I N. 
8iTUAt*ioi< AND Extent,. 




Jbength 700! k^,,„^^ f 36* and 44° N. btitiicfev. 
Breadth 500]; ^^^^'^^ l^o ^^^ ^^o £^ ioi,gitade. 

ifc^i*^,^,:] B-OUNPED weft, byPmugal and 
-^ JLI tbc A««»t»c ; north, by the Bay 
of BiTcay aod the P^tenean mounMnns, which divide it 
irom Franice ; eaft: and fouUi, |>y tJ;e Mediterranean ? 
Sea, and the Straits of Gi1»'altar. 

Spain is divided bto 14 di(bri£t$, in vfhich are 13^, 
towits, ,and a.j ,085 villages and boroughs. , 

P^S^ni in oiher ^arlnj/the Glu^*. 

I. In Africa.^ On the coaft of Barbary, the towns of 
Gsuta, Oran, Welilla, and Mafalqaiver : the Ganary 
Iflands, viz. Cauaria, Ferro, Tensriffc, &c. 'JThe idandj 
of Annabou and Delpo, under tlie equator* 

?. /« Afta.')^ ■■ The PhiU'ppine Iflands, the principal 
6^ which is Luzon, %vhofe capital is Manilla. ; Tlie 
Marian, the CaroUne» and Palabs iiland^^ 

3. /h /America,'] Imthenfe provinces, much larger 
thaki all.EuTope, moli of which are aftonifliingly fer- 

(i*) In North America, Loulfianav California, Old 
Mexico, or New Spain, New Mexico, both the Floridas, . 

(^.) In the Weft Itjdies, tlie ifland of Cuba, one 
half of St. Domingo,*' Porto Ri6o, Trinidad, Marga- 
retjta, Tortuga, 6cc. 

(3 ) In South America, iTcrra Fifma^ Pdru, GhUi,, 
Tucuman, Paraguay, Patagonia. 

Thefe extiCiifive countries we have akeady mentioned, 

Hmrt,2 The Deuro, the Tagus, the Guadiana, the 
Caadalquiver, all Which fall into the Atlantic Ocean ;: 
ixnd i^i £bro, tl^ aacient Iberu«i which falls into tlie 


^HuirliM bc€tt €e#<i 10 iraace by Treaty. 


s -p A Ir K, 

Capkai.y Madrid, fituated on a branch of the river 
Tagus, contains 140,000 inhabitants. Cadiz, fituated 
on the Atlantic, a little to the northwatd of the Strains 
of Gibraltar, is the great ettiporium of Spain, and con- 
tains 80,000 inhabitants. 

fVeahh and Ccmmtne.^ The advantages of Spain as 
to climate, foil, natural productions,' rivers, navigation, 
and foreign poireffions, which are iinmcnfely rich, ought 
to raife this monarchy high above all tlie ether powers 
of Burope. Yet the rcv^rfe is the cafe ; Spain is but 
thu^ly peopled — has but little commerce— few manufac- 
tures — and what litr^e commerce it has, is almoft entire- 
ly in the hands of ftranp:ers, notwithftanding the imped- 
iments thrown in the way by government- 
Spain produces excellent oranges, lemons, almon^?, 
figs, grapes, pomegranates, > dates, piftaohios, caper?, 
chefnuts, tobacco, foda, fa^on, honey, fait, faltpetre, 
wines of a rich and delicious flavour^ cotton, rice, corn, 
oil, wool, filk, hemp, flax,&c. which,.with proper induf- 
try, might be exported to an amazing amount.^-And 
yet all the exports of Spain, moft articles of which no oth- 
jr country can fupply, are eftii lated at only 31333,333/. 
fterling. Spain does not produce com enough for its 
own confumption, and is under the neceflhy of import^ 
ing large quantities*. 

Govgrnment.y Spain is an abfolute^ monarchy. The: 
provinces of Navarre, Bifcay and Arragon have prc- 
ferved fome of their ancient privileges. The king's 
edi^s mud beregidered in the 'court of Cadile before 
they acquire the torte of laws. The cvown is heredita<- 
ry both in the male and female line. By a law made 
in 1715^ female heirs cannot fucceed till after the whole 
male line is extlnd. 

Religion.'] The Rtman Catholic reHgior^ to the e^- 
dufion of all others, h the religion of the Spanifh mon- 
archy 4 and it is iu-thefe countries of the mod bigotted, 
fuperditious and tyrannical chara^ler.. All other de- 
nominations of Chriftians, a» well as Jews, are ex- 
pofed to all the fcvetities of perfecution. The power 
of the Court of Inquifttioh, enablifhed in Spain in 1578, 
Ia» been dimioiihed in fome te^z^s^ by the inteid- 

1 ' fcrcnc« 

- -\ . 

P O R T U C A t. 


ference of the civil power. It is fuppofed Uiat the 
clergy of this kingdom amount to 2oo,ooo»ha1f of whom 
arc monks and mms, diHributcd in 3,000 convents. 
The revenue of the archbiOiop of Toledo is 300,00a' 
ducatc. There are, in the kingdom of Spain, 8 
bifhopSi 46bi{liops$ in America, 6archbithaps and 28 
bi^ops ; in the Philippine IHes, i archbifhop and 3 
bilhops. Ail thefe dignities are in the gift of the king. 
Fifty-tjvo irferior ecdefiaAical dignities and officers are 
in the gif^ of the pope. 

HjfloryS^ The firft inhabitants of ^»m were the 
Cehae, Hk people of Gaul ; after them the Phoenicians 
poflcflecl themfelves of the moft fauthern parts of tlic 
country, and may well be fuppoied to have been the 
firft civfiizers of thrs kinq^doin, .and'tlie founders of the 
moft ancient cities. After thefe fol]o\%ed the Grerians ; 
xhcTi the Cariliaginians, on whofe departure, ftjcteen 
years before Chrift, it became fubjeft to the Romans, 
till the year 400, when the Goths, Vandals, Siievi, 
Aiahs, and Sillingi, on Ccn(lantine'.s withdrawing hifr 
forces from that kingdom to the eaft, invaded it, and 
divided it anaongil themfelves ; but the Goths in a lit» 
tie lime were fole mailers of it, under their king Alij. 
rick I. who ftmnded the SpaniOi monarchy. After a 
regular fucceflfion of monarchs, we come' to the prefent 
king €harle& iV. who afcended the throce in itv^ year 



Breadth 1 00 5 ^"^"'^ |7°artdi 

42" N. latitude. 
0° W. longitude. 

» J ' •, "DOUNDED north and caft, by 

aoundanes.^ .t> Spain ; fouth and weiV by the 

Atlantic Ocean. Containing 1,9 towns, 527 villages* 

^ Rtvert.\' 


P O R T U G A t. 

Rhert,'] Every br»ok in Portugal is called a river; 
Its rivers rife in Spain, and run weft through Portugal, 
into the Atlantic. The moft noted is die Tagus. 

Ct/pUaJ.'] Lisbon, ai the month of the Tagus, con- 
tains about 1 50,000 inhabitants. In 1755, it was hid 
level with the ground, by a tremendous earthquake, 
which was facceeded by a general conflagration, in 
which catai^rophe upwards of 10,000 people loft their 
lives."' "'"'^ 

Cli/nale, ProdufHons and Commerce 1 Portugal, fitu- 
ated in a genial climate, abounds in excellent natural 
produ<5tions, and is. well watered. It poffcfles very 
rich provinces in and upon the cbafts of Afia, Africa, 
and America. It isj.however, not proportionably pow- 
erful ; its inhabitants are indigent, and the balancd^ct 
trade is againft it. It is even obliged to import the 
rcceiTaries of life/ chi-'.fliy corn ftom other countries. 
Portugal produces wine,^ wool, oil^ honey, annil'eed, 
fumac, a variety of fine fruits, fome torn, flax and 
cork. In i.785, the goods imported from Great 
Britain and Ireland into Portugal, confiftingof wool- 
leas,' corn, fifh, wood, and hard w4re, amounted to 
upwards of 960,000/. fterling. The En^lifh took in 
return, of ihe produce of |*ortugal and Bra!zil> to the 
amount of 7x8,000/. fterling. Only 15 millions of 
liyres are fuppofed to circulate in a country which 
draws annually upwards of 1,500,000/.. fterling, or 36 
millions of livres,. from the mines of Brazil. Since ]Jie 
difcovery of thefe mines, that is, within 60 years, Por- 
tugal has brought from Brazil about 2400,000,000 of 
livres, or 100,000,000/. fterling, 

Gbt'!»nmcnt and Reiiglon*'] Since the council of tlie 
three eiktes, viz. the clergy, the nobility, and the 
ciUes» the members of which are nominated by the 
king, was fubftituted in the room of the diets or mee* 
ings of the ftates, (which event took place the latter en^. 
oi the iaft century) the government of the kingdom of 
Portugal has been abfoluttly monarchical. The pro 
eeedtng« of the courts of juftice arc flow and arbitrary, 
and the number of lawyers and law otR«crs is cxteed. 
i«|iy great. 

1 t A 1 t; 


The (late of religion in Portugal is the lame ai in 
Spain. The Portuguefe clergy condft of one patriarcht 
a digniiy gr:inted to the church of Portugal in the year 
1 71 6, of 3 archbifliops and 15 birtiops. The vtholn 
number of ecclefiaftics is 200,000 ; 30,000 of whidi« 
and fome fay, 60,0OO; are monks and nuns. The mem- 
ber of convents is 745. The number of clerical pt?- 
fonsto that of the laymen, is as 1 to 11. 

Hifiory.'^ Ponugal was anciently called Ludtania^ 
and inhabited by tribes of wandering people, till it 
became fibje^ to the Carthaginians and Phoenicians, 
who were difpolfefled by the Romans 250 years before 
Chrid. In the 5th century, it fell under the yoke of 
the Suevi and V ndals, who were driven •ut by the 
Goths <si Spain, in the year 589 ; but when the Moors 
of Africa made themfelves mailers of the greateft part 
of Spain, in the beginning of the eighth century, they 
penetrated into Lufitanta ; theri; they eftablilhed Gov- 
ernors, who i^ade themfelves Kings. It became fub- 
jeit to Sp<un tn^i58o ; but in 1640, the people rebelled^ 
ihook of the Spanifh yoke, and eleAed for their King the 
Duke of Braganza, who took the name of John IV. ift 
whofe family it has ever Ante remained, independent of 
Spain. Her prefenb majefty's name is Mary Franci* 
Ilkbella, who ace eded to the throne in the year 1777. 





fsS-and 47*^N. Ut.1 ; , 
\ 7°fthdi9<'E.iong.j7^'^^^ 

?> j*i f between 

iireadtli 40 J 3 

Y TALV Is a large penlnfula, fhap'iid like a boot and 
'I fpur'i and is bodaded N»^rth, by the Alps, which 
c^ivide it' from France aad S.vlf^erland ; Eaftby the 
Gulf of Venice, or Adriatic Sea ; Seuth and ^/eft, bf 
the Mediterranean Sea. 



1 T 

L Y. 

Tke whole of the Italian dominions, comprehending 
Corfica and Stirdioiai were divided at foUowg before ihc 

^o the Ving- 
dom of Sar- 
dniia, Ivckm^ 


LSardHiia Ml 
To thekingdom ( Nirplet, 
ofNaplu. t Skily Idimd. 

S Milan,, 

Pope's Xtominiont, 


tlvct'rince*, '' 

fie publics, 
To G. Briuio, 


Lucca, « 
St. Marino, 

Corftca. I (laud. 
T\vthe R<ipubttc \ Iftfia, 
of Venice, YBalinatia, 

Iflands in the Vencti<iQ Dcminto\i^. 

* AtVy Soitf and Pro(tt^'ioHt.'\ Italy is the moft Ccle- 
bratcd country in* Europe, having been formerly tlie 
fefit of the Romnn empire, and is at nrcfent of tlie 
pope. The country is f(» fine and fruitful, that it is 
commonly called the garden of Europe. The air is 
temperate and wholefome, excepting the territory of 
the church, where it is very indifferent. The foil is 
fertile, and produces wheat, rice, \\1ne, oil, oranges, and 
all forts of frmts, Sobers, honey, filk 5 ana in the 
kingdom of Naples are cotton and fugar. The forefts 
are full of all kinds of game. On the mountains are 
fine padures, which feed great numbers of cattle. 

'^^Inkabiiants.'] ItJily is thought to contain tlpwards of 
fourteen milho*]*' of inhabitants. The Italians excel in a 
complaifanc, obliging ochavionr to each other> and aijl^a- 
bitity to foreigners. Mu(ic, ^oetfy, painting, fculpture 
atltiarchitedufe are theiJ-Tavoitrit^ ftudies, and there arc 
no peopl'*' who iiiiv^ broiidht thetti to greirev pcrfe<5t:on. 
Rrli^hn.2 The Italians arc zealous profefTors of the 
do»51rine oi the church of Rome. The Jews, are here 
tolerated in the public exercife of their religion* , The 
H'ltiVes, either in reverence to the pope, or by being in- 
duftrioufly kept in ignorance of the Proteftant doctrines 
entertain mc llrous notions of all the difl>;nters from 
the Church cf Rome. Tiw inquifition here is Httk 

1 T 

L t. 


more than a found. In Naples, there ait 20 archbiihopt, 
107 biihops^ In Sicily, 3 archbifliopt, and 8 biihopi. 
In the year 1782, there were, in Naples alone, 45,525 
priefts, 24,6^4 moiiks) 20,793 nuns» In i78jigoTem* 
ment refolvcd to dKTolve 466 convents of nuns. 

Chuf City,'] Rome, once the capital of the world, hi 
nowihe chief city In It&!y. It contains, according Cd 
modem writers, 170,000 inhabitants, and is fituated 
upon the river Tyber. It was founded by Romulus 
750 years before Chrift, and was formerly three times 
as large as at prefent \ and is now one of the largeft 
and handfonieft cities in Europe. 

Mountains.'] Mount Vefuvius, in the kingdom of 
Naplesj and ^tna, in Sicily, are remarkable for their 
fiery eruptions, which frequently bury whole cities in 

G(yiK'mmei?t^ The government of Venice is arifto- 
cratjical, under a chief mapjiftrate called a Doge, who is 
faid to be a king as to robes, a fenator in the council 
houfe, a prisoner wiihin the city, and a private man ov\ 
of it. 

There are many different fovereignttes in Italy. It 
is divi^d in^ little renublics, principalities and duke- 
doms, which, in fpicitual matters, are fubjeA to the 
pope, who, like the ghofl of the deceafed Roman em- 
pire, fits crowned upon its grave. 

Hlftory.l The era of the foundation of Rome begins 
April 20, 7^3 years'before the birth of Chrift. Authors 
generally ailign the honour to Romulus its firft king» 
who was but eighteen years old. He was a wife, cour- 
ageous and poUiic prince. 

St. Pater is placed at the head of the popes or bift- 
ops of Rome, in the 33d year of the common era. Tlw 
prefentpcpc is Pius VII. elcded March u^ i8oOf 



3<J^ t V K % E Y, 

T U R K E Y. 

^nie Grand Signior*8 DomiiH^ns are divlied into 

Inbabjtanu. Sq. Mi!ita. . 

960,050 -Gtidirie. 

^.Turkey in Europci^' 
». Turkey in Afia. 
^.Turki^ in Africa 


a.Turkcyi«Aria.'^ j^^.QOP^ooJj--- ^;^- 



.Sq. Miles, 

length loooT t^^„^„ ri7**&4o*E.lon.l .^^ ^,, 

■'■' . - . I 

»«w^;/.l T| OUNDEB ?>y Ruffia, Poland, aiid 
Jfmulanef.^ J3 Selai^onia, on the Jforth ; by 
Circaflla, the Black ^ea, t^e iPropontts, Hellefpont, and 
Archipelago, on the Eaft 4 .by the Mediterranean! on 
tUe South } byjtjis iitnae Sea,, and tlie Vejaetian And Awf- 
|rian territories on the Weft* 

Soi/f Atr and ProdMShnS']. ^Mature has "bren laVtfU 0^ 
her Ueflings upQn.ri)e inhabitants of Tuilc^y WkheO; 
particulars^ - , Tlie foil, tiiaugh unimprcveJ thfongii tiie 
indolence of the Turks, ,)is lumrtart t>eyona defcrip- 
tibn. The air is ialuhri|n:ts, a^d friendly to the imagi- 
ination, unlefs corrupted hy i2t« reighhouriiig cOur*tries» 
CI tharpugh the nincles^irlinefs^ cf its ItihHfaatants. The 
feafons here are regular ami plsafar.t, and ha\'e been cel- 
ebrated from the remoteft times of antiquity. Thp Turks 
are invited to frequent bathings, by the purity and 
<^hdiefoTnene^ of tie <^atcr in every part gf tljeir do- 
]Mybi|s; Raw filk, cotton, oil, leather, roblceoi^cdce 
%^ honey, wax, jnatma, and Variouii fruits and drugs, 
iHrt here produce^d in plenty. 

ClH^Ckks.y CoiiaTAirviiiQ^l^ Ihe capital (^ tkif 
•Otpirc, ftaikdins on the weft lide of the Bofphor^ls, in 
^e pfovioce of Remania, was^ rebuilt by the Emperor 
Conftantine inthefourtfewmtiiry^ wlMtransferted hither 
liie feat of the RgiiMin government ; upon his dsath it 
4PMiicd tlM aauM «f CouftaAtiaopiti It is of a tnan* 


ISLANDS, Seas, &c. 


|ular (Kape, wiOied h%tht Tea on iw» Q<feii dn^ rUin^ 
gradually from tb^ Oiors, iirtlit form of an amphithea* 
tre. Thie ^iew of it, from the harbour, if coafelTedly 
the finef^ ia the W(>rkl. The Ctty » furroiii^4 hy a 
waiJ about 12 miles in circtunlertnce, aild Ibi lUB* 
urbs are very estcnfive. It contains t, 000,000 IpildSf 
of which are Greeks, 40,000 Armei^iacift, S^ 

/^«r/r^i0ff.] the e(labli(hed relrgioh m thtS ethptrd, tl 
the Mahometan, of the fca of the Sunnites* All othc* 
religions are tolerated, on ^ying a obtain capitatioli. 
Among the Chrirtians refiding in Turkey, thofe of the 
orthodox Oreeks are fihemoft numerous^ and th(7 enjof » 
among other privileges, thai of being advanced to ciUg* 
nitics and |)oftft Of irtt(l and profit; The TurkilU e\df*^ 
p^' are numerous, being eompofed of a!I the leathed id 
the empire, and .ip« the only teachers of the Uw, and 
aiuil be confulted in all ioiportant caCes. 

Government. J See Titrke? ia Afta* 

ifi/lory.J The Oftimm Empire^ ot ^^reignty^ tf 
the Tui^kifh empire, was Bunded at Conftantihople^y 
Ochman I. upon the total definition of tlie ^MipttiA ^Y 
the eaftcm Greeks, iri the jear 1300^ wh6 vras ftlcceed* 
ed by a race of tHe ,mo({ ".varlike princiis th^fc ird r^icOtd-* , 
ed in hiAbry* The Turkifil Uiioiie is her«ditiry iil the ^ 
family of Qfman. The prefeht Ottoiiijln of Tilrltiik k 
Emperor is Abdelh&inet oc Achmet il^ Who had b^«A - 
in confinement. 44^ years. He fiiccetd($d htS bt-Gth^f 
Mu/laphalll. January 21, £^74* 

l^'llfcM „ — »-« 

l^NDS, SEAS, MdONtAt^S, Us^ %P 

THE pTlnrip4fikftd4bf Eued|*e, art, G/wt SrItAf ft 
sfnd Ireland in the n«rtb. In thd Meditertaiittttt 
ki, %n Yvlea« Mijorea, andMinwca, fibfeft le SpflUk 
Cof-fla^ X\ih\^a4^<^t^\ fifitSLldi B^rdftfii:; il^i^ b» 
ti own fcing i ind Sicuy is ^<im^ 07 ft "Vic^ mi% 


i64 Ar B i A. 

the King of NapUi , to whom t|t iiiiifid belong. T}.# 
ifiand* of ^he J' altic, the Adriatic, s^nd lonlsiQ leas ar« 
not worthy of notice. ' 

The principal feat, gvAk, and bays in Etirf-fH , are the 
Adriatic fta, between haly 9fid Turkey ; the .Hahic Tea, 
between Demnark, Poland^ an^ Sweden; the B;^t of 
Bifbay, between France and Spain $ the £ng}i(H.chan* 
nel» between England and prance ; the Euyinf or Bil^ck 
^fet, between Europe and Af^a ; the Qerman ocf a% be. 
tween Oermany and Britain ; apd the Mvditerranear> 
fea, between Eutope and Africai, 

llie chief mountains in Europet^ aVe, |he Alps, be* 
Wtmx. France smd Italy ; ^e Appennine hiUs in luly ; 
the PyrePian hiHs, that divide France tVonk Spain ; t)ie 
Carpathian mountains^ in theihmh of Poland y the Peak 
in Derbyshire ; the Plinlimmon in Wal^s ; befides the 
terrible volcanoes^ or burning mountains of ye^uvius 
stnd Stromholivin Naples ; JEtnA in Sicily, and He«la, 
ta the CQld iflsind of (celand. 

.:j i^JiS, 






X At 




p^jMhAMi^ ittbaiicik 

X , iMUit ftota, the frdi^n ivilds 6f Siberia^ wherit the. 
Wdy ifihstbttantst cfothtd In fuf) ar^ dtmh \n(iiigH 
oyer th<$ fnow* x6 ^6 Mtty tkflom of !(id$k and; 
$iata^ where; feated oil ^e. huge elepWts* ^e |f #1<1 
(halter tB^feWeffrbiti t!)i^f<occh|A^ ray^ 6i^htt0bf 
the fpreading umbtella, "^; \ \ ;'!*: ' " .. 

thk is flfe^pi^nijipdl pitief iif Ilie gldbej fbr in, 
Afia, the AU Wife Greaioi; planted the garden of Eden, 
in whfi:h Adam and Eyeyere formed, fcom whom the 
whok human race have derived their exigence* Afia. 
became again the nurfery of the wodd after the deluge, 
whence tlv<? deicendants of Noah diipurfed their variou& 
cokultet Inta all the other pax;U'Q£ tile '^loW* ]tt wai, 



here our finrio^r was iKmi, and aecomplifhed the gpeat 
and merciful work of our redemption ; and it was hence 
that the light of his gloriotts ffofpel was carried with 
imazin^'^ raptdilyt into all tb6 fiUQrounding nationi^ by. 
his difciples and followers, lliis was, in {hoH^.lhe 
tlieatre of almoft evcij a^ton recorded in the HH^ 
Scriptiires. ' 

iTiis vaft traa of land^ was, in the eaiiieft aMl» got* the A(fyrians, Medes, ferfian ndGreekt.^ 
Upon "the eatio^ftton of thefe empires. -nans catv 

ried their arms even beyond the Gaii. length 

the Mahometans, or as they are ufually .racenSf 

fpread tbtir devaflations over this country, deftroying. 
sill its ancient fplendour, ^nd rendering the mod popa* 
bus and fe^iittle i||6ts of ABsl wi|d and uncultiTated 

Arxiong the remarkable ipountain^of ATia^-are, Arrd^ 
rat, near the Cafpian fea, on ^^hich the ark of Noah rett- 
ed, when the waters of the deiu^e fublided ; and Horeb 
and Sin»l, in Arabia*. 

Th^ prineipal languaee^ fpoken in Afia, zxt, tHd 
modem Greek, the Turkiih, the Riiillaa, the Tartarian, 
the Perfian, the Arabic, the Malayan, the Chineie, and 
the Japanefe. Tht European languages are alfo fpokeiv 
upon the coafts of India and Qiina. 

The continent of Afia is filiated between 35 and iBo 
degrees of eaft longitude, ana i)^tween the equator, and 
So degrqes of QO^th latitude* It is about 4, 7,40. miles in, 
lengths iind al^out 4,580 miles in breadth. 1 1 is bounded- 
north^. by tJie frozen Ocean }. weft, by the Red Sca^ 
Xievantyr or Medi^erraneao*- and Europe ; eaft, by thA 
PaciiSc O^ean, or South S$a, which Separates jl fro«i 
Aiif^^ca^;' fouth, by the tndia» pcean > fo ^t i% is s4p 
«n6f{^1(Urroynded by^thc fea; 

•Ehis 11^ .ira^yof cpun^r^F is djyidjjd as ^)lpwi, /^ 

■' ■•■ -v ■ .• „■■ - . / ■■ ■ .- ..- ^f,'l 4- .,« - ~ - < 


¥ ..1* 

g> ■■-; 













£ U£ 12.0 

Ui IIIJ4 Uj6 






WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 






'A- ■ H 't : • A. 








the' 0«>gct, 
rKerfia , . 



i^arbeck of 

Irtc, or 



3P5P,ooo Tobdik 



800,000 jfo9haa7 Hte'S, E 


. Of AtpcpU^ 

CttriUlUa I 



i^^fi po TdH^ 

ai6oM.eiC)ffi£>> I'agans 






fO^iQOO Mcioea 4^640^ 

. i>9jOi>QAIg|tpo 

7,600 Jerufalem 









Maho«9»«& PaK. 

^iidiom. & Pag 

Mahomctaip » 


x^io&B Cht3cMahi 

t440 S, k Mahonvrtana 



tWPR . 




t4n| with 

foliate few 

< - ■• • 

— I , ' ■ «■ 


, •-■ I 


1. 6aMiie hi^ fit&iftl 

Wi-^P*Mi*><»-— I , ■ III t I II - 




ttJitftE't m A^SIA. 



•Jlf^XSX Ml ASIA. 


-^^tI^^'TJ^ Bkck S«aa4: 

7<wi««»Ml4 . JJvlGltcaPi; dn t!^ Nbrth ; ^y ■ PtfC y 
fei^ Mftht Binli ; |>f AtaKa iiIikI^ th« Xjc:^iit Sea; on^the 
SQUth ;- a94 b|r ^ip A^chij^keo, the HcDt^Qioitt; and 
ProtK2atii». which fep^rate it from Europe,^ oin the W^ft*. 
MMA.% 'Hitfe snie^aiasptii* hi facred «i wiU at . 
i»t^f%n6'i^tfaiglr The mofk remsvfcabli tatt, Qljinpuf ^ 
Tbtiril^ iitia Atiritiimis ; Q»ii«|^^ Jilid Amr^^^ ; XkU 

* tT^^^.] . The fame nMyr-W obierred ^/ thfc n^cwi , 
jn^luch are tBe,Ti^, Profito% Mea;>4ei:, S|at»baK/Ka^^ , 

klld'|«fd4&.. ../..■ ;^,,- . . •* 

; ff^enltb and tMwitrii^ llle t*urki(h ^0mkli<)nl« ifi. . 
ieli^4hi^,->e(|de« the aboTe^ fp^eified pofl*efficms, i» Evi^ 
l>Qf^,£e prai^nce»;^Aria llitidr, 0^rgta,*'^fiii|^^e}iai 
i^iof^iat Bflt^dat, jMeppo, vi;)a«Mi!U&, Btl^ftiifi^, palrl of 
Arabia and £^ypt, belong to tbofe parts of;iiie #o|rl4l . 
Which^.«njdy ttie pn>^^ i^lij^^ttK^ aiii^^r'fiai^ . 
t>iea fii^tioQ- f or <6mnEiiri^^ ^1^^ 
Xtsoske Nat«te.hift f^fiisediMM^ hiMr^gpfi 0fi'j||^^<9fi^ . 

ntiwr?i»r<iir#%i|i^.Jai^ ■ 

Koftile to mdulij i«d l^poUnioii^ r«Ddei:«.thi«Mri^(| 
feo)!^ "#t^<l^««iAd in X^^ir. 

^rfe^^anditt tM3AMXo(t|J^ e^l^llMliRf «foft 

by th^;wad beai^^e iS«fc xr"""^^^^ 

bfC^intthople, tori&«Ali%>«i,I^^ 

th tttety claimed iadi^dcQee, and Mt itftlf aA% 


3« t OtfctT 

4«^ ba lie miT tfc Solfe?^ ^*c 


If HI il^SaA. 

' .<> 


i^^ gR!|lKfe ittdalfenciet are taMmmei 
fi^. .B^bfc IS wmau4 CHI a^ 

it94l»)Pak)Ut 5,000. Gteel^; 

about &Q^oM|Mm|r(^ 



4;m, Cappsulocn^and Fontos or Am^G»9teixjnmin,a^ 
hn»d kO^ OtHk and IU^iii£M^ll»<^*t^'to|i^m 

Old T>df (^n^li«rdlicOT^ea# JlicfM^ 
and the place vUrt k(to6^i§bi&f%mfp)^^^ 

^^^n the ^e i>f OM' AH^ind^ ftiid Ir illk T«fl)a1rl:al^ 
four the ifiemaliw^^of attCk|<i% i^iid Iri it»Ai^lii^}^ 
TiMikSai Cot^tMy^ ofibkeh i. iSibjf^pliie per. 

Is faid to l>e ehie% Wotifof l^i^Rytah^^^ j^ I^ine- 
▼^» the fi>MHe/i€i^itad^6f ibis ^ibtfaff^lrii^intut. 
\y deftr97dL an^e^f)^ fituaHon Wdfl^l^iil . 

r Wa bay of t&t ArcRipela^ l^^li^ft^^iiyd Ukofihs 
ifieft poruin the LefatiL^ tlii^mis 
N^jispcilMijfeswil^ ahDy,%^^ ittid^tie^%l^btefco£ 

I.& tnHabitattts^ JAcliimilff Tiirbi Ore^i^; |crwj, i^nne- 
Rians, and EttropAi^K £ <^P^t)BMi ttH^^. : ' 

^: the heft tomitioditia ^ -^fia^'Ectfop« ^ fcU 

warn umiu mMdopM^«fi^ 



♦ -^ 

* I 

M Per. 

Tir entire. 

^e of the 

i ' 

it ci^ it 
tlid com- 



nr ASIA. 
■CWI^'*^ « ctiaetiiiiri 

SWWts ar e ewyslbyed. 1%04ile^U« ataila£iti< 
,^^m^P^ Iff » :«^»<^ fram'tWt city,: dbtain. 

fWe?» »»* WW^ i^t ahp^ft. ««t$rdy decayed « 

QfX,f (;^ii^ but f|r^ which it doiw. called JBuil 

is, qoly iiihai^M. br * l?w »I»<^W« ^tibewtoi, whi 

,JBa«(S^i,^thC;<|ittlt4, of ^abylqn,. |» fituated oua dtf^ 
Jighitul fil?[Ui,4>tt Jbe wflftn baitks ^.#ie Ti^t. » 

^J«»uiralc^»,|b?w^ct|y tib?^ tr JiM^|t|f f|^?eai is no^ c^dl- 
td by Uifc IfarJu^^dfeijcrM^taftdf <Mither^^ it li 
B§Out(thi^ec Jttiles in.^cnpjifer9fi^:,|T»4s fitualed ona^ 
•'^# ,WW^#»l|». I^fitb r«fry %qE> afcenU mM iid^ 
m^.«?jhf JW^^liK i|hejJ??l^»;be1ng^^^ atiftme 
iiftance, «Q«ir^d .^^ hi)ls. Froan 4ji^ owrMtm 
^y^W^i %1^ thinly inhabiie^,*^ 

Andithe pr»fat6 buHdings ave-«acee<^giy nieafi. Tiioii^ 

'«<>»?»»M<e!^ «^fr%gf ft^ W^ilim 1ib« m^ipba' <jf 

todittd^ I t**<hehvef o£tb.«^-^^^ 

4^ jdKfr# MfiilW^ 


1 p«.fc- 1 

' '.'4' 



^1 hewn in the folid rock, and has afmall dome dr'kn. 
tern (m lU to^^iipp«9«ted 1^ UNl ^Pl^Pkf^f' th« 
clDiHer roaivd it it divided iilto feirend chapen, appro- 
nriated to the di*|tr^iit ^(e^i ^'fM^t^s who refide 
there. IC'his cherch is'tht chu^" Mi^poM of the towni 
the whole' bufineTs <if the *'city heiag to .^^peommodaie 
pUgriinsi ^ta^'with c^nvenien^eM ml th^^^rjvhicb 
th<y pay to 9ie ffOvefi^nent;fbk> ihe^iber^^^^^^^^^^ 
^nto this holy ediHcei tifro yield a >ery confiderable 
fev^enuf. ^BcHdcs ^ ^hykrs^i^ip at* f<m^i«^^ 
tSlcCtcd by the^me «fBpr<ii% :«ver Cach pla!^ as wire 
fuppofed to h^Tpbe^ the/reene. of a^n^i^P^arl^^^'i'ainf' 
a4ioii $ a$« wh«re ^hrift atelits^a^ ^^'f y^im^ Uie 
I^S^ce of Catapbas flood, in which our 5aviour was biijr* 
lete^l sitid*teockcd ; ilie h<»^re, of /^oatiiis Pilate f jhe 
Field of Blood ; tisatpartv^fUie gffden^oiv Meuni^i^^^ 
vet whefe Qhr»ft^pf»y«d iji his ex«rerp^|^ony,r,;^nt^e 
fvxtainit of ^U ttioun^a <liap^l is buUt ov^ thai»)f!!*e^of 
our iSaviour*S ^fceouoo, tbe ilo^ the/oud 

rofk$ aild th?;i?r^ty 4>r»efts pi?etei?d.|6 fliew th^^ the 
'#^lprtnc of one of his feet, ^hJcH haS'l^eipaiDj^d ever fif^.e 
that petiod^ T^^$ impoftori >tdo not -iwholiy ctefiat 
ti^^ti^(el«f$ io the ij^tes DtHytti«ne4 in the New Tefia^ 

to an edi8q|;(^aa|y eiibits f^lt^re^pd itixiy hi^, they 

ti!MN-^P*^%^f^'^f ^^^^^ At the 

ll^rt of ?|h^:^iiyt \#oa there is 

l#?^4(rjp%tl|ii.^?<l%,wb^<c the anpi^ lenopje didi 

^^kt».^C9i#}9i^£(he^l>rejli4Uon^ ^vstoiir, was 

-(^ll?jf&?4«l|ipl^^ ^lltmai%j^t not one 

}^!^^l^fli^^^!^^^^'^^ A^m fevfifi j|iik%.foulill" 
[Jto4%1t|e qp^sfmolb cltit-^f Bcddehefl), 

cf^ilifini^lo'^Utiigi^ % A noble 
id^E^iljpfsrJNM^ ..flfveiri'the'. 



1.7. . .«■ • -..■•--•_.■. . 




Idlli^^Tsui A^SIA. 


,.:X?^i., .- '^'*t-.:|*^ ^.jferiCv?", '.^i^i.-^.J.Vr^;/^-... •- ,i;,-v 

•■.::i; ■'^^i:. 

K"^.- .<r 

■ , . "Y^ 

^% i: 




V k* 

C H I ir^ A. 


piff^ the vcM-ft tbcf 'mtOrUAk^'m that he ixmr lin% 
GMrfike4!pkui^iiriif^#ofe^k'»^ iHRWili. . 

. rittM!^^ WM the fjMBffew Z^di^WjNt^'<^ I>* 
i<o<4 Hk' a«lbe^(lkiu ^feM Itlmi ife*^ whqi 
the- Miifi^ r^tiNl' t6 tht»'^1ifli|ieheiih' 'VMi/h ^M 
iJ^Wfi^ tChe W69A1M k^ctm^ .an in<i|i8iii3im 





,iiH' i Vm: m'i i fnt < ^) l'w i w i i..-t ^i jnii ^ A' 


t . ili 

>p CHmA:. 

ri ■ ,'•• 

Jf \ r' '! • • . ■■■ ' V. .,1. ,■ .. ,, .,y. 

j<i]r ih«i?hSR«%^^^ 


Injlif :';a >14>; ;;^>«#1fV/W•■' 



C^ Wv, I m: fi. 



M««W»i |«W <Mi TO iA# 

ail jj|M?M^a4^ /^^'^^ ^* h^t^gatloii li flow, iiiid 
thev]f^«li rdiMp9«<^^^^^^^ 10.0CS9 

bpa^i firQin,-3oo tops an^vncfer^ «rc mt itt Jii^ piibUe ' 
--"%, No D^icaof^itt arc wancing»ljlM^|am(d U 






'/■, .-^"J 


C HI tN A. 



c^M^i rnVi k:j 





; %/ mki i'Ka a-> 


l&r fll^ ft the frfe^^ifid %y«ii*^ •I'W I^mm^s^j^ > . 




" g " H 


J!.,. i*>« 









.>-, 'V'S'.'- 


>'^,r , 

^#iefHU]t r!ttiw6W^ bcrreen the tw< 














. .* 



*■■■.«>■<-■- . ' -' ■ "^ ^ ' ^ 

^ •- 












JiiwiPtA Th« ciuef sirt SaiiM« or i>iirniai|Mx>t*r, 
Coohin ei^mu 'nia ftnikioF j(fi^^ 

fail ,«i«ipi^«^ #11^1^ Mt^ t^^ 

Mmm^tji^smt^ M^ M 'MfJ^ ipillt j^M 

■ f i'^ 



'^Kaft na vr — !---«- — * 

<|fju^di^44i^ b<>tK4^l»efttc ai)dvHl^>:th|fc 

jai|ttrtra<fc^ Iw^ 

^^t, and <»^<ir\frecMs toi»l. t^^^ 

■i-:.; ■>.. 



6f Tgntfrai^ In 


--?S{'>r'-' •»ff*'Vi;' 

^^•.. rA 



9 S % S f A. 


■ r 

tip;K i»9l. 


E \ , ■ t 


Amt^ 1 Ti^f ODERN Ptrfia ii botmdfd by the 
jnmamwtpj jyj^ jooumaiijs of Ararat. Of Dightftan, 
wliioh 4mde it ^Qin ClrcaffianTartafy, on the North- 
weft i bj <l^ Oafou^n^ea, whrch divides it Agpm Raffia, 
2c>|i;% Noi^ I % th/wer Oxtw/SwhicH divides it 
' ^^ JJ4>ec iTartary, on the Northeaft; by India^ on 
ic J^ftj by th«lttdbi»iOeeaAr i^ tKe gu^s of Pe^. 

4«l^. y4>ec iTartary, on the Northeaft; by India^ on 
4^c J^ftj by tb«lttdi(i»iOee«Ar i^ tKe gu^s of Pe^. 
Ill il^ Cbiivfi, oA the i}on(li| j^iid hjMSbhfpA Ta^ 

1^0* tbc Weft, 

l^jg, ^:fine'-i^fcUi€«^ ■" -^^ . - i -^z- -- :^^ 
pic i^i%!IM94 ,*!|%|«imf fC |5wii msiiaaoivitainowi 
|<^d^ Sis fflP^o^ 

Jim€ inomjitains .and tewer rivers. The prodiM^ 
#|Mbi aise iimilar to thofe of lud^ • 

|A flttir ediU' 

,;:t *.'i^4^'5iit/^y i. J)y':tmJi'r 

■:viin;; #' 



A R A t r A. ^ 


jji yt:vrt IMbre iChrifti A ngjr eiapireTfflfred ^ 
Krthiaiiy wtttfeiiDed by die FAUm, under Arfitcet» 
35Giyeati before Chrift,; b^^t t^r 0. ^19, Arttterwr 
tvftoredit toits aiy^bt tt^V ^ndlii 6$i the Snfaeens- 
||q|t||ir^fDul to that eaifiire.- Ffom tliis tim<t>^er(1jl ii»«li 
aprtf tifh«rT|«||ir% a^djiicll^ IndotlAttiT^ 

Wttk^P^Hi |$k^o^ce|i^^ it to rpfimTm 

i^njnlDiii; He was aiuiiuaatea tii 1 74.7. 




, ■■ ^- V ( .- , - i , t- ' f . *-- , 


1 w^* 

^Xrabiana atucitcd a caravan oi mcr^rhanu aad 

*^ pilgrims 



pSgriim mumiiig fiwin Mecci^ ]cillt4 about 6d,doa per. 
C(MM0 an4 ^pdorcd i^ oi, e?crf tlimg valuabSoy tlKNigh 
cTcdrted bjr 4^;^m!k\(k^l»mf, 

A« acoiifidenibl^^ptxt <)f jkii. conrnrf iie< ttfldtDthe 
tQfxi4}SQmi ^ air til! fixgdBiy^ 4tf and b^ti «hd the 
^Qf^^fnH f^tifi^^^^ vWlUdh 'often 

prove £itai, tfpeeuitif to Uraihgers. Tne Toilr in'iHme 
pan% if notluiig; ;;^i0re inkm iiMoaamXk iWs»* ^bick, 
^r]^ .«gi^tf 4,^^ ttif firiiidMtitl like thettnubled ofeean, 
andfimetbifih<oini|ii||lOi^ whieh whok cahk- 

taas liATe 1^ bosM/olf k>ll. In^efeiefert^'tbc 
c»rky«na» haviag-ao irftcks* aire guidedr as at ftsnt hf a 
coiap;^ or.^if ^^3m»iar.ishvt ^v^' thkhy it tbe 
n\^U Hei«y%rJDr. 8^w# are no paAurcs clothed 
^ith flqcki, nor Ya)^iUiufiag thick pith c6tii it be|re 
are no idneyair4taroUTe]nHtlf ; huttWwholBif «lonW 
Uimt delblate iyi)deiiicrs» ^noi.otherwife -dvrevfllted llian 
bf plaint covered with ^td»r9aA^ma^Mtn tllil tre 
made up of naked jd^ imdfBMifio^k. . Mtlier ifliiit 
conntinr ever. ^^\fikJimf^|jfB^M «h^mSa«i€«f' re- 
freflied wi^^ rai« i;ii4rM4iilciiftilfiir 
ilieaig^ if almoin liqiifi^itm ^^^^ 

#d the tkwx* ^a1«#i4 withiM^ «^ jri^ 
ral. It yMM^ 
arechjjmtt^^ ih^ t(iw«^'fi«itl>di^ iea c^, 
bitii^ ^.p^M^.-ltpMsatv^ aloes. 

:eiMe» fpiktnara* and^ other valnakilt gtttnr.i cia- 
ion> ij^pfi^t c^%A)^»'^nmges» lettions, pijaQc- 
'#BioatM>,:|^ ,«!«:, 4)^ .^a^d^^iittt ia 

pimp «i^ a,:^QPtali qittanlitr of corn ai^ w^r : Huft 

Tl»ag^i|^4ii|4^^^i^^^ are c«ii«ekt»4 

• - • ^^ 1^^as^i#tMiM^attcd b^ 
iraiWi^ the 4r)r a^^^ 

'"^ l&Qii th^ibina«4i^ te^ ONnr throat^i^^^g^ 

iK^kiiir >hiU| i^ a^ 1a£ra qi4l)istej^ «i^ IbjBui^ 
4ri^ ai^iihOlr kiietl^a^l^^ and ia lol ^ 



■■ V 

A t'k i ^ ^^ 


ettflfc''"' ' , ■'••'•' ■*- ■^■' ^ -^ ''■ \ ^ '.J 

Bdrneo) ftad^«t loUg,^!^ f<^J^4, ivsftto Nc#^ 

It H«^jiiii ')*di^l&^ is riiino«».|bc 

biiag^tbe nsUinc cooiurr oim Q»m Qvk^f agi iKrhi«b» 
of «f ifroKte^Wa^ml?,' «d-3Sw^^ ;,. 

Brucellas pretty ckarl^Tv-ikown^iit thc,0|tnir mentioii-^^ 
«dif^ the fci:r{>tarQi4 is ifi.A^c^^^^ 

tjirc me ridikiliarii to(i i%»(l m lUe world* The nM 
tivet csUl it*, with ^ome ihew of ^fal^v the Uferreflri4i 
^arsuUfe* ' ttic)^ are iiS^ tijd4Lndire^60t>i<ff 1)^i4ul>>^ 
m$ru Thkinand is notodfor, the. cl n^amoo trcf • 

;1 '•,.-'■' 





- ■*'i 

■--.vxi, %«i 

fpiiMi of a fM^ ^aim^%iwi to Alboi^rbjr 
i#iMk of iMid, About 60 *il«i over* bttwcffrm^ |M 
^ aird the Mhlitmi««iitf;i Wl^Uy c^^ thcmmus 

t^pnmeaa ^ 



fa Si$i,,^!ii^fi fa- 
Ilk {Oil tl>A.$Qtttht 

by tirt S^uthc^ ptdm > »^l J)i tHc' VW br*^ 

The #<3>ft conlW^rjibt^ Tlvprs in ATncat are ti^c Ni^cr, 
which falb i^io thK Atlajittc or Wc%rn#e^,. afUfra 

Nilf,' i^rijifi&lfts :Ui*^ coiiiitty,. ao«! WigVatni CgSm'^ 

If . * 


fat lis 12.^ 


... ..... ^ ., . , ^ ^ 



A ^ » ^ '0 », 


dter 01 ^J ,nan enpire, in the m ^tuir, tim 
mmh 01 ^jAflca wii_of«ti^rt by Oif V5»d4^ wJio con- 
^fc«ura uatTnore^ttt 4ie df^aioQ of «w tad fti. 
^*^I 'JJ*. » «^ to Alt couBiry^i^aamiiy. tlw S*r«- 
c6fti^»dc a ^deo cofiqneft <f «)1 tbe coafts of Ezvor 
'^^*7»Ja^^''^^"*^«"^«nr* thefe were Ak- 

tjl_ feligloi^ ;%hqfe proTeabrf ciurw«d,d«folarion with 
SS^^^ngfwr tli*y c^^ the hliiiOf; that OBce gour. 

«J;»«%,™y >« ^ivi^e^imo ^t!5ulQit&i «amuly, p*^ 

^^ ^ff **^ '^'S?»^i"2 * lN»,»»iwp*»,v, 

• —,—.'■ t 


>.; ■ 


K ^ iY T T; 



6 T P 


^Length 6qo7 i..,^,^ T2n*^& ?2* H. lat. 1 . , , 

breath ^o j ^««^^««*4 28*ind 36° E, long. | ^^^'^ 

ik^^ 1 T "^ is'boon^ed by the M,«dfterni!iean Sea, 

/fomaaric. j X' ^^j^^ *>y ^^^^^ ^ca, Eaftrby Abyf. 

ilinia, or the tipper 'BAiopI^, ontheSoutfi ; by tbc Dc^ 

A?Ft p^ Barcat and the i^nknown parts (rf Africa, Weft. 

i^tttdivicled into -i«o^erai]d^Uppet Egypt. 

CfimaiiJ^ -Itis obfefVed by M. Volaey, that, during 

^i^ght mcnths of the year,* (from Maydi ro November) 

die heat is almod HhAipprruble .by' »n Europeaii. 

'^*;I)uirihg the whole of ihis feaibn, the ak is infiattieil^ 

'tHe (ky tpaf^klingy and the heat<t)ppreffl!]ve to aH unac. 

^cuRomtd |o it.^ Tlie c^et tnonths are more i ti^mper. 

tSftf. The fowbcrly winds which fometiihes Mow iu 

^Syptf sii'fcf by the natives, called p&ifmout winds, or the 

^Lot-viinds cf the defnil They ari of ibcb extre|re heat 

and drynefs„ that no animated ibody exposed to it can 

wUhftand itf fatal Influence^ During the three days 

whJch it^enerally lafts, the ftreets- Are deferted ^ and 

"woeto tlie traveller, whom this wind forprifes remote 

*from ihelter-: when it exceeds three days, it is infup- 

iportabliu / . - 

'The^ foil IS; ' evc^edingly fruitful, occafioned by the 
"^oVerflowiag of tlie-Nile, which leaves a fattening flime 
'behind iL Tho& parts not ^overflowed by the Nil^ 
^f ttneultivntedv '^ndy and barren. Egypt produees 
corn, rlct> iuear^ flax, lioenv fait, ial aramonisK, bakikm, 
^|r|otUi^Fts,Qffruiu and dr^ 

A^ypt 19 goverojed by a |Kaf^i|w, fent 4rmn Conllaii' 
tmople» btJng a'province 6f the Turirifh enrpire. The 
lVkfa<^ At^t^^^ Mahoipietanifm is 

the eKhiblifh'ed religion' of E^^ypt ; btit ther^ are aiany 
Chrifttans called Copts, 4nd the Jews as«' Yeff| |mi- 

1%% #u«i>fMr fof riiifeilMMimt In fEcypjtr tccording to 
M ybin^, it^^ ibottiF 3;30<i.9^i or. wbick» Cairo^ the 


The states ov ^ARBARY. 397 

!&g7pt is fsmous- for its pymmids, tnofe ftupendeua 
works of jRiUf. Tjie Egyntians were the. only people ' 
VI ho were acquainted with tne jU-t of embalming or pte- 
iervinz dea3 bodies From ptjltrefadlionb Here is the 
river Nile, celebrated fpr its fertilizing ifiondftionsi 
ari^ferthe fubtW» Yoi^ioUs drocddHet which h)fi:d>tt 
its (hore^ 'tkt natives at the ftead of this faiHons tivir 
pay divide honours ta tt\ Thpuf^|i4' ^ ^ttle are ofier* 
ed to the Beity, fuppoaed .to t^idh at its (bnree. 
This wa$ the tnofe cemailcabM tranfadions, 
which make up the beautif^^ and itfeAihg hi^ory of 
Jofeph. Here PhaVaoh exhibited fccres of cruc!ty» 
tyranay ^nd opprefiion towards the irraelites, in th« 
CfHirfe of their 4pGr. years bon4<^&e to th^ Egyptians. 
Iler^ toth Moles, w^;jb<wm^ s^i^was preferVed in the 
little, ar^) ati^ong^the ^gs on ^he banlcs of the Nil<. 
Here,« throiH^h iJi^ Inftnimentatity. of this, great man« 
liie Egyptians . >v;crc ^f3i(ae4 , witll! ipany grievous 
plagues, wi^ch iiiduc^d them at laft to M Jfrti^ go. 
Here, Mofes, with iiis rod, divided the Red Sea> and 
Ifrael oaiTed it o^ dry land; which the EgypVanS, at- 
tempting to do, were overwhelmed ^y the retunaing of 
the waters.- To, jtbis itene filcceeded the tfraelites' 
Inemqrable 40 yeai;s march through the deferts of Ara- ' 
bi^^ before they reached Ihe,|4n4 of Canaatt.* 




-'•"■■ - .^- -y ■ ,^. i«'. rf - > • i • *■ ■*. , 

'♦Tl*Jt>ER this hea(I,>e (hilfirknle thfc coilntrics of, 
)LJ I. Mf?rocco zx^iiii. j 4. Algiers : 4. Tunis ; 
4. Tripoh and B irca. /. .. 

^;^e enipf^re of ^lor occcT^ ',iiilduiiirtg ;*te*,; i^ bdtoded 
birthd noklii by 'the M^dtt^rraneift tea \ oh iM footh^ 
hylVfilel^^VSnd oh thre^ft,i)y Segeltiieflsi and the 
kingdom of Alders^ beingid6 miles i!i teogth, And 480 
.iifreadtt' 'i*- ■ ':// .7 -'. ■• 

' fttei«ff«^^4kto^ 

* Fr^ficQ^IUIidjCondudted bf OcB.lBooNAtAaT«^ Ims aguii tttrvQef 
file attention of the world to thit^s|)cbrated covotij. tiHial *re 
t%fc)p,|l|e ultimate fruits of this cipedftldB, caa^bt be foircfevi. 




Fe^, whkh is now united to Morocco* is about 125 
mikt in lc;ngdi^ an<f naach the Time in breadj^ It liet 
hmm tm^ngdtlm of Al^ier^ ko the eaft; and Mb. 
rocipd on the fpnthj aiid^ts ittrrdundetf on oth<r parts hv 

; Algiers, fonnerl^r a kingdom, is hounded on ^e eaft, 
bjr nirldn^doin (jKfT^mik i otl the north, by tJie Medi- 
teirraneah ; on the iou^', by Mbnnt Atlas, and on the 
wielh bfthe kihgdoini of Morocco and Tafilet. ) Ac« 
cording i;o I)lr. Wiy^, who itfidcd 12 yes^rs at Algiers, 
this^^onntty extends lii length. ^Sb'toil^s aloiig the cpalt 
of i!hellediterraneani and betwf en 40 and 1 00 miles in 
breadth: " 

^ 't'uniy is bounded by jthp Medtterranean 00 the north 
and eaft i by ^e kingd^^iki of Algiers on the weft } and 
by TrfpolV with part 6f Bilednlgerfd, on thtfouth; b^- , 
ing 220 miles in length, froni north to fouth, and 1 70 ii^ \ 
breadth, from eaft toweft. '''^ - 

Tri^bli, iti,cluding Bar^a,. is bounded on the north, 
by the MedUerranea^ i$a ; on the fduihi by ^e .coun- 
try of the Beiii)erie9 ; on the weft, by the ktngdon:^ of 
Tutiis» Bilejlulgena, and a tcrrii^ty of th^ Gadainis ; 
atyion the ^aft, by' Eg^pt ; mcn^g about xi pa 
miles along the f^a coaft ; and 'thefifis'a&i is from i ta 

300 mucs. 


Each ca^^itai beats th^' name of the.ftate or kingdom 
wjbich it^beloiig^ but th^ <;apital ff fifikdulgerifT (die 

ancient Numi&)i^ Bkr^/ ^ >, . . • ih r ■*'! 

The Bafba>ry ft%«?$ i<^^ h%^}^^^^}^^^^^^^^^^r 

though; eacfi is independent' as tp the Vzercife of its in« 

ter;v^ policy. - 

il)e air oCxhcfe ftat^s Is mild and agreeal^le* . , 
tfridi^ the B.oman empire, they v'pre juftly dcnomi* 

iiated ttcgfl?4»n of^h«^>^|;14 V'a^J to have a refideno^ 

ti^j wail coniidtrjjjijiwjt^^^ ftate of luxury. 

"T^ produce ofijtjgr^ thofe magazines* 

W^jCliiu^Aed ij^^^tf^ gi^eat part of the Romwi 
empSre^ 'lif t& cbfp, ' t^fne ana ^H* Thoa^ the land^ , 
ure n^Wr u&cpltiTitfldi through ^e^oppreliibn''ancLbar- 
barity Of-^ircotiftitution, yet they ve ftill fertilje, not 
^OBFOlUk^i^afli^^ but in;daus^ 

W Hilt .\\\t^:tn h^in^fVA^ •iff? iAVi'x.t -. ^' 

tHE iStATE^ of. ^ARBAkV. 3^ 

&i^ raifinS| almpiK^Sy apjiles, jpears, cherries* Tilat^t» 
atronsy UMoas, (Drangesi tomegvituit€s^ wit!a pt^^^ 
i^obts adid herbs in their, litdi^n g^ens» Excelletil 
hemp and flax grow on the»r piaim> 

I^ptpccoi the capital of th« e^i^e; P^uie famf "hamje^ 
ts thought to. contain ^5,^0 iril|j^bil^ftlf. , , . ;. , 

^T^ccitj^ of Ali^iers i^ i^d CO ^oi\it Sfe* 

hoiSHst^s. 15,000 Jews^ ana a,cop, J^iftis^^^^ flaye* J 
9imb^^whbin were a number bjfbiiroirt^iHite A^^^ 
"^ho were re&afed l>y the la^ bjb^ty ^^UK ijiej^y^^td 
rirgency of Algiers, fio jpftinute caWbe formed as to 
^ejPopttlouTaeis.oftu territory. . ^ ^», < 

^'Ttinis i^ tlie mbtt'pblll^cd t^hllc of "a^ the Baf 

above 3000 tradermen's fhops, and iu fuburbs confifk 
C^ 1600 honfes. The TiirliriM women are very hand* 
lome in tfieir pcrfons $ and tnoiiigh yie ,tnen arc fun- 
burnt, theob^Jlektbn<rf^iheladi!Jsis viry delicate, net 
arc thi^ Icfs neat and elegant ii^lieir drefs $ b»it they 
JiOpior^ Ibe beauty of th<^ir eyes bf art, ^ntiftnlarjy the 
foi^ dflead ore» ^ &bfie fiigiifieni, kccforaiiiff w tha 
t^«^ df^the^Med^r. Biiav, thtct jfetebeS Inildl ufe 
0^hii^lht is ikid <i Kin^^t chii^ it. verfe J[6> to 
have paiDted.het face | the words of d^e original biell^ 
ll^Ae let off liqr ^i^f v^'thr powier of md ore/ 
WriJK>1i «^t dfite me rlch«it» tnbft pbjpoloQs.i^d opu- 
lent bt all the dates on ^e cbaft ; t^itt it is now inucli 
rediictdi amd the Ihhabitanti, ^ho 9X^ ikid t^lSkBonhi to 
between 4 and 50o,ooo» hai^ all the vitei of the Al- 
gerines. ;.;■ -fi'y-' 

All f9reigneB kre hire laAo^ed t)it t^n pMTeiiibn 
ifil Ibeii^reHgion, but th^ luhaHbitants of thiefe ftat^s ^ 
JUAhomtetans { ahd many iufijd^ of Mon^tb follow 
Uie tenets^ of one iiimbdi ^ AOderh ft^H^i lind^ 
enem^^tBe ii)clentidbatlnfe)t^ (he eitifitfi mie Moors 
of; Barb|r%^ kl the hah^ytaifttftVf theft 09^ Ik ti<^ 
^pti^iUiicnotiflj^ called, (bceatiffe tKe Sajiteetts fitfteni^d 
£i^ifO|^ fromt )Mbmntan% thcr couiot^ of "dm Moors) 
Uin ad<H>t:^d thcVeit wOfft paru bf ^0 MaJftintetan 

as cOi^ehances their vites. «( ,, 

II1C Emperor of Morocco is an krblti^ry >rihde. 
Aljiett is governed by a Prince, called the Dcy, eleaed 

400 Of TT^ SJ-AVe x,fX)-A&T, »S;c. 

by the annj.^ ,^^| /mfcignt.^ 
called Beys^ a^ Q«t, to 4p<ifi|»e|Kieiit as tbc ibrmer. 
Tliefe tliree fta^t#^-.^J<k>iie4.lipoQ^at rrq>ublicar of 
^foldierti uilder tbc j>f o^i^ioii (af^ ihe Grand Sei^ior. 
With Algiert\thf l|^||d<^|«s have IjtIttiT negociated 
a trea^^ J^c%c9t i^^djiave (CK^^Tmed that whTch be- 
fore exiftft^'f ^ Mtao^Q* Qi\ thU ccMlft* ftood the 
iamotts city m Carthage, which w^s deftroyedhy the 
Roinanf. Ajnon^the^reat men-Africa has p^dticed, 
are, TertoJitaiiy H^prian, Julius Africanus, Amobius, 
LadandalB and fik. Aiiftini tall BiHiops of the church.. 
l*he warriors of note, arci fiamilcar, Hannibal and Af. 
dniba|. ; AQ^ong. ^^ poc|s» are, Terence and Apuleitfs. 



Of AFRICA, from iSe Tropic of Cfitncer, tiO, 
the Cape of Gdod Hop<N ' ^ 

TliX^ immenfe territory Is, coiMpaiathrely Cpe^ldng^ 
1^ Kttle Icnowni mere is no modern tr^rel^ 
th4t 1^^ penetrated intti the l^erior parts ;^fi>,thiit ^ 
are %noraiit liot only; of the boards, tat even of the 
namcf of ^eral inlan4'«ou^i^a^ in xnas^i mattriat 
circuinftaiii:e$> the ifihaj^it^ts of this e^tenuye A^- 
'ttent i^gree Willi, each o^eB^ If we except the p«o|iJe 
nof.AliySpia, they iU alt of a black complexkin. In 
d^ir wgion, txcm pn theleaco^jiils, which, have been, 
i^fitt^ jVid fktied by ftr^ersj ihey are Piigans j. and 
tfeejprm ofj^overnipep Is every where inonarchicalqr 
idifp^tio. I^w pllnpes^ however, poffefs a w'ery ejcten-. 
iitejiprlirdi^liOff-^;. for ^s the nativei of this paurt of A^<^ 
are iu^ fe biiigfofsly ignorant ip all the art^ of tttili% . 
oir < fttfinemeDiti they mm be little acquainted vi;h oae 
aoo^F S and ^diuii^jil^ lanited i^ finall fdcietiel, e^h 
, .govtxned%; i^«w[^.|mnce. ,.\ . ' ^ 4-^M 

Wtiare<)!i«r&p^6lya^qu;M0^^^^ m^m 

mi.m(hm$ ^^tbi^^ of thU exteofive coa^a^ 

TlHBiiMifllmtfrfilSv^ tt« hiy Mr. Bruce, of the Atyfltp;!- 
mk^ipflll^a^mm^ lljjaihrte of very great bai^i 



TRr SLAVE COASftp ftc. 401 

*nieir naancr of feedii^ if bcf ond a panUldi if we may 
bdiere the report of ^r tfitnorj He htfniiis as, that* 
hating fiUlen in with fane fol^irtilriving a cow before 
ibeiBt be was fnrpriftd to fee them throw di9wn the 
aaiBBalt cot off pieces «f Her &ft« and then ftifvtng 
the Qsih o?er the woniidrinakc htu get xk^ andww oa 
as 6ifoiie. He ibond this to be th^ wmmaa jfiUS^ 
of the country. 

The religion of the Abyfflnians Irft ntiztore 01 ^Unt^ 
tianityttudaifm and Paganifm; the two hktter of which 
are by tor the moft predominant. There iUe here mc«t 
ipharchc^ than in any other country laifil t^ot:^ it is 
#ery mountainous, and confequeiitly ^ view , much 
obftniAed, it is Very ftldom you fee lefsdian five or fit 
churches. Every great man, when he dies^ tlfink^ hf 
has atoned for all his wtckednefs, if h^ leaves t fund (9 
bui}d a churchy or has one(t>ailt in his Itie time. 

TH«> churches are fuU of pi&ufes^ilovtnly painted tin 
j>arch*y:nt, and nailed upon the. walls. ..There is n6 
choice m their faints, they a^e iKWbf the Qhl and New 
Teftament, and thoftf t^^t jpwght uc; difpenfe4 ^ill^ firom 
lioth. There is $t. PonttU5 Fiiaie and bis \iHfeV;thcPi 
is 6t. Balaam amt'hisafs j Sampfdnund his jaw^lxm^ 
md fo of the reft, ' / / . 

, The fertility of a^cmintiy ib pMdigiottlty exm&v^t 
|ftight be (ttppofed more vs^ip^ ^mu W-e 6nd ixM t m 
htJ&f there li no medium j^ this jisfit of Afrl^ #ih r% 
gard to'6ie a^an^ges pi* fc^ t-'it is ei0ier petfetlf bj# 
ren, or extremely fertile 1 ^ ^arlilif^ jrom tm Utene 
heat of the fun, which, wh^e it ^^ts withfil"* "^ 
inHoifture, produces with the iitrtmR luxUrfaMcy/; .,, 
'#oie countries wh^re tb**t. areiew riverr, ridit^ 5* 
iurfacc of the esrrth «> ji barre/iSmd. Of thi* ^^|^ 
v<he countries of Ani^t^ and %aara, vrhi^iL^iat i^m^ 
IJrater, and confrquently of 41 other oecef«hri«f> W* J' 
<4uced to pfrfea 4efcrt8> W Ae namc^ the »^^a^ 
jMotes^ In ihpf«» eoimtriea on the othw: handi "fttmt 
liierelt frilentrfif water/and particuUrly ^«*«w.™ 

^miMt kbdiy arc found in the Jwrfdl f«****^^ 


7/'*,i ,1 

402 Of the slave COMT, tec. 

greateft abunJance. The countries of Mandingo, EtJ),U 
opia^ Congd, An|;6li, Bama; Truticufi Monofh^Hipfi, ; 
Cai^*> afkT Mehti6eiiiii^r|ire«ttli^ittel7 ridi tflf gbM 
and filrdr.' '- ^'- ""' >^*<' "-'' .^ •'' *,- '--^ ^'^'■- 
^ <^ndar, the inetf opolls of Aby 0thiat is ilttiated>iipbn 
a liiU ttf confiderable height, the to|> of h neatif plaini 
on ^tdi ttie townlsplaeed. It cbnhlls of about ro^oo^ 
^^ fanlilies in time of ^^aee. The hoiifes are cl^flf of 
clay, Ihe roofs thatched in the form of cones, vthich is 
alwaf« the confliraAiOn withih tfte tropical rains. • \ 

The Ab)riiIniails'i froin a Yery- ancient tradition^" ab> 

cordiilg to Mr. Brttcc» attribute the foundaiij[}ii of their 

inonarthj to Menilek, Ton of Solomon, by il)et^«n^ 

Sheba, (rendered ^o the TUlgate, the Queen of theBon^- 

The annals of tl^e Abt^matis fay, ihe was a Paj^an 

when ihe left het'own couhtry,' but being full of admi-. 

ration 'fl the fight of Solomon's works, (he was con.\ 

verted to }odaiSti In JerUfafem, and bore bim a ^lil, 

whbm fhe called Menilek/ and he became their firii 

King; '' Shereturn^^with her foil tojSbeba, v''iiom,,!^« 

tcricee^ng him f^if^Pf ears, (tie fent l>Hck to hivfather, 

to be iiiftruAed. B^oti^n did (tot hegledt hts charge^ 

and 'he Was anointed and crdwned King of Ethiopia, in 

the t<^nle ofjettff^^leito, and at his inauguration, took 

the ns^me of l5airicl ; after this he* returned to Sbcba, 

and btoipght wkh him a colony of Jevrs, among \irhom 

%ei* ininy' dolors of' ^ law of Mdibs, particular^ 

e of Wch tribe, to make judges in his kingdom, 

'ijeh ip& came alfo Ataiias, me foif oC Zadoc th<i^ 

ift, and^ brought with him a H^rew traiffcript of tl!^ 

^^^Jli^ was di^vered into his cuftcdyi;as he boret- 

*J^Nltk of Nebrit,\or hrgh prieft j arid this ch?ir^j> 

™"4h ^ book itWf was burnt "with the' churbK at 

^^i Ml theMooriihv^r of Adel, is flill continued^ 

^>tWx«d..Jbtht lineate of Azarias, who are keepers 

of the church of Aium at \his da^ All Abyffinia wis 

teempon converted, and ^e gownment-of the church 

W Aatemo^acd afecordi% to ^hat iffas then in ofe 

/^^e^€M^^weft<^ coaft, thcEngmh tradletb^ 
/Ws;*fl9, ai4 oiher (f tOei^e nt^ near and up the riw 
V -- Gambia^' 





Of pn SLAyE fpfi&T^^fcc. 4P3 

Gambia, whsre they exchange thsli woollen and linen 
msBufaatirdlj^/^thtir luurd ware And ipirknoiiiiJrquort^ 
fdr^e ferTons- of thciiativMi Bfwt xho^fii peace 
in 1783, the river of Senegal^ with its debendencies, 
were gtiien > lip to IlVan^e. Am9n# > th« ^egrbes, a 
mai^^ wealeit confifts in Uid .mimbiQr ^ his f^ity, 
whom he felU'lile lb tfn^ny cattle, and olteiiat a^ in- 
feriof priee. (Cold and' iirtory, vnext to thcr Have ^itde^ v 
form pHnciparhranehes' of African conmnerce. 

The greateR part bf the profiift oSi Uie Have trade Is 
raiied ,tjt) the fugar pfamations. If hj efta)>.lHhitig fac- 
tories, and, encooragii)g ctvtlt7.ation on the eoaft ofAf.' 
rij^^ and 'returning fome of the Weft India ; and (iithcjr 
Ifeies, to their original country, feme amends jcould hb 
made for paft treaoiery to the natives, and uie inhabit- * 
ants could be' inftruded in the ^hlture of tobaceo, in« 
digo, cotton, rice, .^c. to barter with us for tnr manti- 
futures, great might be the proBts, and much would it 
fcrve the ctufe ol" humanity; 'An uiidertaking of this 
Ictnd has lately b^n fet on fopt by^the Sttrra Ltona et^rn- 
pany, ^whtch ^bids fair tp be jTucc^^, aD(| does^ very 
great Jionour to Uie humane gentiemien^ wbo«r^ ^Sl^^^ 
in this bbfinels*. • ' • ' .• 

The eftablilhment which-the I>uteh Eaft India^cte* 
pany have made ird either fide of the CJape of Goil^ 
lio^r^e »«[tremcfouthern poiRt fef that great coi^tU 
n^ntif) %^'hich eom^{)fehends llat'o^e* A^» and. Afr rest, 
cirtendl, aceording to compotai'on, 41^0 miles esiftW^i^ 
and we^'^atf^V a<|d 2.^ towm^ds thenortlik In: this e^p 
tenfiVe dbinain, the population -^mopntsie I'^^db&M- 
habttants of European dN^cent, and above ^Oy-ooioNIav^ 
* ^^ricaas and Arij^tcj. / » 

• This country is c»paWet>f being, made, by the ijm. 
ffleft means,' a poptilq^s commercial colonyi ^ •'^^ ' ^ 
■ Tblt ALorlgitiis of the* country,, who ate called :A^ft!^. 
/•//, and who are' of a mild and trKfable djfp©flno|i, 
teVe been cafily reduced to^ the 'condition dfdblcliirit 
Ifebjeasi They ar* a qukt, molfenflve>^«>^fe-ti$f^^ 
t<^ the Dutch in many refpe^s, pvticularlylp tfle'tta^* 
4|{|ineDtQf|bcks and herdref c«tle« "^l^y^Vebeeii 
1^ mveh ttiifreprelentedf and it is liW^iffliiiff, Jmat'% 



Ii4 th inkiiLkH t^biurt, 1^ 

^ehodds which havr been pn>|Nigaied concemicf 
VsMnf pioM (p ions K»ve fsantd ctodtk in tlie worlX 
It it not jUiiCb t&it tEejr are in the fra&tce olt^ting raw 
ttfhf or that thcfr ^twine dveii: todies with the cniraiU 
of cattle* Thej prepare their food with Bxf i and their 
«loatbinj[ conHiis of a .drefl'ed Udtp which is tied like a 
^Qllar rottnd the n^ck, lianjgir^oiwn over theihooldert 
^eartothe groundt.and &i liroadf and may be wrapt 
rdund the fore part pf the body ) beficles th»t they wear 
anpther covering of (hinroand^ loinf. whidi reaches 
half ¥^aY down the thighs. Satnetitnes they have a 
cap for the head* and Iboes for the feet of , the fame ^. 
teria^s. Thetr ihoet are formed of a piece of ^de, 
drawii clofely about the feet, with tho|igs of th^ ^nie. 
The Hottentots havmg few conveniences for baUiing, 
and living in a climafe where they are very freq.uentl|r 
involveii in clouds of dull; have acquired habits of dirtib 
nefs ; but^eirikiiis» when waflied, ^e clear^ Uiough 
(allow. ' ; 

Th^ employi;^^ of the Hottentots is piir>ly ptAo. 
VatV their^princimf and sdfnoft ^V <>€Cttpation< bj^ 
the «ai* ^ their nerds of fheep and kine, * ,, ^' 
4 fta officer lately vifited all the chiefs of th^Ke* 
' groec ifl the Englifh fettlements, from iS^ta ApoUouia 
to Athera^ which i& ufiwards of 350^ miles, and ^und 
the police and puni&ment i>f all crimes fupportcd by 
|he il'tve trade. Tlibfe whp commit entries or trelpaflT^s 
*l|lgairft their U^s, ire, at^edecilion iHTtw^Ve elders, 
. Imd/o^ (laves for the ufe, of their ^vernmellt>. amithe 
fupp<>rt9f their chiefs'. I^efri a£ildery; and murder, 
ire the highcift crimes, and whenever they ifre dete^ed,- 
fubje€l the whole fajmiJ^ to ilaver^. Bat any indi* 
vidual, condemned to nbivery for m crime of his re- 
lation, rn^ redeem his own -pex^n, 3y ^rniflitag 
two ilaves in his room. Or when a Inan commits one m 
the above cardinal critnes^ ill.the male partof his family 
«re forfeited to ilaverf I if a wpl^ian, the femi# p^t is 
fold. <*^WhiIe on the C9a$, (fays he) I faw in^ncei of 
this (ftftlCa %iily ^niel, u made py very bo^joD bleed. 
This tn!i||^ In crimes inalces the chiefs vigiiant> / "^t 4o 
W j>liripM^ ptftthafc^enii ufe any psUfi^ 1 ' 

^efM in teli^, to )n«k6th(^iD Mcwiijofi ihit oppmtn 
fion thus tUTtKtd oD mat. /I «# fonf ii6fiiy they a:.4 
tiflfiatuta!ly averfe ttt t^trf tkbt lihat ^ndi to It j yet 
the Fortttguefef^^ Freiiehi iftid Bpaiiikrtlfi; iti tticn ftttlN 
mertts, fucce^ itt th^ir ittem^t t^i infttna theih, »t 
much to the advamage f cotntftercet as df t^lfgiori. It 
lifdr thief fate of Chriftriteitj, an#thf advantagfei aceovr* 
panying - iti that Bngli(b'flave9 enxHra^ er^ry ocd^fiM 
of defeVf ?nr to the fc rlUrtients of thcfc naims." 

ttii high X\mg for ^9 Icgiflatu^e to ' enforce and |||^t 
an iBhd to this fAoft infamous of all tiradetf fo otf- 
griicefulto the Chriftian«1iaiAe, ji^nd forepngiia^tto 
f riiiciples 6f 81 f^ec govemw^ot* *' 

- - - ' ■«•■-''■•.■ 

^■^^■*^— "^—i ^— >»^>Wf^'»wf'fT< n i n .11 im I'll > I II I — i— iHf^>^»^ 



^ Tthiiino^fh ofl^'l^ifiliiliiti&^ft^ 
iTX '<uri nor call 6ocotftr4, c>f Sbcitra^ fiju^^^f i|| 
aVges, wh«c^ j^e' efteeipcd li^ beil in U^ vorld, ^ *; 

Sailing d6wn« fouth ward, we cpikie to the iHaiio. pf , 
H^dagafcar, or X-awrerice* ll^><?nnd^Tlg 19 cattfieand cbrH^ 
und inoft of t^e neccfele W ife, tiut n^fuffitietjt mer» 

tftking clothes,' utehfits^'^d oihcr neceffaific* In rcjwfii. 

areiriljutat-y to thJroJ^tttgficfijJ attd'ritaT ihcfe lies the 
iffaiid of Boiirbo&;i' ^iid, a llKle liigiien ?*^^urit^ fo 
called by thie'Dtttch^^whrtM touched here iA'ij|9». 
It is nbwjn poflefll&no/tll? French, and by th^nTMfe 

;MQ6itihig the ^afteB^Worldl and i)|e Indfe^ ^^P^ 
Injg rourid the Cabe of G'o<id Hope, into th« w»^« A^- 

f^^$t-n^ ;4r^ch^£i^,:;a!i;t^^^ 

^^ Ni^ DISClivERIES. . 

«Aii*Anuiiicin Ball Indiai ft^ fiop^ to get'WiUr iihI 
freflk pioyilloiist in dieir Wiy bointe,. Near this, ari the 
GuiMk l(lAii4>> 9t/Mftthe^r|iu'i:^mau/aAd;othm^ 
net fkr from the coaft dialer ttic cquino^lal IDlei' le- 
lonnnff to tilie'Pqrtiitt^re. tWf ireti^ To vuuaied by 
tbel!jiitof4» %ho (it(l.fott|id tficnri^ii the feftlt ii]» of St. 
Helen, 8t. Tliiomai, iand St.*Ma|Aew* 

Hicnce hbithwj^r(|» ai« tkeCajpe Ifcfd lihndai fo call. 
^ from their Tefdiife. , Thej ne w l^elci^ to the iPor. 
^ttefe, who atre^^Urni^d (tont theode With, ihlt and 

i^riher noir^;ii«t)^ pleaAint Cansbies^heknigih^to 
the Spaniards, fs^m t»hedce iKri)^ caine Canary ^ii>e, 
and the beautifnl Aoging birds, called Canary Biri^. 
The oneknts calfed them t£«kFortanate lfles,nnd pb<;^a 
th^tre the Ely Aan fields. They are tan ot tweKe in 
niimber^ the chief are IVnnrtfi^ Goaiera,.Fe?DO| and 
G^eat Canary. The fettile iihindi of 'Madeiia He m 
^ther oortli, ani| are &mous foif tlie bcft ftomachie 
%hi^ l^y W^^ to the tortt^ttefiU 


■ 'i^:> 



T* Uet jfon^^H. of ;die. )|hind of JieiiiraA^Uk^ fc^th of 

Iffftr Outnea, in the Gteat ^ontli'Sea. For more than 

fl centiiry after itsfirft difcofer^ by the^DUtch, in i6j($, 

it iKifi'liu^B^t to be plit^ a nft foS^ern cotltinem, 

ih0>)il^iijic« ««f li^lch ?to; l8f e fatowlte; ijde% %ith 

New Holland gives it an unquefUoniible claim to the 
ikiUBC of Contiocni.. The 

^f 49? 


The whofe tmfktrn coaft of thb continentt txcept the 
ftff foj^ibeni petoty wndliocff^ni and 'explored hy* 
C^^Cpok, in i|70, and is palled KfW SoOtntWavii, 
It it claimed br £iiglaiid» on the 'd|d principle oC prior 
dil):oyfi|^ ^ : tf f 

iThere iii*a great Yariety ofbMs and animaU found 
here« (ciTeral of which» befbre tht diicoTery of this 
place, were non defcripl^.* ' ' 

Tbe.ottiT0 go afnraj^s uncovered^ although it is pb- 
ffthr^d ibex fttmr foaaedmes ^^^"^ ^ ^old^ Thofi; os' 
thebpvdeti of the iea.coa(l ' fuHrift* pf l)ici($lUl7 on fiflR 
On Uiat part of the coaft which the EngliOi bite^nvad- 
e(K <U}c; nativef have retiredi and^ fVoin' accounts, are 
mucb diftrefled for provifion/ A )r bid ^of twine is ip<^n- 
ufadOTed. among them,* whlcb» with their filUing'neti*^ 
is very neatly > made firom the Aax^'plahf. This plant 
pron^i&s to be very valuiible for the purpbie of mai^in^ 
cordage, jand the ineft manufaAm'es. - .' 

In May* 1787* the Bfritifb government .fitted out a^ 
, fquadfon of etipven veQels, with 850 convtds, und^r the 
command of Arthur Phillip, Efq. ib ordec lt^for]#i 
fettlemtint on t)us continent. The fituation determined 
upo% has be^ named Pk)rt JacVibn ; foutb lat 52^ ^i\ 
«aft long, from Oreenwich, 159* 19' 30". This place 
is about 9 miles from Bqtanr Bay, and has a harbour 
capable of contatidng K>cK> »il of th(i ')in<i m perfed fe^ 
curity. A plan of a town has been regularly laid oU^ 
and^ ^om the latell accotmts, theprofpe^ w|u flattering 
to the new ftttlers» ^ . . \^ 

Oitfi^ firft arriv&l^ the fiS^glifb, the natives wet^ 
found amicable; hofpitable, unaccuftomed to aft with 
treachery,, or to take tbeies^ advantage, aftd every pre* 
caution was i;lken to prevebt this harmony from being 
interrupted j .but frpm folnf dUagreement with individ- 
uals, or what is more probable, 1»dHlike of the fsncroach- 
ments on their territoric?, they appear to avoid every 
intjBrcottrfe with ^eir ncvr net|^bottrs. 

.1 ,'1 1 J 


* fhe reader ^Hl itA tiit;l> aiid.adi^riptioiiaf 4a«p4iar of 
thofe animals aUd birds, in "TUe'Vi^^epC^veriiorPbtltill^li 
(otaay Qay," pi^b^bed b][ Stockilai^, ^doa,la 4fp<x 


i ■ 



The inhabiunti ar^ t>(2,Vv«ry numerous^ and are of a 
cWolate colchir, mldcUe' ftalurey and verj.aAive arid 
courageous. Their food It cbie!;> £ai, birds of various 
kinds, yamsi fruit, and t^e flelh of the Kangufpo, an 
a:iimal refcrobliog the OpolTomy and peculiar to thfs con- 
tinent. Yhctr weapons arc fpeari and laoces of differ, 
e i\t kinds which they thrOW Urith great dekterity. They 
alfo ufe fhields of an oblong forski, Inade of bark. 

7 hi "New HthridetA This hanie was given byCapt. 
Cook, to a clailet: ofiiAinds) fitUated betVlreen the bti. 
tudesof 14* 29', and ao°4'fovth| ahd between 169° 
41', and 170® 21', ead longitude. 

Not far from the t^ew Hebrides^ and fouthweHward 
cf ;heni, lies NhW Caledonia, a very large ifland, firft 
difcovered by Capt. Cook, in 1774' ft is. about' 87 
leagues long, but its breadth is not confiderable, cc^ 
any where exceeds ten leagtiest It is inhabited by i 
race of Abut, tall,* well proportioned Indians, of -a (War- 
thy or dark ehefhut brown* • A few leagues diftant are 
twfoJinaU ipands, called the Ifl^d of Pines, and Bota- 

Nn^ Ouinea is a lotig» narroMr i|Iajid, extendingnorih- 
eaft^ from a** to i2**£uth lat. and from 131° to 159** 
raft long; but lit 6ne part it does not appeal!' to hz above 
JO milei btoad. The country confifts of a mixture of 
Vclry. high hills and v allies, intefii>erfcd Viih groves of 
cocoa nut trees, plantains, bread fruit, and moll; of the 
trees, flirubs,' and plants, that a^e found in the oiher 
South Sea iflHnds. It affords from tlie Tea a varie^ty of 
delightful 'ptofpe^s. 

Ne^ Ireland .%jiXfi\M\% li) lengthy from the nottheafl to 
the foutheaflt, about 2 70 miles, but it is in genera) very 
narrow. It abounds with a variety, of trees and plants, 
and With many pigeons, parrots, Toalcs, and other birdsi 
Northweftward Of ^fc\v IrClandj, a clqft-r of Iflands 
V'cfe feen by Capt. Carteret, lying vefy near each other, 
atld fup, <ed toCortfiftof 20 of "^6 in number. ' One of 
thcf^, which is of a very confiderable extent, was flamed 
New Hakotea ; but th^ r^ft of the cluft-T recetweJ 
the,i|3uae of Ujie AKMxaAVTV t^L^NOs. 


geneI^al remarks. 

*< npHl v^HillBfl iittM dMiiOiMrMi (ftyt Dr. 

are Os. Tb^'fidl It fi^iuMltuiiir iKc pottr VtgM. ^d 
e^il^hctMlii i^ Upl#d|«l> ^ t^tthnam *BiilbuM, 
tmSan«dd TAltMil, file inhableints 6#tlovi| Xeoilbtay 
the Bd£iiidi|iMS9^^/6mnllndmp. and tlie people of 
KamfthltlMM ilw vtfiigt of nia Jii^tM^ emnifrct it 
lMCiiM( tbriftd I tbt QM* iii«i:4 Aort t |^e efe* oC a 
yefidvpiai brdWl|» ^lliiag m 1i|acka«i% i. ^; cEeek' 
hQ^^ti^t^nm^j %h I i^iaetiUi lai^^ ; thfj^^yud^ 
ill mmiag o$tlvardf V ike voieli Ihin $wi noeflpflf ; 
!aiU % i^ f darl^ Kr«| c<i^. ' lliefCfHHC •'ciHort 

-r'* ,D02e 

. jNor t<j ^ . _ 

' fApwi^§tf^^ rifitij in^the fiu«iao f|^ieiek. 

^beic: c6iii\{^ti<i«t ^are' ^roail 4Qd 'W|fiii|de(L. fi«ii% in 

4%tbe l^cl^t an| l^^re raf inches alimer t th«|r t iheek 
bones al^l^hiVlb^ $e(|tb of a large H<e aftd^ftpiirate 

I)a^f ^\bla«k* ']^^fit nationtV tti i^o^j, excdptmff the 
J^pioej^ a^d C^^ ft!ial(n^ ilf> iettliS up- 

tlo^s.of j«i0n^, aiill J|t^4«t<^ Qf beba^iurn Tke>; 

aili <%{^flf >r6|^i:s v^^l^ [b horfc^^and 

4% th!r<i j*^ «r ##"5^ !« ^^ of *^ Mw 

A.fiati«%of ,tfo ii4aMt#« <^^^ Thcfe.ifijJPpi 

Njo^d^t ftj^f,$a#c gig fti|«%JiV^!! ba^t*. *>6 <pmer- 

^^ tl^jiiijRoiEl^ Th^j^^leattflotblul|l^i^t^^ 

■-'■•-■'■■' ^ ' '- ■ ' ■ LI'' . y^ ■ - ' ■-"'■ 


i'. . 

• V 



n ;c ! 


Of Mauty kl«ftiiiA^|iTei tbe doomy We| . 
And featarjcs, grols : .^Mr ;v«or(^tto nitblef» decii*. 
Mad leadotfiy; liHud'ra^ ^nd fed itVt^, ^ ' 

The foft i^afdf, t)^eieiidenieCr<ikf lift, 
ThrMnl^M lear,|h' iif^^dfH^ , 
Of fMreet liiBuuutT<: , tliiefe em^ 

IThis rage fuiaMe$,kaihiivi» wi|b hofrid Jre. ^ ; . 

Tile l<|e^oei^^,'Alna^ CQi^ i(b^ firiiung 

irariply,^ ^ hwipp ^cMis>^ut,th«y di%;ififidcly 

aii4:arf^i|^i^te4^ifriui ao^ diias^^bleuunep^, TlicI 
Kfg^awt In gien^/^^ j the downy 

ifaftnefs ^.haptW'f^^ gi^s upon ^ fkin^givesa 
iiaaQ0tl)fi«(9 «<> t|i^ f^fcm ^ viqlvcu th^ hair of 

,th«ki||$t4i! ij8-iw%»^^«^ .««»?* Wa«k i to .^# *>««^s 
^m^uimp^ff^ fini(|jBtte» white. , !l^eir nofes are 

Ilie bti^l^uai and inom j»fit^^^^^ 

^§mA!i\'9n?>:kB^^^ to the 

|i|ci§ iiiir^ajr^^ 4iSp60^ f^c fiivage tyrints,: w^o 
f^lapT«r "^e^ iii^e hii^n 

mmr^i^mtW^^-^^ %»? familiei, tt^Jf wMi, 

M^tfiiir jte^e 3^d^a?Ut.^^^^ life tajsilfer;, 

^ 8ip4<l>^<ib^e. ^ J^!(it ,bc^^^ ihocb^d to i^qm 

Mj^ j^t'i^ infem4 c^nr^Vqi; tt Ci^Ttied oa by the 

A Q^^ iea|rtffn ^vai» by dtdM^ tnwtmkt, mw- 
to a coifOiia lutflioittv with a lading of ^kly ilav<s» 

^ ^ who 



jitK^AK^S. 4ti 

who took cV^ bjpportunfty to tlnjow thcmfelv^ oTcr^ 
board, wlien pr^ght i]^pon 4ieck fiv the 1;^iicClt( ^^irefh 
air. T^C; camaia perc«kil|g» l^QDf oth«.i^ M ff^insde 

a proper cMmprcYof ihfi^^ft; • A:« h^ fu)^pti»f«a; t^^^^^ ihey 
riid not know tJje^ierVp)^ Jit^^ep^^ (^derca 

the woman to be itied )^lt|.',R rap^ ^»ffcf t<ie arm-t^t 
and let dpwAinta the water., V^n ^€ pw qrcaturiJf 
"was thus pliingtd in, andatyi^it'lialf wajr t^wn, (he was 
beard, to give a terrible (hriek, which at firrtj wj^s/iC- 
cribed to J^r f*aT;s of^diti^rfinS ff l^tfopn a^^^ Oie V'|i- 


Wappe^i^d, red arottnd^ itp,ianid R 

V ;X*h6 native inhabitams dC«^ca niakeii fijfth jn^ 
ottocii. 1?hty *are of;^ coppc** colour, fi«v^ blit^ll, 
th?bk»' fttait hw ff^t iidfe, %t<' die^k bones, atid 
(mall -^yei; * The^ paiijt tN b(^^ WitcPfeDce^t^^ 
coloars^ and etadict^t e the Hair hf tiiSV4feii^fl1kP<HKlW' 
\Miil afadetprmity," TlfcTVlimbssitenoi^^lfi^l^^ 
nHiuTf Ws thoie of th^ Etir^i]^««nil- 'H!^ '^ndiirf'ft^i. 

ticnce J ao4 tjjourfa ci;u^ to fbc» c^i^fi |l^ w 
%i^rf'S^itta^^^1ja»n^^-''--'^ .^-f ^'' '"'■'■ ''-''■ r^:- ■'• 
, The Earbjpeans ihay .^ vonfid'tfi^d^s ihrlaft fitrit^ 
"^ the hdman kind; 'Th«y'«qd5^(ingtiMadvanU^8 
firbiio the fkJtneft^ W^ti^r^nipWfini^ - -T)* ft<f«^ ^f 
tbii^ ;^cjMi '^tW^^t^ ^ tki^^ct^ttT^ A<%tte^1s 
Ta Ycri impeffca fedex of tWe nilBt; -^^ftd tri^mir die 
iiro«^etaed maiJ^ 1ft jay i^c^ ^j'J^s^ m^l^tiikd 
Stmr* m^ and <^;?ij'r 'fiawie^^knd ibeafe The 
l^iplb ai'e fa^.t^ l5|W:fli| faittft cf tbeEi^^ 
iiii we miy .tIii&eifir)^lili«iCB^ Jifcat^ ^eit 'coti^f '*''^^- 
fcefi cxpreiii t^ie vanatl<^ ol tfti i^a^Toiis, iind 
tu$^ of dtfeafe. Bit tliw imelJeaual'i^ m^f^l 
jjf^i'riftfcs of tbe d^iieire^' natibos,'wakicb coii^»l^1^^ 
^^rt<a' of the gl6bei''ikb <Sf more imipotv^t to ht 
kftowtrr Thi^^^^^i^iTV tS!f<J<5«il^dtf#1lft4€^ 


' 1 


*■ ■ 


4i2 P»K©tlt:4J]^^I«ttNB«J 

X ** iP^o/«i»f. that the Standard ojQ^l^tfdBratcs bf AiJiehca, 
forgdd and (Uver, fhall b« eleven parts fine aad one part aUoy 


idvOcHts; ■ {■ » yxiimt ♦ ^*^'* #<{ • ^-mfH^ i -x ■ • ■■■'■■ 

^ fllMii<^yif tacei4^i{i a de«ttid^4r tcnlbld profwrti^; 
any A«n|W0fdoU«f#,,ikiM9«^ceiM^^ ««prtftf;^A» 

TmM»^^| ^^|kr«i|;^^^ and. J^xnSU& arie etpreficd^ 


EOpMli par^ oit » dotoarVtiie decimal point (,; 
, te9Htw^ent|iedoUava:and.4iniea. / 
. Thmfolr&^iaeCipuntt^ thr tieuAi Ei^te^^Oid Diine «iay bir^d- 
nMt||^l'i^(|»|fj;e of iktmimng tlie pl&tlif titiuforeenbi auiil 
t]ie right hiand figure. Or place o/jmiu lor Ba^Heit. kUl]b< tfaft 
pli4bc.^0fti^'/ar;tla]||;t^ .,.■-:.,' 

j ip ii iliil l|iiii| - |l | i t i f, l < , |i | D i ll ^ ' , t 

HiiM'nU ^Miii'li 

■** ! I> 


f-;f Aiw nri and Mr^l^ffiM. ^ 

D. d.'>e 

' . » . ' . ' ). " :mm 


»■■■ ^' ^ . .A m 

■II I II « « n » i l 

41 ii -) i aii[» ; 





:>;?V>lt ii^A 

. . ■! • ;,x^ :u t • *B•4|m«JEyra^o?^'^"'■ 

INT^t^rnNO CALCUiATtONS. 4i3r 


at prefent ( i^bo) Uiht^mOhii,, v^lildi k y^ 
near the exad nuiiibcr,--^dtliat tWi'iiimlitfr; Sr i^t- 
ural ihcreafc, attd Sjr enii^tion, wiH be doubled in 
20 ycars^ 9Ad ^ontiiMic^ . ^\ mcre^^* ii^i^tt ratiofor a 
ceiuurjr to comt, at 4atfei^od, (1906) ih^e iwttbe ia 
United Americs^ieoin^kMis of iiflialttt^^s flii^ 
miUibxw mofoiban thepearof at prdiait p^^|^ 
A^d wbeii«^ i^n(ider^]Mrobabk a 1^ peo- ' 

plc'by foreign i mmig^tidnB; aiiliTtimr tfae^ 
\\vSm\^^ms iiX ^-mtick^H^am^ toprok- 

vide for this nutsiber, the prefuinpd<^n n jkm^ldtaii. this 
cftimatc waitiot 4ifferidaterianyfroii tl^^i^^^ 

It has been' comtndii m domi^te the riurdbir of iV 
habitaiits o^ thi^|Jobc; in^^md toumh^jfs, >*t qm> mil- ' 

iions, -Viji. -V'-" - ■■■■^".^- ":';,:, r "--^ ;._ ';; ;;■:;::; .;■.; f P'- ' :r ' :: 

Aaacrica^frjo imUi(iMl:ih--£i)rOp^ 150 |litliop»l^^C|i^ ^ 
50Q n^illiomi and Afiks^ *5o millipnj. fliaiceji li#{ 
bei^ii reckottedMhat asW'ijenefatidri Ms 50 y^rs/'m 
thiit fpace 950 millions of pcctoU imitllje'Wrn arid ttii^^^ 
fame nuuiber . die ; and,' cohieq^lntly, tftut about H 

m this ptoportton* .- ^ t4^ • 

Englaod, m vfkch Jbe tj^^Jcons tbf ii^,4btifti^ 'Ji^^ 
world at>aboat.|^t>. niiH i Q»t" ■> 6 f «&» Wn 



RoiMi CathtUict 





/ ' 



REiit/lKABLB fiyZSn^, I)iI8GDV£iU£& m% Il^EKTIONS } 

CtiiQprel^cQdinKi ii>«>D«.vicw,<IWi Ai^^i«lth» or CtVTtiNCs <>f Qkutn. 
iiAx. HilToftT, fr«m,the CliiATioii (0 tlie prcr^9t.T<MJu 

" *' i*"*wm(iBW— Pw*n t, ' '.' ■ ,"1 1 ■■ : 

♦09«^!rFI|E er«4Jtlta^Qf |1)* w«ritf, and ot JijS9Af9sA%tt 

934! "tlie 0|4iiQrl4deftf4^c<) ^<i dehigc;w]iic^cMitihiie4377 ^7«^ 
as0. "Ili* ^l^er <!i 9i«^ i9^<)iiu)t ^^omt ^hi«.tti^:i>yN(]»b;*9 poftc^i^ 

^,lilU^s.4i%(w■,th#ii19tD 4iu«kent nations. 
4i8t Mi(«im)t|lte4<^«f ilaqi,|q!im4^ £gypf, which. 

iafil4;|Mj yean, to the cooqueft of Claihhyfes^ 
' 90J9 Uli^-tofii^of Ddusrfouodi the kin^4om^f Airy»ia,which, 

19^1 Tie coireiMmt bf Gbd mad? with Atkra^jun/ ix^vnt he leaves 
I^Ammpi iote Cmm^mb; wl^lchhei^ the 4,39 years oC 

^$97 TlM ci^,i9C1ESp9^' and.Ooi$ipi^h arii dt^oye^ fo»thei« 
. i, , ' iM«;!lfife^iVty^reiwhhe»^cn^^^ 
t^ MoiVBOii the Igviwiaid invents the lettei?i. 

iiS jofe|ah diet M^tt.'^di conel^u^ thl M(^ i^f 6enefis» 

t|)^4 Aftronbcu-nin^l^yft) Z4^ApfiM)U»^D^^ 

■. (f!fijb# I^Utes.'i;-; ■ .^■". ■ ?' '■' 

X5T^ |ySof^j^her|f» j^ta^jM^jNtfn i^ Ejgyitt;^ |dt^|):dhy Fha* 
::-l'' w ia<4i*l.dftttCwia& ,..■•'■>. . /.'■ ;■■:...■•-'.',.,.- 

15^1 fiiSpW©eSea«*^t4toT|lefliyfc^^^ -:■. ^ 

---■■■* th69O>oQ0|i!ra^^t,l>eridea 
Lje/t1b^iii|^ from %ypt 



id^erilie dS^d the feu loUoWin^ 

;<>; ^' 

'> Vf 

5cC Chiift. , 

arc hd undeV |^i|«i^ %i^(bt l4fld>of Caisun,where they 

11918 The w|M:ofH^lenby Paris, wl^cH, In 1x93, give rift to the 
Ti oi^ wHf, and Ucgc of Troy by thej,CJr<rek», wh'n^i con- 

3104X DaViU kfolcKiwgoflfracl. v 

'ipb4 the Templt i$ folrfliihl/ dKflf eUtrfi b^ Solo-iiions: , 

g96- ll^ih, tW prophet ; *< trtwflit^ ;t<»he*v««t, . >i 

8y4 M«jn.ey firft nMuC of gold anj filver at ArgO». 
$69 Tii£ (My of^ aitiwg i iia l W l liiiiit ii ) <bua<U4:^)r <^ 
814 TftekiiTgdomofMac^tloi^lHrjjma. ^^*^ , ', 

Queeo Di4c^; 


Ittatlovertai'owa'ny aaimapaii^Tt' isi«g w'/m 

: '/*''■■ ■carradUietcnttrib^lM^i^^if% 
' 'ff^^JIIi^firfttt^ipf^btUJertjooiib^ . 

^ /■ ■■ 'iJiaiU.'- ' ' ■;':■•■"■'■'"'-;■" «^ ■*-•■. :v''. ." .■•;-,!,.;■; 

vf io4 By brdc» of 'Ne^ho, Kfog;of M|t,jl|ttk HxWUHta* <4«lc<J! 
.^l J- j (xxm. the R?d Sea round: :Afi:iba^ ahA retiHriied by the 
■- 'Mcditoranc^n.^ \- -. / • ■ ■ - ■■;-••' 

4(30 1?Wesofiv!Jika4«^v|i^iirtotgi^^ 

fQ7 >fchoi»fo%Kmgof Ju*^HJieari^«<Jii*^^ 
<8? The qity Of TcrttfalCTi taken/ aAife*:' *ftBfe^ «|^ 
.Ijl^XhciMgto gf BaWloi»df^k6y<*5.^t^^ taken by 

JPft TairquMii the fevfeniJi^id Ji*:K'«4^THiWfl^^ 


- * , . caii<i» to ,_^ . 



BeflChtia , 

4 ti Nmeteen jrcaM qrclje anfaified by Metoai. 
430 the hitWrv of the Old TyeffaiiieaJpkdie* aUttt Uuv time.. 

Malathi, the U(kW;t!ic propliets. 
4Pi Retmt 9^ Jio^ocK) clbrc4Hu» ttiida XeiMt^ 
400 Socrai^ fne founder of titori^l p4iib!if!D|ih7 staoag the 
Oretlu,.ptifeco litnkh l>y cite AMei|iMis» who kioii» 6ftcr 
rqtcnt, and e^etft to his memorj: t (bfu^ of bri^ . . ^ 
37 9 l^oeotiaa war coxQiBcacet 1^' Oiecce« fiiiiQaediii.566;aAe|'the 
ileatho^Epantinoiidas, th^: Uft of thtf CrecunlHiro<9.Ji'/ter 
his deaths Philijp; broihev to ^lie Ring of Macedoa, wha 
. had beckr educated un^enhimp privatelyfct iMit fo^ that 
country, feJ2ed the Idngdom, and aftcgr a'cpodaual courfe . 
of war, trcacherjr, and di^i|iu}atioD; put att^d to the. 
liberty of the Greeks by tlMpliattle'0f .(Qfaeroncsk : 
336 Philtp, &iag pf Mftccdon murdered, ' and fucc^fcded by hi& 

. foity' Alexander th^Qreat. t 
3311 Alcxaad|ria in Sgypt built, i v- 

^31 Alexander, iUog,of^|i^cedan, coafqerarj^a^a^ i&ilg«f I 
-J ^, Perfiaaad'oth^^hatloiM^pf Afiik^.:^ -:;r'>;t'!:;^^^^^^ ,J\ 

323 I)ie>, it Babylon, and h^ empire jb^Vided by hi* tenerak 
'^ iutofoujc kii^doma, aftet defllcoying hia «»l1|^^«hildrcOk 
br<^her,inot|^r»:«nd'fiftd^ , < . 3 

;-»oi- I)artaEiciVa^.|loiae atnponday^' ■.'; '■ .y, '^■<?-.?.v""^ V; -. ■' 
1185 Diooylitts, (i^ Ak^andtia, bee^ 
Moa^av,. |ttac a^/beias t 
* toednm e»u£tly of 3631 dayi» five hoiira a^ 4^ nunutea. r 
284 Pt«>l^T PhUa^lphuft Kii^ of tf^ ^ittniitlova icv|imr-tw(» 
^ ' iftts^iiCmlp; t^aliflate the 1^^ .Greek 

1anMS<U^ch>sca11e4 tlie Sej^iiagitt ^^''[J^>^-f^.<' 
ad^ T1ie1(»ft*«©jWgi«f filww a#ltefte-! ^^^^^;/: 
«5o''WMUieMi^^|tttcaa|M^d^ti^ v 

lao The SrA p,^m!H^ »rn^^«mh%A£fii atifd^itcmthft^^ 

X70 Eighty ^otkfaod j^v;s maifatr^by Aqtt»dlniii^^'£pl(ihao(i8. 

maa ,kintdoii^ . "^ '- 

1^3 The gav^ffttttiit^f ;p^^d# 

146^ Carthluae Ai»l QorifttK rafal to'lhc'ctouibd bjr^ lUnfiMtat. 
1^; i4ln lM||i4M ll^^^ 

^p^diiiii ioto Brka£ft; j' ^ 

a4d;kitM;»d^ iir,ft 



27 (><5U72U9,b)L» denscd'b^thiB-fonatei oboioallii: title of Au^- 
g.uj|u#i.iifli£ii^ihd^<altfailutt Momfition ^om the 
i|«id l« proj^ly the firt il^Niii|n Ehl|KtN^ ,^ 

^8 The temple iW«ina»fb iii(»tl>y Au|guftut,^a>aB emblem g£ 
uaiveEfatY^«fel apd JBSUB eHlti6ti<i)> fuppofed to jiavf: 
f. . been boitt iok^pte^ber, <m*im^ Mbadv]^ UeccmWr %5. 

rifCiUfilrdi%tt^(^*i(tthtikeIlodbHia«h^-ten^ ^ 
29 *.i-i..MM.{rMrljmjidj^ in the wildcrpe£iir)rJoKa.K ' < r --^ 
.^ . H nlfuci^doh f ri<Uff 'April .tf »r 3 o!*docki F. M. 
. HisJilefatteAftei'mi. ^dV dav^ lAs^^i Hlf ATccuSioi^jr 

j^.St PBuic<in^erte4: ^'I'-'-'-'V' *' . .^ v ' 

a9 St. Matthew widiesitii bbipcl. . < 

, V fPontliii Pilate fciiJibiaitfelf. ' ■ 

40 TKen»iQeofChrifttaiu.firftgi«eiiiKt Aatioclvto^ 
• ■ ' . eM.dfClmft. ; ;' , '-.;■'• ,■:,.:•■'•''■■ ^ ^'■^ ■' ■ . 

45 CldiidiQ«Gc^'i^cpedtrioitli}to;Si^ilftt% ' 

44 St. Mark writes his^Gp^l. : , .^ 

■ ■ '46 ■■• CJirillitihfty earned- !»•» Spaitf. - • • '^ ■ . ■■ ' ' . * . ^ ■ '* ^ .^ , ..'• ■ •■**"''^' 

4^ llipaidg)ii«ii»'|^i^ed<'h^^^ 

j[a Tlie e(i3^il of the 4poiiU<^«^itt^|e£i*^^ 

ij^ St I^ufcx write? hU GoI>cl*f? % ' V 

. ^tl^fof (oi2af^li»^^ptc^ lmt^i^-imH,' ^ ' 

^n, iOnferl^iti^tfif^lt p«^^ 
'iT^ $t.>ctBr.^-6t'^Nul|mt<t9 ^bmhi . im-:- 
70 T&iit tak^t |tfitw^Ten/whi0^^,4^^ 

■ 'ptoiigh'^verifsii'.f..- M. .-I \,vv\. .'■ ■'•■■-.>:; I „>■ < 

' ■ in 97^■■' - \" . ■ -" "■"■''* '■"i;-<-'*"- 4i.:j%r-| ,> ,' 







^•"^ii^ Jii;;:^^ *i?^-"\' ' '^'■^^*7\; 


->,*■<, ,•■* 


vji.J^^;';^ tv 

•>t AH IMPROVED tHItOlkdLOdiciiL tABtl 

Aft. qhrfft. ',- ^ 

>»i The firlj wjici^-cpugf^r at ir|c<. w^ ^t»i^d 


3tiS Cooftartti^e xcnmifGs tKf ^o'f Ittipint from R6m« |o Bf - 

3 «X Conftatttine ordei^ j!| ;l{ic HmiIim 1^ ^ be 4fJ)royed. 
30^ Thie Empeit)r Julian fttrBan£[pa'tMApoAate»en^ 

vaija^or(l^it4ihf temple of Jferui^lon. ^ . ^ 

3^4 The Romaii^bifejp; diluted ia^^ ^atUrt (^wfitMi' 

to be tne eapitai ;) cfa<^ .beii^ kvw'':^»^ toe govern- 
. mcntof di£^ent Etnperorv. 
Bella iaV^ebdBy KKfiop PauKi 

hj blffiop Pautinu* of No la i^ Campan;a 

Id nUvD^derir^ by i^j^^ jciiig of ^ Ooth* ' 


410 Rome taken am 

4 X » ' The Vandal* begin V^^.^ -r .»-j— ^-t --r—T 

4^1^ THo kIng4oii|iprf ranee begiiu i»|KMa tl^ Ii^cr Rhkie, under 

■'('; ; ' _ lPK?rani|^d. , ' ",', . . , - , ' ; !, ' / [' ' , 

i%6 The RomaiAi Withdraw their troops ^offi l^r^juntMAtxeyrost 

retqrn^^yi^ng the Bri^Qi, to^aj^, in d^r i»;n^n 4cfcncc^ 

. aAd ti^rt td iMir Qwi|i'vaIop.'^^^^^ ;, V ■ 

J^ St. Patrick Ijf^aiji to preM% in 'f reWd i lif il|e4 li^Kh/Uxi:^ 

4$'J>agc^x»a years. 


•06 tdhi^rft lifed ito chvrehes. . . ' 
ibe 7 he potiircr oitiie P6t»e b^o| hfiW'^ 


'^<=«#ffe^ oCMSi%«&?tr, 



r ^ 


7 $' l%irtj tbo^i^iuul hooks burnt by or^er of the Bfnpcror Lea 
7W' IV nupUceJayeffinctii or tbcP^nn^rkm^iiitrodttced into 

i!Rerw|rcli tMid t1& vtOtfn r ^jre, and cti4i»T0iin ia 
' ' vain to tjcllorClw^rnp^ 

Jti» f<% bf EHff }m^# W^fffuui into co^tikhkindrdbi 
and'%tBfim mi^ fi^)^^^ 
fityaSiSSril«iu^^iit1i^/^ , 
936 The ^acei| Em^tire diTid«<tiilt(»fi^4n9,)cuii^fe, by ufiir^ 

940 t^&^lJRabllfl&^inDtnmule. ' 

9'9t The^liati^liitfHt^etMre brought intf!^^ theSa^ 

, xacentfXcoin Arabia,. |i.ette^»of i;!^ Alp^bct were bilh- 

1600 npe^niad^d'f cotton ri^^fli^^ 

1004' AU thcpldchu^chesart^l-ebwl't aCoUt^ 9 netgr {lyle. 

1015 Chl^f ^ ft^bldtlei^ C>|r law to tiel^ld ^f^^^pitf^um^ 

1 0*5 Mt|%Al £sunu0ny<m|e4 by Giiido, a Beheduftine friar. 


4,07 J nc^nrj <vi jpuipcr^ «i vfcon^^jr, 1100 inc r^pw^ quarrel 
, , f ab^ut thf noininatioa of tb/B German bi^ 

ip8o Tbel^wipr of 



Kv.'»^j^3/f^gS&Sli»k^ \iSi,v-t .>'js");>,Ti ■1%'*%. 

■i .,.■'4 


> • < 


9 SI J AfngiltCliiMrta U rigiMdb|kM)g John tod tIieiMr«Ai«{ andllbe 
" '■■• "-■ ^mkmiag fwf hjfpmnttd to cht Irifl^bt ««iry flf. 
J 117 ThcT»rta>«, apcw race of b«Th»iiMHi'tt»q»f JcajMi KIud, 
emerge ftomiiKe noptbern ]MMil of yi^coiM|v<r.tlif great- 
eft pert Kf'tKat tfonciMMi^lNid te^MyciratltftN^ upwards 
of r4iniiti«m««fpcfliile.-^ - » • . , 
a 13 3 The inquifitkw, VgtMUi ttott ii^aow troft^ to tiie DtNnin- 
.^ •• ' ica^^ • ■• 

Thelioufea of I><v:..Joni«iyd othtr citin hk Snglaml. Fraote, 
«»« O««oitit^ llOf itaiichcd WitH Ibav. 
t%g^ Mi;giiffy*ty?^i«re<^nv«^c4 bf llOigv - , 

185ft Th« Tartar* tal(«,aa^ad, irMdtpail^ ^dtt> the empir^ 

''ofthC'SaTareotf.*''' • • ■> ■ -.^: 
1 27 3 liktewpiDe of Che pr^fattMtidMpfifaiRily >c^ iA Cermanjr. 
ia«0€hlop(m4cr4n!rif«!it%|l(a|e^'88eOB^ v 
% lit Llewellyn, prince of Walct»Ief<tated and IsiNc^^llfEdwaM L 

i*^* i Vliib MIH# t1itC>|i«iOe}|«^ 
tl98 T))eprefiTi|^rktfh«mpirehci:iitoi«8M^ 

SiH^r hafle^ kut^$, rpooaa»awl ciu«i» a gir^illURtry. SpUn* 

Wmemldi>yapot)tMineaoiil^MacoNiS«L > ' 

I1i»^9 «^«odihiH« kurtnred. ^ ' ^ -^^^^^^^ 
1 300 " Aboy t thM^lilne the oiiM^crVi eOi > »p » f » <!iNifr^r«tilledy or im 

)le1i#MhV*rmf of irM dftke«if :>U^/tW k^ 

IJP7 T>ie-be«i»nii^^«fl*«"«*»'l;^'|^^ >"^-' ■,:/'.' ■ ,. 

pioettv t^'caiHiMlft^likfc^eqptttrmo 

^mtetvffp'r ■ <' ''■ ■^':- ■■ ■ -' ' '"^. ■"■ *:.:-;:- ■■' :' 
- 0}l>f||^inr M ina^^^ 0f by Jolsn tSJKtflj. v- 
.■;ty!rt Thi^^*Ptt«teflli^«i^«'BliiMp#^ ^ ■ ^^- : "^:- v ^%^^'- --"^ 

43iS^>^««^i)y: <4Hliirtei| i*eij9m Mm 4h<; |iiM^ eftab- 

,- . ^ ■ i^(he4i»Lo^^.'^'-~:■'^■•f::'-TV•■ ; •;' «'v,-^ -j:; "''- ' ', 

-1404: :^i^:4«iSi^>fey^^ 

* pu(<^ifed with ^ejat ate wootiert nr^^ af- 


M4^ The Va?i<faft 

v \>.^1ie 'Seii^i|r4d^»^S^|^'i 



|*.>M f453 €of^^it»qppte 

4wi; chfiQt ' -'., ■ '.^- r,*^T''''* ■ ■ *' ' 

;nIic |«i*Mr*^pif»;- " 
B^40!t > aacm4 » CMimMii, Mmnu-lliv aitvfwiqipwv 

kan: f iM. iudgmcm <tf (M 
• 9460 Bif|tii«iiii|i fMet^Mt^lfi eoMpMr Jarenitl. 
1471 tHQ\PMi arithmetic tuveftM/aM tl^ »fc of T^i|T|li irif • 

't48j Rtelf»r4 llf4l^r««^.B^j^Mi «S)^^ ManttigeKctm 

(tu^) If l^l^bklLf^ »Ii>^«c4Jm: civil wftcf bctwen 
thr hbiiCet orTmrleaad LandtiAef. *. 

X4«^ ^a MMatfTitiEai^ by %i^«ulii£|kk««l^ 

i4}t6 Henry e(lalMtviirj«itf^»<tf«i«^g^^ 

SbtttH ^t)ca 4ift!6vi»rdl Ity i^lkierioNi^C^itiBi,' W ^ . // 

*- > 

; -1mti»iU,ihNi>brikVA9ef#^Mkiy^ 4. ^ 

. . dirt of Sptro in Oerflwny. J ' ' 









.^565 Putaioet 




boro in 






A'-i: J*. 



{-',:'■ 'I' 




-, A 

)|iUli t^uMtm to the 

ji ■ \^ i ■ • ' ,"1 •• 

. i. f ; -..»■■ '' i»-.i-... -, .- 4 .i.1?i, i»i.^,^ ^;>»-*.';. ■, »'a !l S^r 

my, aft«r an da^i^«*>«*1j*'t«| 




.^W»«"-r .-j'W5 




I^^'' . 

jEtrc:;^ Csi; W -// 

l6|i|«P^ cdi<^^ff2i|]it#idto«iiify 1^ and 

lit? the pM|ff^ 1MH^<4;|^«'^«lsU,'«i^(ht>i*^ .Lc«tfs XFV. 

^1^ Xh^$>yi^iSHiMmii^httn^»S^ to 



meric^ and €«ittcd it Catedoaia. 

Yali Ct>lk|;e cAaMiAied at 8a]r^«k>kv€onfltAicu^-^reituiT- 
^. ^^:-' .^\«d>o'Htw-H«Vjeft, i7'i4.-:. ' ^...-,1;/. ..-^i ,i^'^7 ■.*'^'-.' i^^i 
'■«isa-5^i Pr.MdS».ef^4J»te-aiynf*oiBs^i7^ ^-■*' , ■ a.''.; ^ 

, Spct^V %fe(fc« propHgit^tcA of tlie 0<U'pcl iiribi^jni partis , 

, "u^y AWneiJi daufkf crto ^tmiat Jl/vtbcv tvitti^^ tiie:£f»peror andt; 
St4|e« ditiier^W teili«r» the. war a^ainft France aAd Sp»iU' 
i|)M OIlMfaUca laken from the Spanlai^bT'Adtilii^ 

«i3'«4 'iheilf^iM^lf of JJMofi betittralngbiid^d Scotland, ilfmd '. 

1707 The firftBrltrfli TMuliamcRt. ^^^"- - .* ? 

, 6af4JskM^iift€k4^<S'kingd#i,raAd^i^ the Culecof 

t9l# %ce&i>b9e cfnii^littKk liflHg'M tnOi'*^ '**• 

•vocable t^4h4e>mtcr«ilb^etWoth1»r^^rh^^ 
&i :■' ^^kfl^ri^lfd^i\xh^tihf4'ShiW9M\fho^iiil^ sir 

,,-,}*■ V ■ ojfji^dply.oo.toi^/l:- ■ ■ ■"' ■■ - ' : ' ■ '*■' 

iP^JI|if#j^ce idlflaecthti «Mi^>lci*fBiiiiliVttid,|s*ATa ^o* 
tia, Me!ff Ihritaih, wi^iltMtt^gjl Bk^i^Un Ko^ Amen^^^ 

9714 <^eiiiMmetti«^al^?a««o^50iauf(Mi A^^ George!. 
iBtma reduced to^ii^ per edit, in Bii|JN!ad> 

a; 1 9 Tb« KliflEifijpui fcheme tt tt» l^ii^btriii ffrtnre. 

eieiflMI «t Biqpbjr ^taUict^tt^ dBiB'«ig]|Mii^<yf ifhUii; one wa^ 
work* 3itjQMl»y 4 » « iti<^l<w<tegfclfcthHt»jl > 

beiglit at the eatfiiifiMiei M ^ila>i(K0k aUiit Jri^t. 29*. 

Inociilation ItfA cried 1kal6«npinlila<»itb IIm^^ 
jf »S North Ctraim. ftt»k4lbiRirjhIi «iiR0 WiN Xi%Uih. 

" Kottli &aai^tirp^the.Pcii&Mthraiaei cmitte 

• 'lioni ftcrliag.. ■■ «4&;;- '''•■*(■-'' *"-''.'ir!i.> '-■'•• j^,"- ' ' 
> V Several ptttilki liitrlpi- g^lemtt'^lMtlli - w^ fettl«me«)| of ^< 1 1^ 

»735 Od. x{), JoiiK Apams, Anther tff^j>^pi0^i^iM^J^ ; 
f iMM CcnjHmhm*,** iiinl (til jift iif ^mJMiiijimafhihii afe ^'^ 

• , »i, .. ;r ^:vBttfii|tr<fir^M»fiushlB(<^ 

1737 /the eanh firoved t4;be flahediowardiiMl^^l^ "^ 

4(j^. war^deoardd ag§iittft f raiitUtt^^ 

army defeased fi^ d^e i^ukc of Cumticrlartdi ^af ^CiiUoden , 
A{>rirr6, iq54<K ■■"•,-. '•^^i-i-n. :,^;,^ y-.N.:2 ;-'f? •]%...•:.-- f; 
U^ Xlma aiid^iUiMi^aibv«d.Up Irj^aa 4»rth«9»,itir!&v 

• 1.748 The peace of ' AijE la Chapellc, by wWcli ^^^rjiCHuilton of aH 

tf 49. Tbt: inl»«ift oetrue;Bra^ fibdrr^ 

^k7ja The MCtiiK %}irr tb<i»#ii«# i(«|« 0f<^ liitkl» }^ th)^Hhir«i'of 
^; .%^^bqF''b«raf.ciB>ttntc4|h0iV(^ .',« 

WentUjr or el|;iS6ic Ire afld igicMw difi^ingiJtdrl^ J^^ 5, 

: ' W biiUdmtt ttvni Himiid K f < t dn ip». '» •- - ^ 

, X7-5^ liilboai d«lb«jM>r^«lk^NN»^^ '- '- v .'••■■•■•^' 
xJ9'5^,Oneh««<lifdl.iaQdinfipkfirJ^ the .; 

bUcIcM* ^ i^f^^fy»^aftJndie8/byjoidcr^4^^^ / 

next il^>coudfi: c-i .r^i -.'«/ rt'^ft'-.i *;■.'■ i^!.-^''' *-^- '•■'• ' ' 
■, ■ ■ - .'"fdl^the-J^IUli^. i • .- ^ ■.;;%.;:..-*;:, 

:, Mieditff iBK''»kM^«lk|WDlr^ |^9i04^L^ Ik ^charged: 

■l%*toy. ■ -'^'; ' ^ ■' •■ ,,. ;•••■,. ; '• ^ ■, 







Jfe»^ T)|4 #^^^ii||^4^»^ for his 


If Ti .JD». jS^^t 31^ #r* Bip;^^^^^^^ ftH? the En. 

, _> ".J i ; • 


t.4 ^ -I i ^ 

Ioek<;4'Up . 

Dj (b« tce> and reti|riw« 

?^^^ijfifll.|g5^[Q^^lti?4^ out 


to t|i<^' hnttt^Mj^M^':}^ t« ttii^ ArcbipdagOn 

J774 ;«<*.* 

, * - *. ■ _ (_, 

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Battle 9f<?Il«»« %m'^l:f^i^J^,^^S^y"(i^ KinV. 

I ^ Wl^^P^S^'^i !SI?3Slii 'tilled AiTrtr%p»StAi*, idU^iph . 




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> Clurleft(i%v^<Ni||k CaroUM^ %wnir>Mp<» J^r Hairy CUa^ 

go Vfi Id tfeidHMro/ ^^BfqiiiiN^ 9ri«h (Mrfnitioit for 

ItUmred liy die moA^otliig rMvin tlie cHiMftf London 
artid.99iidkiv9fMiirjfeir«i»L|ai^ ' «- ^ 

Fire Engtiih Eaft Indiai9jBO^«ai|4,fifty:.w}gBfi> -lliereit^nfe' 

^;: flei^ts of France asu^ Spaio, Aiigl^^ : .•.,., ^ 

., ^ i^ri ^Si^M|Wfa(lHii^«%,vi43il^ ^MoatOitli* near 

W^^ V n]r,i<feap«|. tp ltei<tor&yjiiMl w<m«fi«« Bi%u|^ General 

Tifr ^Ottlleor^ X«iieif»viiv«i8^^ the 

Tow(^^ orilM^ fKiitit of KigK««tliioll»4^ 

'VAi^Uoni».miid«4ii |RmM^K^b«Ml« 8t>JUIiaa;^Du^^ 

r ^ ^irertcan Academy of At t» atuflf 6eik»ffiM>»flli<«jliiJ «n 3tf tf> 

1^8* The Duilfe »ini^ 

ii«d.Q«n|et*l :^\igbiim ¥«hisa»i^^ vR^akeik hy tJ»« 
• , , - , . .. • Bttnehrislo^^iit^ ♦?>■:.- •: » vr,vf. ■ 1 \-4^^ "'- ;; • ik^_^ , 
Theiil?iidi>r'i\jb«gn*iifc«iihytH?^«F^^ • 

••,^:,:" :iv.*«|fp?«Hl|^%»iN*»n4'.v-QfrAdmM •■Dutch 

/^ ' <: , V ,fqiniji:t>B tuidti^ tfc« cowimanil hf Admm^akmitu, oS 

EalAp<>fnl•>^\^JPtl^1^'||»il^.■il^ffr^WIderJ^»*■otl^ ' 
T9v:wn{^eK d^|||%e ;;|jii^ 

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Alt. vhHit> 

»ff« 'flw fNtffti Iloure of Commom addi«e|U the JCnf astmift in)r 

MdttMiiiWric*, NMvl^il r«ntf'1^li^^^^^ 

'^'^^^ T.^fl6liit«Pf) *1i»flMiftl#);:,tife^^lfr4H^ tM«iM*uctKt>t. the 

/lktfiMr,|»rofrcuti<m of^ffimilve W^ 
cr ' M^A^Hclir, «ir rKr|IUiff^Wrt)Iacibg«h#iM^olced. 

Admiral Hodney obtaint » vt^lMy-qva^thrVr^cb (!<et en* 

A^il 16.' ' TlKf 1>itfnM«netf^«f lri(^fki«liircM(r4kti^dt 

The l^ciiKt|^^^Moli'«nd^«ff&foy^^^ tl«i fiH«l ii1a4if«Meinent8 xnt 

Tb^ 8^i^iar«l« 4cf«ttiMl ictheif grdOitf «lMek*«tY C^'brattetr 
■' September fj. -•.•-:.r^ ■•',• v, -'i- " \-"' '^ V" ■'■■ " * 
; vTl«iit¥ «ofiek4e«!(%)rt^fi tb^ t^blk df. iVonittiMta^ (be 
^.lJnit«4Sfot!rtof Aaner?raj^|eAbtt'8? *r v 
^ Pfo^i JiftnkI uriMtM of ptace fi^feOWt PMs;^#ten tbe Hj it- > 
* * il^'atfai AQ«Wi>%b etilnmiffidilera.byw^ Ami:- 

' ^ «^<'»rkiMf'«blmiiM i<f#«}kilQ^k(l^ by bf»iBrUM9^^tajcfly ^ 
tabt free. fovvrrign,»nd independent htat<ii,(!(it|yi^ 
Sft f ^«Httaif ^"^nlclwife pe«e« bft««^ bk ^juUMlr Mk|ic^ 

»> « TAtm«WBcbjfi*.«titl>iil»i»rUiii^^^ xf ^ 

• ' B;axtlkaU?n ?if the di^nhfiWtV«lft»^i^ ^^ '^' 

" - '^il^^jl«Nillb«r3i<^■<^7 ■» ■•' c'--'?»^^>/"? -^"sf-A ■'' ' •■ 

The fir«JbaUo«« iijvf iii«lv1»«' Montjsoliierr ^ Ll|<»» ; ^r^n ', 

f>t4 Tlie dsfi»J*ivc ireaty -trfmetlKrtlfteWl??" iar-Bijtaiia aqd 

r' -: ' laild^> Jl^tiiibiBl rj^' ■.-■'., *^' ■ >?''-f^- . 

J785JI pongirfs cCreprcfeijittWi*.*w«.»be e©tin^e< •f Uc1mjcI». 

ifM Gon«Vii<rnm«fr«'Mim£»v««k)^<>f tbe l^hud Stat«9 feiM^Hd at 
't ApaMMii»i$fl|HI!^ 

.... lft(ttrre(fi|i>«^a^iffii<iiirttt»4.^ . ^■^- 

Cli^He« <^}vi» ir||||^«^pl A Bofton and 

Ci>«rlcfk»af Atiliftifkenfe of rlfcdol. 
the Kins ot Swed*li^|ll;0habiteA tte^ life •£ toRnre io hiir 

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-#9 ^'^^W^^iP. i««p«^ 

Aft, dmitL f ,^y » 

. trtkM6taicf<^in|(fotind<dc«t*all7d«ff<^f^ 

Maad,wat hel4 at Fhiladdplita tfaf&llipi;nf^,wjfgGcMr*l 

cot^rKt* <n, wbicii haifiiict Men rMinra 1i| miki^ft State*. 

Cooftitution; march 4. ... ..^ - . ,M.^ 

ofAiriciica. r ': ' '^ ^'r-^'rij" 

17^ Vi^^andl'Tench.Coiife^tcation,, in tbtcl^^mp^ Mar*. 

Ewrft 1 oh>>, and rojwtn^iujj^ ^^ibM pduK<.d,(ii jm by 

I&i»lv ThoBHH,. Mi9t«c M WoCCItilef »Jk|^chH^ 

ft df prance. 

on ku i^4^ he ,quitj;^4 ^hi^fimil^Mm^tjfm (>f prance, 
er« bjr the Ftvattau ; tM M«r^w(».va{^ m cjofe con^ 

t\it National ACenftly, e^i»fimn| <if 7.^| Mntliera, of 

voiot of tbe iri^tiiM b^ w|^ 

%a|fon, fer iln» 0urf»uk of ei^^ 
gerenit ppwcn, aiifd ot oiMtfVil^ s 








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t)r<^it4s 0f td;io6o Pbtek, nkn. SitromM*itad ^Kiffiren, are 

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VtN C«Minlik9«n. 8ti1^in^%^c*rtih*. i» AlMMHni.iiv- 
' The rJEtib ^tfitrftpr^whm ^ *** ^«**t r "^ 

wi*««f 4£S^r*;?»;^ m^ei 4eM»>i*»^ «ijtiitu»4>itf the 
•1?^' wJirc^ 3- , t>W*%d« >VA|Mii)K6T«i ^t^lfcd from jV P^f-. 

/ , to ^ M aro4>;\*«r ttrtj^r^vilurd 9J5ndlii>c»>«u<lered J^ 
i^i^MT for «i* Onhed $talc»' <o>;i:fc an trmv fw dt^ 
, \ f^^S **'»^ 6b^^ W43Hi»i<^ii ^h, a^^nted to corn- 

»l7o«i Ftb. Oliy«r>Etiftro«h, ChicfTif uJip ofJih^M^itcA jMtw^ 

^ VwilWurr|iyilClfei1ntcr>tf^tI6!i«di5Utt»M'tl|fcHa«^^^ 
.^Wtrt J«ft{)ointt4 C;<»n\miJRc»«:?».«n »ief p4>t ^ the JJjpttA 
^i^' " S^cet, to Xerlc .lllfrrcqfci willi the . FrdBC^v J^«p«o««- 
"^-'i'tl^ riT?tw»4bfini^«^1>»%viotFrrJW<<^e: v' 

AiwJiher |re*t HkcvA^tAtl^ to8|#|>kce th t«><r^^oito«i« 

'- fill. With * e*wj»«v© pc^a(n.^ ' . . < \ r , . ^; ^ 
^ ^ : t>fte lywlT&i'^in/*^^ -for Jimi^^lgroi*^ M 



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